Emergency infrastructure including shelter and linked transport infrastructure [Bangladesh]

দুর্যোগ সহনশীন অবকাঠামো উন্নয়ন (Durjog-shahonshil abokathamo unnayon)

technologies_664 - Bangladesh

État complet : 88%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de la Technologie

Personne(s)-ressource(s) clé(s)

Project Staff:

Mustafa Golam

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society


Project Staff:

Razzak Abdur

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society


Project Staff:

Islam Saiful

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society


Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Swiss Red Cross (Swiss Red Cross) - Suisse

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Déclaration sur la durabilité de la Technologie décrite

Est-ce que la Technologie décrite ici pose problème par rapport à la dégradation des terres, de telle sorte qu'elle ne peut pas être déclarée comme étant une technologie de gestion durable des terres?



The technology presented has no direct bearing on land degradation.

1.5 Référence au(x) Questionnaires sur les Approches de GDT (documentées au moyen de WOCAT)

Early Warning Message Dissemination

Early Warning Message Dissemination [Bangladesh]

An effective system for dissemination of early warning messages was established among the vulnerable communities in Chars (riverine sandy islands) of Gaibandha district, Bangladesh, in order to strengthen their coping mechanisms and reduce loss and damage caused by floods.

  • Compilateur : TUHIN SAMADDAR

2. Description de la Technologie de GDT

2.1 Courte description de la Technologie

Définition de la Technologie:

Emergency infrastructure including shelter and linked transport infrastructure, consists in establishing specific flood shelters (for people and animals) including flood-proof collective water sources and communication infrastructure as well as health and school facilities that may serve at the same time as emergency shelters during floods.

2.2 Description détaillée de la Technologie


The technology applies to the specific context of the ‘Char’ land in Bangladesh, characterised as riverine sandy Islands along the Jamuna River. More than 80% of the land in the intervention area can be classified as 'Char' and is inhabited by 60% of the population served by the project. Every year, especially during floods, the rivers deposit huge amount of silt sediment that makes the land fertile. At the same time, river action washes away some portion of the 'Char' which at times can be quite large and has a strong impact on people's lives and livelihoods. Before the intervention, people living on 'Char' land depended on their traditional early warning mechanisms and were frequently surprised by floods that destroyed their crops and put their lives in danger. Due to recurring floods, people didn’t have the means to improve their built environment. The 'Char' land is furthermore characterised by its lack of public infrastructure and remoteness to public services.

The technology consists of setting up an emergency infrastructure and ensuring community access to these infrastructures during times of floods. It has to be understood in close interrelation with the approach of setting up an early warning system. The emergency infrastructure includes specific flood shelters (for people and animals), flood-proof collective water sources and sanitation systems, transport infrastructure such as foot bridges and elevated rural roads, as well as flood-proof health and school facilities that also serve as emergency shelters during floods. The flood shelters are built on a raised bed of soil and located at sites selected by the communities that are relatively better protected from flood and river erosion within the 'Chars'. The purpose of the technology is to ensure safety of life and protection of assets during times of emergency and also to mitigate sufferings related to floods. The flood shelter is an elevated plane land which is on an average 220 square feet by size and at least five feet high from the existing ground level. The site is selected by the community and should be connected through an elevated road to the nearest community. This arrangement helps people to get easy access during times of floods. The shelter has collective hygienic latrine facilities and safe water sources. People generally dismantle their housing while evacuating and reinstall it on the flood shelter.
The major activities include facilitating the development of community-led risk reduction action plans and their implementation through community participation and engagement of local governance institutions. This includes maintenance of the built infrastructure as the joint responsibility of the community and the local government. Land use, especially sowing and harvesting, is increasingly linked to flood related forecasting measures which has led to significant adaptation in the timing of farming activities. This coupled with the creation and access to emergency infrastructure allows for a relatively safe and healthy living. The adopted technology and approach has led to adapted livelihoods, reduced health costs and increased income. The technology has furthermore led to mainstreaming disaster risk management in policies and approach of local government institutions. Increasingly the local government’s cash and food for work programmes are targeting establishment and/or reinforcement of emergency infrastructure that can cater to larger population. Increased investments are made especially towards flood shelters and improving communication and access to emergency infrastructure. Since the technology is based on local knowledge and has been developed in consultation with the involved communities, it is generally well accepted with a fair degree of ownership and involvement. However, parts of the region are also prone to river erosion and this has a destructive impact on built infrastructures. The technology does not assure any safeguard against this form of uncertain river action.

