Participatory and Evolutionary Plant Breeding of wheat and barley in Iran(PPB)
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
The technonogy used in the participatory plant breeding (PPB)in Iran developed with the cooporation of ICARDA and is subject to the Standard Material Transfer Agreement of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and It is carried out within an agreement among ICARDA,AREO and CENESTA.|
Such a strategy is based on four components: locally adapted genetic resources (landraces), farmer’s knowledge and participation, integration of plant breeding and crop management (agronomy, soil management, disease and pests management), and respect of farmers' rights. |
Iran; provinces of Semnan, Kermanshah and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari provinces. We are going to start with Fars Province, Qazvin Province, Khorassan Province and eventually Qom Province .
Climate is mediterranean with cold winters and hot summers.The mean annual precipitation ranges between 150mm-350mm.Most of the precipitation occures during the fall and early spring.It is charecterized by consecutive droughts and occurance of critical climatic conditions.
The location is covered almost by plains which is suitable for irrigated and rainfed agriculture from point of topography. generaly, the lands with less than 15% slopes are suitable for rainfed agriculture.|
Soil is composed of gypsic and calcic minerals which is typical of arid and semi-arid lands.Hot and dry desert soils usually contain rock and gravel, creating coarse soil with good draining. Semiarid deserts have finer soil containing loose rock, gravel sand with low salt and low soil humidity.
The main income sources are agriculture and animal husbandry and local communities are heavily dependent upon low-yield agriculture
Most of the agricultural lands belong to village cooperative but there are some private farmlands as well.
Those living in the location and nearby normally are low-income farmers and villagers with an average income of 2500000 IRR annually
During the most recent droughts in the Near East (in 2000 and 2008, when countries such as Syria and Iran after years as exporting countries had to import millions of tons of wheat and barley, several farmers reported that only those who kept their landraces were able to have a harvestable crop.|
Varieties selected in experimental stations often do not fit the needs of resource poor farmers and therefore new varieties developed using conventional breeding are either rarely adopted by smallholder farmers in marginal areas or, if adopted, often result in disastrous consequences.This could be aggrivated during droughts as experienced in 2002-2008 and theatens the regional and global food security. |
Planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than planing only in research stations, we are more likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields by identifying varieties that suit each micro-climate.
Breeding varieties that are better suited to diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change.
|Adoption: new varieties adopted by farmers
|Institutional: policy makers and scientists show interest in PPB
|Farmers’ skills and empowerment: the interactive nature of the PPB programs improves farmers’ knowledge, their ability to negotiate, and their dignity
|Biodiversity: different varieties have selected in different areas in the country, in response to different environmental constraints and users’ needs|Environmental protection:decrease in fertilizers and pesticides in croplands aimed at preventing ecosystem degradation and improving the sustainability of water resources |Improvement the socio-economic status of the locaion and the subsistance of the local people
b) Incorporating landraces (indigenous varieties) in breeding programmes: Landrace collections of crops planted, multiplied and evaluated by farmers and breeders to select the best ones to incorporate into breeding programmes. |c) Evolutionary breeding: large populations resulting from a mixture of segregating populations (F2) grown at locations chosen together with farmers for being affected by one or more of the abiotic and biotic stresses on yield and quality. to evolve under forces of nature and artificial selection
a) Participatory Plant Breeding: In the first year of a typical PPB program, farmers will start with roughly 100 different lines. Following selection after the first year’s harvest they will select the best lines to be replanted again the next year. This process continues for about 4 years to arrive|
PPB is a particular approach to breeding, using approporiate technology.It aims to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, to increase biodiversity in fields by identifying varieties that best suit each micro-climate and diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change..
