Арга барил

Community-based maintenance and rehabilitation of agricultural terraces in mountain environments [Кипр]

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Κοινοτική συμμέτοχη για συντήρηση και αποκατάσταση ορεινών γεωργικών αναβαθμίδων (Greek)

approaches_2537 - Кипр

Бүрэн гүйцэд байдал: 89%

1. Ерөнхий мэдээлэл

1.2 Арга барилыг баримтжуулах болон үнэлгээ хийхэд оролцсон хүн эсвэл байгууллагын холбоо барих хаяг

Мэдээлэл өгсөн хүн(с)

ГТМ мэргэжилтэн :
ГТМ мэргэжилтэн :

Burggemann Adriana

The Cyprus Institute

Nicosia

Кипр

Арга барилыг баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн төслийн нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
Арга барилыг баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн байгууллага(ууд)-ын нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
The Cyprus Institute (The Cyprus Institute) - Кипр

1.3 WOCAT-аар баримтжуулсан өгөгдлийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцөл

Мэдээллийг хэзээ (газар дээр нь) цуглуулсан бэ?

01/09/2015

Эмхэтгэгч болон гол мэдээлэгч хүн(хүмүүс) WOCAT аргачлалаар баримтжуулсан мэдээллийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцлийг хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн.

Тийм

1.4 ГТМ-ийн технологийн асуулгын(д) суурь мэдээлэл(д)

2. ГТМ Арга барилын тодорхойлолт

2.1 Арга барилын товч тодорхойлолт

Maintenance and rehabilitation of traditional dry-stone terrace walls for agricultural use, through science-society cooperation, community engagement and motivation, and assistance to land users.

2.2 Арга барилын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт

Арга барилын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт :

Aims / objectives: The main objective of the approach is the restoration and rehabilitation of traditional dry-stone terraces in Mediterranean mountain environments. Large areas around mountain communities have been converted to agricultural terraces. The depopulation of these rural mountain communities and the high farming costs have led to the gradual reduction of farming activities. Consequently, many of the mountain terraces are no longer cultivated and dry-stone walls are not well maintained, causing a domino effect of collapsing terraces. Soil erosion by water has been identified as the main soil threat in degraded and poorly vegetated terraces.
The approach has been developed by the Cyprus Institute research team and aims at motivating the mountain communities, land users/owners, local institutions and other interested stakeholders to better organise themselves and collaborate and join forces in maintaining these terraces.

Methods: The approach is based on participatory principles. More precisely, the science-society cooperation approach is materialised through the organization of practical (hands-on) public events, where dry-stone experts guide the participants, land users/owners, local population, expats (families that have moved to the urban areas) and scientific stakeholders, in collectively maintaining collapsed and/or poorly maintained terraces. All parties engaged in the implementation of the approach on voluntary basis.

Stages of implementation: A pool of local and external stakeholders was prepared by the research team using snowball sampling. Key stakeholders identified include community leaders, land users/owners, dry-stone experts, local institutions, agricultural extension services and farmer unions.
Leaders of the three mountain communities agreed to co-organise with the research team one participatory terrace rehabilitation event in each community. Land users/owners, expats and other interested stakeholders (general public) were identified as the main target groups of these events. Each community identified dry-stone experts that were willing to work and lead the workshops on voluntary basis. Demonstration sites were selected by the research team, the community leaders and dry-stone experts, based on the extent of terrace degradation, accessibility/visibility of the site and feasibility criteria. Farmer unions and extension service officers were also engaged in the process. The events were advertised through social media, as well as with flyers and posters in central locations within the communities.
During the events, information was provided by researchers and dry-stone experts to raise the awareness of participants on the environmental and cultural importance of dry-stone terraces. In addition, the learning-by-doing process was guided by experts who explained to the participants the best practices in reconstructing the collapsed terraced walls.
Three public events were organized in the first year and a similar set of three events will be organized in the second year. Additional funds are being sought to continue these activities. The sustainability of communal terrace maintenance will also be discussed with the community leaders and active volunteers during the second year.