2.3 Photos de la Technologie

Remarques générales concernant les photos:

Glimpse of few technologies that served as emergency infrastructure, shelter and access to health and water and sanitation facilities.

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où la Technologie a été appliquée et qui sont couverts par cette évaluation



Région/ Etat/ Province:


Autres spécifications du lieu:

Kamarjani and Mollar Char Union (i.e. municipality) in Sadar Upazila and Haldia Union in Shaghata Upazila of Gaibandha District

Spécifiez la diffusion de la Technologie:
  • répartie uniformément sur une zone
S'il n'existe pas d'informations exactes sur la superficie, indiquez les limites approximatives de la zone couverte:
  • 1-10 km2

Since the disaster resilient infrastructure set up by the project is installed at a huge number of sites (as indicated in the description above), only a sample of the various emergency infrastructures are indicated on the map above (If needed a comprehensive GPS reading of all infrastructure built by the project can be provided separately).
Though emergency infrastructures are built at specific sites, their use and benefits are evenly spread over an expanded area.

2.6 Date de mise en œuvre de la Technologie

Indiquez l'année de mise en œuvre:


Si l'année précise est inconnue, indiquez la date approximative: :
  • il y a moins de 10 ans (récemment)

2.7 Introduction de la Technologie

Spécifiez comment la Technologie a été introduite: :
  • dans le cadre d'un système traditionnel (> 50 ans)
  • par le biais de projets/ d'interventions extérieures
Commentaires (type de projet, etc.) :

The technology has elements of traditional practice (raised plinths for flood protection) and project promoted interventions (emergency shelter and access infrastructure).

3. Classification de la Technologie de GDT

3.1 Principal(aux) objectif(s) de la Technologie

  • réduire les risques de catastrophes
  • créer un impact économique positif
  • créer un impact social positif

3.2 Type(s) actuel(s) d'utilisation des terres, là où la Technologie est appliquée

Terres cultivées

Terres cultivées

  • Cultures annuelles
  • Cultures pérennes (non ligneuses)
Cultures annuelles - Précisez les cultures:
  • céréales - maïs
  • céréales - autres
  • céréales - riz (de terres humides)
  • céréales - blé d'hiver
  • légumineuses et légumes secs - autres
  • plantes à racines et à tubercules - patates douces, igname, taro, colocase, autres
  • légumes - légumes à feuilles (laitues, choux, épinards, autres)
  • Kharif and Rabi (Cereals)
Cultures pérennes (non ligneuses) - Précisez les cultures:
  • plantes et herbes médicinales/ aromatiques/ pesticides - pérennes
Nombre de période de croissance par an: :
  • 3

Kharif (monsoon crop), Rabi (winter crop), and Summer/pre-monsoon crop



  • Every household have at least a pair or more of livestock.
Type d'animal:
  • buffles
  • bétail - bovins à viande
  • bétail - non laitier, utilisé pour le travail
  • caprine
  • mules et ânes
  • ovins
Est-ce que la gestion intégrée cultures-élevage est pratiquée?


Implantations, infrastructures

Implantations, infrastructures

  • Habitats, buildings
  • Trafic: routes, réseaux ferroviaires

Despite the lack of public infrastructure and services and being exposed to natural hazards people tend to prefer to live in the 'Char' as it brings significant economic benefits for them: crops grow rapidly and abundantly with significantly lower input costs than on the mainland.
Cow, buffalo, goat, lamb and donkey are very common in the area. People rear these for cultivation, transportation and for having meat. Every household have at least a pair or more of livestock.

3.4 Approvisionnement en eau

Approvisionnement en eau des terres sur lesquelles est appliquée la Technologie:
  • mixte: pluvial-irrigué

Water supply for the land comprises a mix of rainfed, irrigated and post flooding sources.

