UNCCD

Participatory and Evolutionary Plant Breeding of wheat and barley in Iran(PPB) [República Islâmica do Irã]

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Entidade relatora: Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Esclarecer se a tecnologia descrita no modelo, ou uma parte dela, está coberta por direitos de propriedade: Sim

Comentários: The technonogy used in the participatory plant breeding (PPB)in Iran developed  with the cooporation of ICARDA and is subject to the Standard Material Transfer Agreement of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and It is carried out within an agreement among ICARDA,AREO and CENESTA.|

Completude: 97%

Informações gerais

Informações gerais

Título de melhores práticas:

Participatory and Evolutionary Plant Breeding of wheat and barley in Iran(PPB)

País:

República Islâmica do Irã

Entidade relatora:

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Direitos de propriedade

Esclarecer se a tecnologia descrita no modelo, ou uma parte dela, está coberta por direitos de propriedade:

Sim

Favor fornecer informações relevantes sobre o titular dos direitos:

The technonogy used in the participatory plant breeding (PPB)in Iran developed  with the cooporation of ICARDA and is subject to the Standard Material Transfer Agreement of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and It is carried out within an agreement among ICARDA,AREO and CENESTA.|

Classificação

Uso do solo predominante no local especificado

  • Terra de cultivo

Contribuição para medidas de Desertificação, Degradação da Terra e Seca (DLDD)

  • Prevenção
  • Adaptação

Contribuição para os objetivos estratégicos

  • Para melhorar as condições de vida das populações afetadas
  • Para melhorar as condições dos ecossistemas afetados

Ligações com os outros temas de melhores práticas

  • Capacitação e conscientização
  • Monitoramento e avaliação/pesquisa DLDD e SLM
  • Gestão do conhecimento e apoio à decisão
  • Participação, colaboração e trabalho em rede

Especificações

Seção 1. Contexto das melhores práticas: condições de enquadramento (ambiente natural e humano)

Breve descrição da melhor prática

Such a strategy is based on four components: locally adapted genetic resources (landraces), farmer’s knowledge and participation, integration of plant breeding and crop management (agronomy, soil management, disease and pests management), and respect of farmers' rights. |

Localização

Iran; provinces of Semnan, Kermanshah and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari provinces. We are going to start with Fars Province, Qazvin Province, Khorassan Province and eventually Qom Province .

Se o local tiver limites bem definidos, especifique sua extensão em hectares:

30000.0

Estimativa da população que vive no local:

200000.0

Breve descrição do ambiente natural dentro do local especificado.

Climate is mediterranean with cold winters and hot summers.The mean annual precipitation ranges between 150mm-350mm.Most of the precipitation occures during the fall and early spring.It is charecterized by consecutive droughts and occurance of critical climatic conditions.
The location is covered almost by plains which is suitable for irrigated and rainfed agriculture from point of topography. generaly, the lands with less than 15% slopes are suitable for rainfed agriculture.|
Soil is composed of gypsic and calcic minerals which is typical of arid and semi-arid lands.Hot and dry desert soils usually contain rock and gravel, creating coarse soil with good draining. Semiarid deserts have finer soil containing loose rock, gravel  sand with low salt and low soil humidity.

Condições socioeconômicas prevalecentes das pessoas que vivem no local e/ou nas proximidades

The main income sources are agriculture and animal husbandry and local communities are heavily dependent upon low-yield agriculture
Most of the agricultural lands belong to village cooperative but there are some private farmlands as well.
Those living in the location and nearby normally are low-income farmers and villagers with an average income of 2500000 IRR annually

Com base em quais critérios e/ou indicadores (não relacionados com a Estratégia) a prática proposta e a tecnologia correspondente foram considerados como "melhores"?

During the most recent droughts in the Near East (in 2000 and 2008, when countries such as Syria and Iran after years as exporting countries had to import millions of tons of wheat and barley, several farmers reported that only those who kept their landraces were able to have a harvestable crop.|

Seção 2. Problemas abordados (causas diretas e indiretas) e objetivos das melhores práticas

Principais problemas abordados pelas melhores práticas

Varieties selected in experimental stations often do not fit the needs of resource poor farmers and therefore new varieties developed using conventional breeding are either rarely adopted by smallholder farmers in marginal areas or, if adopted, often result in disastrous consequences.This could be aggrivated during droughts as experienced in 2002-2008 and theatens the regional and global food security. |

Esboçar problemas específicos de degradação do solo abordados pelas melhores práticas

Planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than planing only in research stations, we are more likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields by identifying varieties that suit each micro-climate.