Role of stakeholders: The research team conceptualised the approach. The organisation tasks for the participatory rehabilitation events were shared among the research team and the local communities. Expats (families that have moved to the urban areas) associations and farmer unions informed their members to join the events. Dry-stone experts had the leading role during the events, as the reconstruction of collapsed terrace walls was based on their guidance. Extension service officers provided information on available subsidy schemes. During the events all stakeholders, including land users/owners and other interested people, worked together to maintain the terraces.

Other important information: The events attracted people beyond the stakeholders originally identified; the approach was adopted by other projects/communities in Cyprus.

2.3 Арга барилын зурагууд

2.5 Арга барил нэвтрүүлсэн улс орон / бүс нутаг / байршил

Улс :

Кипр

Улс/аймаг/сум:

Nicosia

Байршлын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт:

Northeast Pitsilia

2.6 Арга барилыг эхлэх, дуусах огноо

Эхлэх жилийг тэмдэглэ:

2015

Хугацаа дуусах жил (Хэрэв арга барил удаанаар ашиглаагүй бол):

2018

2.7 Арга барилын төрөл

  • Recent local initiative in the framework of the RECARE research project

2.8 Арга барилын үндсэн зорилго, зорилтууд

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (terrace maintenance, hands-on training, community conservation, participatory approach, stakeholder engagement, awareness-raising)

• To strengthen science-society cooperation in solving land degradation issues in terraced mountain environments.
• To build capacity for planning, organisation and implementation of participatory soil conservation activities, eventually leading to sustainable local institutions that maintain traditional know-how and specialised in terrace maintenance.
• To improve joint learning activities between farmers, terrace experts and interested stakeholders.
• To rehabilitate abandoned and collapsed terraces, reduce soil erosion and maintain the production capacity of soils in Troodos Mountains.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: • Collapsing of dry-stone walls, surface run-off and loss of soil (erosion) in sloping land that has been accumulated behind the terrace walls
• Depopulation of mountain rural communities and land abandonment
• Loss of indigenous knowledge
• Weak institutional organisation and limited incentives (low economic returns) for terrace maintenance

2.9 Арга барилын хүрээнд хэрэгжсэн Технологи/Технологиудад дэмжсэн эсвэл саад учруулсан нөхцлүүд

нийгэм / соёл / шашны хэм хэмжээ, үнэт зүйлс
  • Хазаарлалт

Land abandonment, rural depopulation, lack of motivation.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Organise frequent terrace maintenance events to stimulate interest, invite and engage expats to participate.

санхүүгийн нөөц, үйлчилгээний хүртээмж / боломж
  • Хазаарлалт

Low economic return from terrace agriculture.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Engage, motivate and train volunteers through public terrace maintenance events.

Бүтэц зохион байгуулалт
  • Хазаарлалт

There are no formal or informal institutions for terrace rehabilitation.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The sustainability of communal terrace maintenance will be discussed with the community leaders and active volunteers during the second year.

Хууль, эрхзүйн хүрээ (газар эзэмшил, газар, ус ашиглах эрх)
  • Хазаарлалт

Terraced land is privately owned; no maintenance can be done without the approval of land owners. Demonstration sites are privately owned; the rehabilitation events on terraces were undertaken with the approval of land owners.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Community leaders request the approval of land owners.

ГТМ-ийн талаарх мэдлэг, техникийн дэмжлэг авах боломж
  • Хазаарлалт

Loss of indigenous knowledge

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The terrace events are led by terrace artisans (dry-stone experts) to practically demonstrate and pass the technical know-how to the next generation. Efforts were made to engage terrace experts from different communities.

ажлын багтаамж, хүн хүчний нөөц бололцоо
  • Хазаарлалт

Terrace maintenance is a laborious activity.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The pubic terrace maintenance events aim to build the capacity of a large group of people (volunteers) to engage in terrace maintenance.