3.5 Groupe de GDT auquel appartient la Technologie

  • Emergency infrastructure, shelter and linked transportation infrastructure

3.6 Mesures de GDT constituant la Technologie

structures physiques

structures physiques

  • S9: Abris pour plantes et animaux
  • S11: Autres
modes de gestion

modes de gestion

  • M4: Changement majeur dans le calendrier des activités

In addition to the structural and management measures described above, the technology involves additional elements such as flood-proof collective water supply and sanitation systems and communication infrastructure.

3.7 Principaux types de dégradation des terres traités par la Technologie

érosion hydrique des sols

érosion hydrique des sols

  • Wr: érosion des berges
  • Wo: effets hors-site de la dégradation


3.8 Prévention, réduction de la dégradation ou réhabilitation des terres dégradées

Spécifiez l'objectif de la Technologie au regard de la dégradation des terres:
  • s'adapter à la dégradation des terres


4. Spécifications techniques, activités, intrants et coûts de mise en œuvre

4.1 Dessin technique de la Technologie

Spécifications techniques (associées au dessin technique):

The built structural mitigation options have following technical specification:
1. Flood shelter: Dimension: Length-220' x Width-220' x Height- 5.5', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 350 families, Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass)
2. Raised school compound: Dimension: Length-112' x Width-75' x Height- 5.5', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 540 person, Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass)
3. Community Resource Centre and Community Clinic (CRC-CC): Dimension: Length-60' x Width-38' x Height- 5.6', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 1500 families from 5 villages, Construction material used: soil and grass plantation, bricks, sand, cement, rod, iron angel and CGI sheet.
4. Disaster resilient tube well: Dimension: Length-5' 10" x Width-5' x Height- 3', Boring: 100 feet, Capacity: 200 families, Construction material used: bricks, sand, cement, rod, tube well head, pvc pipe, cylinder, piston rod etc. Vertical intervals: 2 in each village.
5. Concrete platform for (existing) tube well: Dimension: Length-4' 10" x Width-4' x Height- 1', Capacity: 100 families, Construction material used: bricks, sand, cement, pvc pipe
6. Wooden bridge: Dimension: Length-99' x Width-7' x Height- 12', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 900 families approximately, Construction material used: wood, nails, tar, soil and grass plantation
7. Road construction/repair: Dimension: Length-925' x Width-12' x Height- 3' (from existing level), Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 3 villages (approx:1000 families), Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass).


Abdur Razzak




Abdur Razzak



4.2 Informations générales sur le calcul des intrants et des coûts

Spécifiez la manière dont les coûts et les intrants ont été calculés:
  • par entité de la Technologie
Précisez l'unité:

flood shelter, raised school compound, disaster resilient tube well, concrete platform for (existing) tube well, wooden bridge, road construction/repair

Précisez les dimensions de l'unité de terrain (le cas échéant):

road: per meter

autre/ monnaie nationale (précisez):

Bangladeshi Taka (BDT)

Indiquez le taux de change des USD en devise locale, le cas échéant (p.ex. 1 USD = 79.9 réal brésilien): 1 USD = :


Indiquez le coût salarial moyen de la main d'œuvre par jour:

350 BDT

4.3 Activités de mise en place/ d'établissement

Activité Calendrier des activités (saisonnier)
1. Construction of Flood Shelter During dry season
2. Raising school compound During dry season
3. Construction of Community Resource Center (CRC) During dry season
4. Installation of disaster resilient tube well During dry season
5. Construction of concrete platform for (existing) tube well During dry season
6. Construction of wooden bridge During dry season
7. Road construction above flood level During dry season

All activities are structural in nature and can be undertaken efficiently only in dry season.