Especificar os objetivos das melhores práticas

Breeding varieties that are better suited to diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change.
|Adoption: new varieties adopted by farmers
|Institutional: policy makers and scientists show interest in PPB
|Farmers’ skills and empowerment: the interactive nature of the PPB programs improves farmers’ knowledge, their ability to negotiate, and their dignity
|Biodiversity: different varieties have selected in different areas in the country, in response to different environmental constraints and users’ needs|Environmental protection:decrease in fertilizers and pesticides in croplands aimed at preventing ecosystem degradation and improving the sustainability of water resources |Improvement the socio-economic status of the locaion and the subsistance of the local people

Seção 3. Atividades

Breve descrição das principais atividades, por objetivo

b) Incorporating landraces (indigenous varieties) in breeding programmes: Landrace collections of crops planted, multiplied and evaluated by farmers and breeders to select the best ones to incorporate into breeding programmes. |c) Evolutionary breeding: large populations resulting from a mixture of segregating populations (F2) grown at locations chosen together with farmers for being affected by one or more of the abiotic and biotic stresses on  yield and quality.  to evolve under  forces of nature and artificial selection
a) Participatory Plant Breeding: In the first year of a typical PPB program, farmers will start with roughly 100 different lines. Following selection after the first year’s harvest they will select the best lines to be replanted again the next year. This process continues for about 4 years to arrive|

Breve descrição e especificações técnicas da tecnologia

PPB is a particular approach to breeding, using approporiate technology.It aims to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils,  to increase biodiversity in  fields by identifying varieties that best suit each micro-climate and diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change..
Breeding varieties that are better suited to diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change.planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than only in research stations, we are more likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase bi|

Seção 4. Instituições/atores envolvidos (colaboração, participação, papel das partes interessadas)

Nome e endereço da instituição que desenvolve a tecnologia


The model first used in Iran was developed at ICARDA and is being implemented in Iran with the cooperation with the cooperation of Jihad-e Agriculture Organisation of Kermanshah province, the Dryland Agriculture Research Institute (DARI), Cenesta,  the Group for the Sustainable Developmentof Garmsar|Agricultural Research and Education Organization(AREO) Ministry of Jihad-Agriclture-Tehran-Iran

A tecnologia foi desenvolvida em parceria?

Sim

Liste os parceiros:

The model first used in Iran was developed at ICARDA and is being implemented in Iran with the cooperation with the Jihad-e Agriculture Organisation of Kermanshah province,|the Dryland Agriculture Research Institute (DARI),|the Institute for the Sustainable Development of Garmsar Plain (a farmers' association).
|Center for Environment Conservation and Sustainable Development  (CENESTA)|Agriculture Research and Education Organization(AREO) Ministry of Jihad-e Agriculture-Iran

Especificar a estrutura dentro da qual a tecnologia foi promovida

  • Iniciativa nacional - liderada pelo governo
  • Iniciativa nacional - não governamental
  • Iniciativa Internacional

A participação das partes interessadas locais, incluindo as OSCs, foi fomentada no desenvolvimento da tecnologia?

Sim

Lista das partes interessadas locais envolvidas:

Local farmers and villagers|Farmers' associations|Farmes'cooperatives|Research institutes in the concerned provinces |Local communities

Para os participantes listados acima, especifique seu papel no projeto, início, uso e manutenção da tecnologia, se houver.

CENESTA acts as a coordinator of all activities and between the various partners, as well as leading the approach of relating to farmers.  the farmers' organisation takes care of all stages of planting, selection,  harvesting,  gathering and entering data.and MoA coordinates participation of locals|

A população que vive no local e/ou nas proximidades estava envolvida no desenvolvimento da tecnologia?