3. Оролцогч талуудын оролцоо ба үүргүүд

3.1 Арга барилд оролцогч талууд болон тэдгээрийн үүргүүд

  • Орон нутгийн газар ашиглагч / орон нутгийн иргэд

Land users including terrace artisans

Land users were involved as individuals. Representatives of farmers unions were engaged in the process

  • Судлаачид

The Cyprus Institute (research institution)

Terrace experts, researchers and extension services

  • Хувийн хэвшил

The Cyprus Institute (research institution)

  • Орон нутгийн захиргаа

Local community councils

  • Засгийн газар (шийдвэр гаргагч, төлөвлөгч)
  • Олон улсын байгууллага
  • People (volunteers) that attended the hands-on events

Participants of the event (mountain communities, interested stakeholders)

Хэрэв хэд хэдэн оролцогч талууд оролцсон бол голлох төлөөлөгчийг зааж өгнө үү:

The approach was primarily designed by The Cyprus Institute (research institution) [1]. The rehabilitation events are co-organised with the support of local community councils, land users and terrace experts [2].

3.2 Арга барилын янз бүрийн үе шатанд орон нутгийн газар ашиглагчид / бүлэглэлүүдийг татан оролцуулах
Орон нутгийн газар ашиглагч / орон нутгийн иргэдийн оролцоо Хэн оролцсоныг тодорхойлж, үйл ажиллагааг тайлбарлана уу
санаачлага/идэвхжүүлэлт интерактив Jointly developed by The Cyprus Institute (research institution) and local community leaders
Төлөвлөгөө интерактив Jointly developed by a research institution, terrace artisans and local community leaders
Хэрэгжилт интерактив Jointly implemented by all stakeholders involved
Мониторинг/ үнэлгээ үгүй Monitoring and evaluation of the approach and the restored terraces is undertaken by The Cyprus Institute scientists
Research үгүй

3.3 Диаграм (хэрэв боломжтой бол)

Тодорхойлолт :

The research team identified key stakeholders using snowball sampling; these include community leaders, dry-stone experts, local institutions, agricultural extension services and farmer unions. Community leaders agreed to co-organise with the research team community-based terrace rehabilitation events; land users/owners, mountain communities and other interested stakeholders (general public) were identified as the main target groups of these participatory events. Dry-stone experts had the leading role during the events, as the reconstruction of collapsed terrace walls was based on their guidance. During the events all stakeholders, including land users/owners and other interested people, worked together to maintain the terraces. In addition, information was provided by researchers to raise the awareness of participants on the environmental and cultural importance of dry-stone terraces.

Зохиогч :

Christos Zoumides

3.4 ГТМ-ийн технологи/технологиуд сонгох шийдвэр

Технологи(д) сонгох шийдвэр гаргасан уу?
  • by SLM specialists (researchers) in collaboration
Тайлбар :

The construction and maintenance of dry-stone terrace walls is an indigenous technology which is applied by land users and terrace artisans (dry-stone wall expert builders) that have the required skills and technical know-how. The initiative was taken by SLM specialists who are concerned about the land degradation and abandonment in mountain terrace areas.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. The implementation stage of terrace maintenance is led by terrace experts, who have the required know-how. During the hands-on events, they explain the appropriate techniques; land-users and participants of the events help the experts in maintaining and re-constructing the collapsed dry-stone walls and therefore learn from direct experience.

4. Техникийн дэмжлэг, чадавхи бүрдүүлэх, мэдлэгийн менежмент

4.1 Чадавхи бэхжүүлэх/сургалт

Газар эзэмшигчид / бусад оролцогч талуудад сургалт явуулсан уу?

Тийм

Хэн сургалтанд хамрагдсан бэ:
  • Газар ашиглагчид
  • Participants of the events
Хэрэв шаардлагатай бол хүйс, нас, яс үндэс, гэх мэт. нэмнэ үү:

Both men and women of all ages.

Сургалтын хэлбэр :
  • үзүүлэнгийн талбай
Хамрагдсан сэвдүүд:

How dry-stone terraces are restored and maintained (technique) and their importance in reducing soil erosion in mountain slopes (awareness).

4.2 Зөвлөх үйлчилгээ

Газар ашиглагчдад зөвлөх үйлчилгээ авах боломжтой байдаг уу?