4.4 Coûts et intrants nécessaires à la mise en place

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre Flood shelter: earth work m3 8000,0 64,0 512000,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre CRC: earth work m3 53,0 138,0 7314,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre CRC: sand filling m3 302,0 99,0 29898,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre Raised school compound: earth work m3 1790,0 64,0 114560,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Flood shelter: grass plantation (turfing) m2 4620,0 13,0 60060,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Flood shelter: seedlings piece 20,0 53,0 1060,0 10,0
Matériel végétal CRC: grass plantation (turfing) m2 3890,0 13,0 50570,0 10,0
Matériel végétal CRC: seedlings piece 50,0 53,0 2650,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Raised school compound: grass plantation (turfing) m2 1390,0 13,0 18070,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Raised school compound: seedlings piece 40,0 53,0 2120,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: roof truss kg 4375,0 100,0 437500,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: grill and iron work m2 88,0 2091,0 184008,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: gypsum board m2 478,0 922,0 440716,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: RCC work m3 2,9 19557,0 56715,3
Matériaux de construction CRC: deformed bar kg 397,0 85,0 33745,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: boundary fencing m2 184,0 440,0 80960,0
Matériaux de construction CRC: brick work m3 44,0 5515,0 242660,0
Autre CRC: electric ware and solar panel lumpsum 1,0 73000,0 73000,0
Autre CRC: water supply lumpusm 1,0 66150,0 66150,0
Autre CRC: transportation lumpsum 1,0 89000,0 89000,0
Coût total de mise en place de la Technologie 2502756,3
Coût total de mise en place de la Technologie en dollars américains (USD) 31680,46
Si le coût n'est pas pris en charge à 100% par l'exploitant des terres, indiquez qui a financé le coût restant:

10% of all construction cost (except community resource center) is borne by the user. Another 15% is provided by the local government bodies. The remaining 75% is subsidised by the project.


Defining costs of establishment is bit tricky as the measures differ in size and number, costs vary from one village to another depending on the geographical location. However, average costs of the measures further to those highligted in the table are given below:
Disaster resilient tube well: labour (mason) 3'000, equipment (drilling charge) 1800, construction material (bricks, cement, sand, iron rod, PVC pipe, cylinder, GI pipe, tubewell head) 23'250, transportation 2'650, total unit costs (BDT) 30'700
Concrete platform for (existing) tube well : labour (mason) 600, construction material (bricks, cement, sand) 2'450, other (Transportation, waste water disposal) 1650, total unit costs (BDT) 4'700
Wooden bridge: labour (mason, mason assitant, painting assistant, earthwork) 30'000, plant material (grass plantation) 12'500, equipment (painting brush etc.) 1'000, construction material (timber, nails, tar, tarpin oil, paint) 260'000, Transportation 30'000, total unit costs (BDT) 333'500
Road construction/repair: labour (earthwork) 102'500, plant material (grass plantation/turfing), 12'500, total unit costs (BDT) 115'000

4.5 Activités d'entretien/ récurrentes

Activité Calendrier/ fréquence
1. Construction of Flood Shelter During dry season
2. Raising school compound During dry season
3. Construction of Community Resource Center (CRC) During dry season
4. Installation of disaster resilient tube well During dry season
5. Construction of concrete platform ror (existing) tube well During dry season
6. Construction of wooden bridge During dry season
7. Road construction above flood level During dry season

Due to the softness of the sandy soil and the annual inundation, every measure requires considerable maintenance. The flooding generally washes out sands and decays the foundation of the structure. If maintenance is done in regular intervals, the entire structure remains functional. Also, grass needs to be frequently replanted as it dries up during the dry season.
The users and the local government (Union Disaster Management Committee) are mainly responsible for maintenance of all built assets and structures including the Community Resource Center. The relevant operation/repair and maintenance training has been provided by the project.. Maintenance manuals and guidelines have been developed and disseminated. Also, repair and maintenance equipment has been provided to cadre of users/caretakers trained in repair/maintenance work.