Sim

Por meio de quê?
  • Abordagens participativas

Análise

Seção 5. Contribuição para o impacto

Descreva os impactos no local (os dois principais impactos por categoria)

Efficient soil management and disease and pests control
Increased role of local communities and farmers through Participatory Plant Breeding
Decrease of fertilizers and pesticides which further help conserve biodiversity and prevent contamination of water resources
improve the soil sustainability
Increased  quality of crops and decreased irrigation need in croplands(4 times) compared with convensional agriculture(11 times)
Control of immigration occurred due to climate change and drought by boosting the efficiency rate of producing agricultural yield in critical times

Descreva os dois principais impactos fora do local (isto é, não ocorrendo no local, mas nas áreas circunvizinhas)

Training of farmers and peasants as well as the participatory activities and processes in the project site have created an enabling environment out of the site in the nearby regions for developing such initiatives
Decrease in exploitation of deep and semi-deep wells due to PPB techniques and drough tresistant  varieties that are best adapted to poor soils and harsh climate, has had positive impact on decreasing water demand and as a result increasing water level and recharging the water tables in the region|

Impacto sobre a biodiversidade e a mudança climática

Explique as razões:

The farmers taking part in PPB have to select varieties that better adapt themselves with ecosystem and the environment .Therefore, they always give priority to water requirement of the varieties rather soly their yield per hectare.|
Identification of local varieties of agricultural products which is one of the primary goals of the PPB, is directly related to the conservation of biodiversity of native germplasms of agricultures products and preservation of genetic reserves so far germplams of 70 varieties of barly are collected.|

Foi realizada uma análise de custo-benefício?

Foi realizada uma análise de custo-benefício?

Sim

Especifique:

The cost-benefit analysis shows  water in arid and semi-arid areas is a  expensive implement in agriculture when determining  costs of production.Therefore, in PPB in Kermanshah in 2008 by decreasing irrigation from 11  to 4 times as well as fertilizer and pesticides the product is very competetive.|

Seção 6. Adoção e reprodutibilidade

A tecnologia foi disseminada/introduzida para outros locais?

A tecnologia foi disseminada/introduzida para outros locais?

Sim

Onde?

Semnan province|Chaharmahal - Bahktiyari province|Fars province|Qazvin province|Khorasan province

Foram fornecidos incentivos para facilitar a adoção da tecnologia?

Foram fornecidos incentivos para facilitar a adoção da tecnologia?

Sim

Especifique que tipo de incentivos:
  • Incentivos políticos ou regulamentares (por exemplo, relacionados às exigências e regulamentações do mercado, importação/exportação, investimento estrangeiro, apoio à pesquisa e desenvolvimento, etc.)
  • Incentivos financeiros (por exemplo, taxas preferenciais, auxílios estatais, subsídios, subsídios em dinheiro, garantias de empréstimos, etc.)
  • Incentivos fiscais (por exemplo, isenção ou redução de impostos, direitos, taxas, etc.)

Você pode identificar as três principais condições que levaram ao sucesso das melhores práticas/tecnologias apresentadas?

The flexibility of monitoring and assessment by farmers rather than research stations, is one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere with some level of adaptation. |
Emphasis on planting local varieties that farmers know  and tested before in the region which are also more resistant to climatic changes like drought and lack of precipitation and hot and cold weatheris one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere .
Establishing CBOs and development of participatory processes is one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere with some level of adaptation.

Replicabilidade

Na sua opinião, a melhor prática/tecnologia que você propôs pode ser replicada, embora com algum nível de adaptação, em outro lugar?

Sim

Em que nível?
  • Local
  • Sub-nacional
  • Nacional
  • Sub-regional
  • Regional
  • Internacional

Seção 7. Lições aprendidas

Relacionado a recursos humanos

Inviting farmers to plant breeding programs,has led to wide participation and real partnership of farmers and their families especially women in the DLDD-related activities |Research should not only carried out by research stations without involving farmers in the breeding process, and planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields. it is urgent to deploy on the ground a dynamic and inexpensive strategy which will quickly enhance the adaptation of crops to climate change and hence mitigate the impact of climate change

Relacionado aos aspectos financeiros

It is important that governments establish funds within PPB projects to support farmers to promote locally adapted genetic resources (landraces) resistant to high levels of abiotic stresses for attaining environmental sustainability and food security,rather than spending huge amount of money annually in form of insurance coverage for  compensation of agricultural damages to farmers without planning for adaptation to cope with future challenges.|

Relacionado a aspectos técnicos

we have to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields by identifying varieties that suit each micro-climate.In this connection adaptation is of high imprtance in future plannings and would be welcomed by wide participation of farmersthe interactive nature of the PPB programs improves farmers’ knowledge, their ability to negotiate, and their dignity.|Involving farmers in the breeding process, and planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than only in research stations which is surrounded by fragile desert ecosystem and marginal lands are mor, and better adapted to drought and climate change.e likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields and     

Seção 8. Perguntas adicionais da Etapa 1

Perguntas adicionais da Etapa 1

Target area size/administrative unit: 2500000.0

Módulos