Тийм

Зөвлөх үйлчилгээ үзүүлсэн эсэхийг тогтоо:
  • Тогтмол төвд
Тодорхойлолт / тайлбар:

Name of method used for advisory service: Demonstration of terrace maintenance by experts; participation of land users and the general public; Key elements: Selection and preparation of collapsed terraces to be restored (terrace experts, researchers, community leaders), Demonstration and hands-on terrace maintenance workshops with the participation of land users and the general public; good and bad practices explained.; One agricultural extension service officer participated in these events, discussed the method with land users and SLM experts and provided information on available subsidies.

Advisory service is inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Extension services provide general directions on terrace maintenance and available subsidy schemes to interested land users; they are not sufficiently trained in dry-stone wall construction and they have insufficient human and financial resources.

4.3 Институцийг бэхжүүлэх (байгууллагын хөгжил)

Арга барилаар дамжуулан институц байгуулагдаж эсвэл бэхжсэн үү?
  • Тийм, дунд зэрэг
Байгууллагууд бэхжиж, үүсэн бий болсон түвшин(үүд)-г тодорхойлно уу:
  • Орон нутгийн
Дэмжлэгийн төрлийг ялга:
  • чадавхи бэхжүүлэх / сургалт
Дэлгэрэнгүй мэдээллийг өгнө үү:

One of the aims of the approach is to develop sustainable local institutions for terrace maintenance; this will be discussed with the community leaders and active volunteers during the second year.

4.4 Мониторинг ба үнэлгээ

Мониторинг болон үнэлгээ нь арга барилын хэсэг үү?

Тийм

Тайлбар:

bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Erosion rate (Sediment Traps)

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Terrace wall displacement (3D terrace model)

no. of land users involved aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: No. of land users (attendance list)

Number of non-land users involved aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Number of non-land users involved

There were no changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Monitoring is at its early stage.

There were no changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Dry-stone terracing is a well-established indigenous technology for the mountain communities; the technical know-how however is gradually disappearing due to rural depopulation and land abandonment.

4.5 Судалгаа

Судалгаа арга барилын хэсэг нь байсан уу?

Тийм

Сэдвийг тодруулна уу:
  • Технологи
  • Monitoring/modelling erosion, particip. research
Дэлгэрэнгүй мэдээллийг өгч, хэн судалгаа явуулсныг бичнэ үү:

By researchers: Monitoring and modelling soil erosion (PESERA model), monitoring the stability of dry-stone terrace walls (3D model) and participatory research.

Research was carried out on-farm

5. Санхүүгийн болон гадаад материаллаг дэмжлэг

5.1 ГТМ-ийн Арга барилын бүрэлдэхүүн хэсгийн жилийн төсөв

Хэрэв жилийн төсөв тодорхойгүй бол хягаарыг тодруулна уу:
  • < 2,000
Тайлбар (жнь: санхүүжилтийн гол эх үүсвэр / гол хандивлагчид):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: private sector (Cost for snacks and drinks offered to the event’s participants): 50.0%; local government (district, county, municipality, village etc) (Cost for preparing the site for restoration, stones.): 50.0%

5.2 Газар ашиглагчдад санхүүгийн / материаллаг дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн

Технологи / технологийг хэрэгжүүлэхэд газар ашиглагчид санхүүгийн / материаллаг дэмжлэг авсан уу?

Үгүй

5.3 Тодорхой зардлыг даахад чиглэсэн дэмжлэгт (хөдөлмөрийн хүчийг оролцуулаад)

  • үгүй
 
Хэрэв газар ашиглагчийн хөдөлмөрийн хүч чухал байсан бол энэ нь аль хэлбэр байсан:
  • сайн дурын
Тайлбар:

Lunch-snacks, drinks and caps are provided to participants – small gifts are given to experts for their contribution.

Community members prepared the demo sites and used their own tools, local communities supplied extra stones when needed free of charge – all participants were engaged on voluntary basis.

5.4 Кредит

Арга барилын хүрээнд ГТМ-ийн үйл ажиллагаанд зориулж зээлд хамрагдсан уу?