4.6 Coûts et intrants nécessaires aux activités d'entretien/ récurrentes (par an)

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre Earthwork m3 80,0 63,0 5040,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre Sand bag filling piece 50,0 15,0 750,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre Pipe fitting piece 2,0 300,0 600,0 10,0
Main d'œuvre Mason lumpsum 1,0 500,0 500,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Grass plantation (turfing) m2 85,0 13,0 1105,0 10,0
Matériel végétal Seedlings piece 15,0 53,0 795,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Plastic bag piece 50,0 10,0 500,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction PVC pipe m 15,0 120,0 1800,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Polythene pipe kg 5,0 160,0 800,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Ciment bag 0,5 540,0 270,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Sand ft3 5,0 18,0 90,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Caping socket piece 2,0 35,0 70,0 10,0
Matériaux de construction Tape etc. lumpsum 1,0 250,0 250,0 10,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie 12570,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie en dollars américains (USD) 159,11
Si le coût n'est pas pris en charge à 100% par l'exploitant des terres, indiquez qui a financé le coût restant:

Maintenance costs are to date (2017) distributed as construction (10% by the users, 15% by the local government). A cost transfer scheme to the users and local government for maintenance is developped to be applied in the follow-up phase.


Again, defining costs of maintenance is also not easy as the measures differ in size and number. Average costs of the measures, further to those for flood shelter including disaster resilient tube well as highligted in the table, are given below:
Raised school compound: labour (earth work and sand bag filling) 7'800, plant material (grass plantation) 1'000, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 500, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 9'300
Community resource Center (CRC): labour 1'200, plant material (grass plantation, seedlings) 10'500, Transportation 1'000, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 12'700
Concrete platform for (existing) tube well : labour (mason) 500, construction material (bricks, cement, sand) 600, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 1'100
Wooden bridge: labour (earthwork) 2'500, plant material (grass plantation) 3'000, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 2'000, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 7'500
Road construction/repair: labour (earthwork) 10'000, plant material (grass plantation/turfing), 1'500, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 500, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 12'000

4.7 Facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts

Décrivez les facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts :

Transportation of raw material from the mainland to the sites on the 'Char' Islands varies across seasons. In the dry season it is much higher compared to monsoon as the delivery of material is easier in the latter due to extended river outreach.

5. Environnement naturel et humain

5.1 Climat

Précipitations annuelles
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1000 mm
  • 1001-1500 mm
  • 1501-2000 mm
  • 2001-3000 mm
  • 3001-4000 mm
  • > 4000 mm
Spécifiez la pluviométrie moyenne annuelle (si connue), en mm:


Spécifications/ commentaires sur les précipitations:

Rainy season: April- October
Occurrence of heavy rain: June-July
Length of dry period: November-March

Indiquez le nom de la station météorologique de référence considérée:

18 Gaibandha Sadar, Gaibandha

Zone agro-climatique
  • humide

Tropical humid climatic zone.
Temperature: maximum 33.5°C, minimum 10.5°C

5.2 Topographie

Pentes moyennes:
  • plat (0-2 %)
  • faible (3-5%)
  • modéré (6-10%)
  • onduleux (11-15%)
  • vallonné (16-30%)
  • raide (31-60%)
  • très raide (>60%)
  • plateaux/ plaines
  • crêtes
  • flancs/ pentes de montagne
  • flancs/ pentes de colline
  • piémonts/ glacis (bas de pente)
  • fonds de vallée/bas-fonds
Zones altitudinales:
  • 0-100 m
  • 101-500 m
  • 501-1000 m
  • 1001-1500 m
  • 1501-2000 m
  • 2001-2500 m
  • 2501-3000 m
  • 3001-4000 m
  • > 4000 m
Indiquez si la Technologie est spécifiquement appliquée dans des:
  • non pertinent
Commentaires et précisions supplémentaires sur la topographie:

Information on altitudinal zone collected from the website:

5.3 Sols

Profondeur moyenne du sol:
  • très superficiel (0-20 cm)
  • superficiel (21-50 cm)
  • modérément profond (51-80 cm)
  • profond (81-120 cm)
  • très profond (>120 cm)
Texture du sol (de la couche arable):
  • moyen (limoneux)
  • fin/ lourd (argile)
Texture du sol (> 20 cm sous la surface):
  • grossier/ léger (sablonneux)
  • moyen (limoneux)
Matière organique de la couche arable:
  • moyen (1-3%)
Si disponible, joignez une description complète du sol ou précisez les informations disponibles, par ex., type de sol, pH/ acidité du sol, capacité d'échange cationique, azote, salinité, etc.