Breeding varieties that are better suited to diverse target environments, and better adapted to drought and climate change.planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than only in research stations, we are more likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase bi|
The model first used in Iran was developed at ICARDA and is being implemented in Iran with the cooperation with the cooperation of Jihad-e Agriculture Organisation of Kermanshah province, the Dryland Agriculture Research Institute (DARI), Cenesta, the Group for the Sustainable Developmentof Garmsar|Agricultural Research and Education Organization(AREO) Ministry of Jihad-Agriclture-Tehran-Iran
The model first used in Iran was developed at ICARDA and is being implemented in Iran with the cooperation with the Jihad-e Agriculture Organisation of Kermanshah province,|the Dryland Agriculture Research Institute (DARI),|the Institute for the Sustainable Development of Garmsar Plain (a farmers' association).
|Center for Environment Conservation and Sustainable Development (CENESTA)|Agriculture Research and Education Organization(AREO) Ministry of Jihad-e Agriculture-Iran
Local farmers and villagers|Farmers' associations|Farmes'cooperatives|Research institutes in the concerned provinces |Local communities
CENESTA acts as a coordinator of all activities and between the various partners, as well as leading the approach of relating to farmers. the farmers' organisation takes care of all stages of planting, selection, harvesting, gathering and entering data.and MoA coordinates participation of locals|
Efficient soil management and disease and pests control
Increased role of local communities and farmers through Participatory Plant Breeding
Decrease of fertilizers and pesticides which further help conserve biodiversity and prevent contamination of water resources
improve the soil sustainability
Increased quality of crops and decreased irrigation need in croplands(4 times) compared with convensional agriculture(11 times)
Control of immigration occurred due to climate change and drought by boosting the efficiency rate of producing agricultural yield in critical times
Training of farmers and peasants as well as the participatory activities and processes in the project site have created an enabling environment out of the site in the nearby regions for developing such initiatives
Decrease in exploitation of deep and semi-deep wells due to PPB techniques and drough tresistant varieties that are best adapted to poor soils and harsh climate, has had positive impact on decreasing water demand and as a result increasing water level and recharging the water tables in the region|
The farmers taking part in PPB have to select varieties that better adapt themselves with ecosystem and the environment .Therefore, they always give priority to water requirement of the varieties rather soly their yield per hectare.|
Identification of local varieties of agricultural products which is one of the primary goals of the PPB, is directly related to the conservation of biodiversity of native germplasms of agricultures products and preservation of genetic reserves so far germplams of 70 varieties of barly are collected.|
The cost-benefit analysis shows water in arid and semi-arid areas is a expensive implement in agriculture when determining costs of production.Therefore, in PPB in Kermanshah in 2008 by decreasing irrigation from 11 to 4 times as well as fertilizer and pesticides the product is very competetive.|
Semnan province|Chaharmahal - Bahktiyari province|Fars province|Qazvin province|Khorasan province
The flexibility of monitoring and assessment by farmers rather than research stations, is one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere with some level of adaptation. |
Emphasis on planting local varieties that farmers know and tested before in the region which are also more resistant to climatic changes like drought and lack of precipitation and hot and cold weatheris one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere .
Establishing CBOs and development of participatory processes is one of the main conditions that led to the success of PPB which makes it replicable elsewhere with some level of adaptation.
Inviting farmers to plant breeding programs,has led to wide participation and real partnership of farmers and their families especially women in the DLDD-related activities |Research should not only carried out by research stations without involving farmers in the breeding process, and planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields. it is urgent to deploy on the ground a dynamic and inexpensive strategy which will quickly enhance the adaptation of crops to climate change and hence mitigate the impact of climate change
It is important that governments establish funds within PPB projects to support farmers to promote locally adapted genetic resources (landraces) resistant to high levels of abiotic stresses for attaining environmental sustainability and food security,rather than spending huge amount of money annually in form of insurance coverage for compensation of agricultural damages to farmers without planning for adaptation to cope with future challenges.|
we have to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields by identifying varieties that suit each micro-climate.In this connection adaptation is of high imprtance in future plannings and would be welcomed by wide participation of farmersthe interactive nature of the PPB programs improves farmers’ knowledge, their ability to negotiate, and their dignity.|Involving farmers in the breeding process, and planting experimental varieties in farmers' fields rather than only in research stations which is surrounded by fragile desert ecosystem and marginal lands are mor, and better adapted to drought and climate change.e likely to find varieties that are adapted to poor soils, and to increase biodiversity in farmers' fields and
Target area size/administrative unit: 2500000.0