Үгүй

6. Нөлөөллийн дүн шинжилгээ ба дүгнэлт

6.1 Арга барилын нөлөөллүүд

Арга барил нь ГТМ-ийн технологийг хэрэгжүүлж, хадгалахад газар ашиглагчдад тусласан уу?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

Well maintained terraces improve drainage and minimise soil loss.

Арга барил нь эмзэг бүлгийнхнийг нийгэм, эдийн засгийн хувьд чадавхижуулсан уу?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

No socially and economically disadvantaged groups were identified.

Арга барил нь ГТМ-ийн технологийг хэрэгжүүлэхэд саад учруулсан газрын эзэмшил / ашиглах эрхийг сайжруулахад чиглэсэн үү?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

Property rights was not an issue for the implementation of the approach. The problem is unlikely to be overcome in the near future. Property rights are not expected to become an issue for the implementation of the approach; stakeholders have been collaborating without raising such concerns.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

The approach has been adopted by another project in Cyprus (Local Development Pilot Project for the Wine-villages of Limassol – LDPP); many participants express their interest in organizing similar events in other communities in Cyprus.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

Although well maintained terraces can potentially improve the livelihoods of rural population, this was not the main focus of the approach.

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Үгүй
  • Тийм, бага зэрэг
  • Тийм, зарим
  • Тийм, их

Poverty was not identified and not one of the targets of the approach.

6.2 ГТМ-ийг хэрэгжүүлэх газар ашиглагчидын гол санаачилга

  • Ажлын ачаалал бууруулсан

Participatory rehabilitation

  • Сүлжээ/ бүлэг төсөл/ хөдөлгөөнд гишүүнээр элсүүлэх

Motivation through the RECARE project

  • гоо зүйн сайжруулалт

Maintain collapsed and degraded dry-stone walls

  • environmental consciousness, moral, health

Reduce soil erosion

  • Cultural value

Maintain cultural landscapes

6.3 Арга барилын үйл ажиллагааны тогтвортой байдал

Газар ашиглагчид арга барилаар дамжуулан хэрэгжүүлсэн арга хэмжээг тогтвортой хадгалж чадах уу (гадны дэмжлэггүйгээр)?
  • Тийм
Хэрэв тийм бол яаж гэдгийг тайлбарлана уу:

Local communities can potentially organise better themselves and with the collaboration of land users/owners and SLM experts, they can organise such community-based conservation events on an annual basis. Thus the approach can eventually be sustained without scientific (external) support.

6.4 Арга барилын тогтвортой/давуу тал/боломжууд

Газар ашиглагчдын тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Participation of people reduced the workload required to maintain terraces. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: More frequent events are welcomed.)
Community based conservation activities have contributed to better institutional organisation. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Engage more local stakeholders in future events.)
Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Community conservation was insofar successful in maintaining selected demonstration sites. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Maintain the interest of stakeholders by organising similar events on an annual basis.)
Capacity building activities increase the participation of stakeholders. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continue the approach for further engagement.)

6.5 Арга барилын дутагдалтай/сул тал/аюул болон тэдгээрийн хэрхэн даван туулах арга замууд

Газар ашиглагч нарын тодорхойлсон сул тал/ дутагдал/ эрсдэл Тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах вэ?
Mountain farming is less cost-effective than in the plains. Motivate the younger generation to engage in part-time farming.
The approach cannot be implemented on bigger scale without economic incentives. Utilise available community/subsidy funds for small cash compensation to experts.
Small holdings and land fragmentation are constraints for cost-effective agriculture. Reconsideration of land consolidation schemes.
Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон сул тал/ дутагдал/ эрсдэл Тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах вэ?
Aging of the dry-stone experts. Train young land users/owners on dry-stone terracing.
The community leaders tend to be more conservative than the SLM experts. Gradually convince them to think bigger.

7. Суурь мэдээлэл болон холбоосууд

7.1 Мэдээллийн эх үүсвэр/аргууд

  • Хээрийн уулзалт, судалгаа
  • Газар ашиглагчтай хийсэн ярилцлага

Модулууд