5.4 Disponibilité et qualité de l'eau

Profondeur estimée de l’eau dans le sol:

5-50 m

Disponibilité de l’eau de surface:


Qualité de l’eau (non traitée):

eau potable

La salinité de l'eau est-elle un problème? :


La zone est-elle inondée?




Commentaires et précisions supplémentaires sur la qualité et la quantité d'eau:

In the dry season water crisis occurs. Open defecation and use of pesticide in farming are key pollutants of water sources.

5.5 Biodiversité

Diversité des espèces:
  • moyenne
Diversité des habitats:
  • moyenne
Commentaires et précisions supplémentaires sur la biodiversité:

Biodiversity can be rated as moderate or medium both in terms of species and habitat. It is stable and and often self generating.

5.6 Caractéristiques des exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

Sédentaire ou nomade:
  • Sédentaire
  • Semi-nomade
Orientation du système de production:
  • exploitation mixte (de subsistance/ commerciale)
Revenus hors exploitation:
  • moins de 10% de tous les revenus
Niveau relatif de richesse:
  • pauvre
Individus ou groupes:
  • individu/ ménage
  • groupe/ communauté
Niveau de mécanisation:
  • traction animale
  • mécanisé/ motorisé
  • femmes
  • hommes
Age des exploitants des terres:
  • jeunes
  • personnes d'âge moyen
Indiquez toute autre caractéristique pertinente des exploitants des terres:


5.7 Superficie moyenne des terres utilisées par les exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1 000 ha
  • 1 000-10 000 ha
  • > 10 000 ha
Cette superficie est-elle considérée comme de petite, moyenne ou grande dimension (en se référant au contexte local)?
  • petite dimension

People living in Chars have small landholding which often produces enough for subsistence and, in some cases, for market purposes.

5.8 Propriété foncière, droits d’utilisation des terres et de l'eau

Propriété foncière:
  • état
  • individu, sans titre de propriété
Droits d’utilisation des terres:
  • accès libre (non organisé)
  • loué
Droits d’utilisation de l’eau:
  • communautaire (organisé)
  • individuel

Land ownership is quite complex as Chars by nature are unstable habitats. In principle land is owned by state but in most cases the politician - musclemen nexus exercises real control. This results in leasing and renting of land which is the predominant form of land ownership in Chars.

5.9 Accès aux services et aux infrastructures

  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
assistance technique:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
emploi (par ex. hors exploitation):
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
routes et transports:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
eau potable et assainissement:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
services financiers:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
Access to mobile phone and internet:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne

6. Impacts et conclusions

6.1 Impacts sur site que la Technologie a montrés

Impacts socio-économiques


production agricole

en baisse
en augmentation
Quantité avant la GDT:

3600 kg/hectare (maize)

Quantité après la GDT:

11400 kg/hectare (maize)

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Crop production has increased thrice due to stability of household which has led to stable use of land in the chars.

Disponibilité et qualité de l'eau

disponibilité de l'eau potable

en baisse
en augmentation
Quantité avant la GDT:

No safe drinking water source was available

Quantité après la GDT:

More than 40% water source are safe

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Collective water supply systems have groundwater sources and thus no treatment is needed. Further, aspects of availability, easy access and sustainable availability of sufficient water of acceptable quality are well considered. Families can access 10 litres per capita per day (LPCD) during emergencies (which is in line with Sphere standards) and during normal times 40 LPCD is what families can collect from these water sources. All such water sources are within a distance of 50 metres from the settlement as per Bangladesh standards.

qualité de l'eau potable

en baisse
en augmentation
Quantité avant la GDT:

Reliable data not available

Quantité après la GDT:

All households have access to safe drinking water as per govt. standard for rural areas

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

The collective water infrastructure built by the project ensures fulfillment of minimum standards set by the govt for safe drinking water.

Revenus et coûts

revenus agricoles

en baisse
en augmentation
Quantité avant la GDT:

25% families had farm income

Quantité après la GDT:

95% families have farm income

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Cattle and poultries are safe during disaster

Impacts socioculturels

situation sanitaire

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

The disaster mitigation measures has significantly improved the health situation of the target population.

institutions communautaires

Quantité avant la GDT:

Few credit groups in intervention villages

Quantité après la GDT:

30 community based organisatons (i.e. village disaster management committees) and 3 Local Government Committees (Union disaster management committee)

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Community based organisations and government mandated institutions have been promoted through project initiatives.

institutions nationales

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

CRC is also being used for UDMC office which is an important committee of union parishad.

apaisement des conflits

Quantité avant la GDT:


Quantité après la GDT:


Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Conflict sensitive approach has significantly reduced the incidence of conflicts.

Impacts écologiques

Cycle de l'eau/ ruissellement

quantité d'eau

en baisse
en augmentation
Quantité avant la GDT:

Data not available

Quantité après la GDT:


Commentaires/ spécifiez:

The disaster resilient tube well ensures year round drinking water.

Réduction des risques de catastrophe et des risques climatiques

impacts des inondations

en augmentation
en baisse
Quantité avant la GDT:

95% families were effected from flood

Quantité après la GDT:

47% families are affected from flood

Commentaires/ spécifiez:

The above figures are from 2016 when Bangladesh experienced one of the worst floods in recent times.

6.2 Impacts hors site que la Technologie a montrés

Précisez l'évaluation des impacts extérieurs (sous forme de mesures):


6.3 Exposition et sensibilité de la Technologie aux changements progressifs et aux évènements extrêmes/catastrophes liés au climat (telles que perçues par les exploitants des terres)

Extrêmes climatiques (catastrophes)

Catastrophes météorologiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
pluie torrentielle locale modérément
tempête de sable/ de poussière locale bien
tempête de vent locale bien
Catastrophes climatiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
canicule bien
vague de froid bien
sécheresse bien
Catastrophes hydrologiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
inondation générale (rivière) bien
glissement de terrain pas bien

In some cases the appropriate answer would have been "not applicable" but since this is not there, we have selected "well".

6.4 Analyse coûts-bénéfices

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts de mise en place (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:

très positive

Rentabilité à long terme:


Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts d'entretien récurrents (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:


Rentabilité à long terme:

légèrement positive


The limited returns that have been generated by the project is highly valued by the users from a cost - benefit perspective; especially when they understand that the project is not directly linked to land management practices. Thus, the indirect benefits are perceived to have high value.

6.5 Adoption de la Technologie

  • > 50%
Si disponible, quantifiez (nombre de ménages et/ou superficie couverte):

Out of a total of 8828 HHs targeted by the project, around five thousand HHs in three union have benefitted from the implementation of the technology.

De tous ceux qui ont adopté la Technologie, combien d'entre eux l'ont fait spontanément, à savoir sans recevoir aucune incitation matérielle, ou aucune rémunération? :
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptation

La Technologie a-t-elle été récemment modifiée pour s'adapter à l'évolution des conditions?


Si oui, indiquez à quel changement la Technologie s'est adaptée:
  • la disponibilité de la main-d'œuvre (par ex., en raison de migrations)
Spécifiez l'adaptation de la Technologie (conception, matériaux/ espèces, etc.):

Dredging machine has been used for building some emergency infrastructure at few sites due to unavailability of labour at the time of construction.

6.7 Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités de la Technologie

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Emergency structures are collectively owned and have a multipurpose use; in 'normal' (non-emergency) times they are used for other purpose than safety and protection which includes community meeting, workshop and training
Expanded opportunities of communication during flood
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Community is aware and driven to implement flood preparedness and risk reduction measures on its own
Appropriate measures can significantly change people's mindset and behaviour

6.8 Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques de la Technologie et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
River erosion threatens built structures Careful site selection for construction work through in depth discussion with community people supported by scientific analysis
High investment needed for building physical structures (e.g. CRC building) in the char which the local government and community find difficult to finance without external support. Install portable semi-permanent structures in the char; Lobby for greater decentralisation of finances to local government

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres


  • interviews/ entretiens avec les spécialistes/ experts de GDT


  • compilation à partir de rapports et d'autres documents existants


Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?


7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Latrine and Tube well maintenance manual, SRC-BDRCS-DASCOH

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?