Technologies

Compost application on rice fields [Cambodia]

ការប្រើប្រាស់ជីកំប៉ុស្តិ៏នៅក្នុងស្រែ (Khmer)

technologies_1218 - Cambodia

Completeness: 82%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Khonhel Pith

Local Agricultural Research and Extension Centre LAREC

Cambodia

SLM specialist:

Mesa Say

Society for Community Development in Cambodia SOFDEC

Cambodia

SLM specialist:

Sreytouch Bin

Society for Community Development in Cambodia SOFDEC

Cambodia

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Model farmer
approaches

Model farmer [Cambodia]

Model farms were introduced by a NGO in order to spread knowledge about SLM (compost, System of Rice Intensification SRI, and other technologies) in the project area.

  • Compilador/a: Christoph Kaufmann

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Manure, leaves and rice straw are gathered in a compost house and the produced compost is applied twice a year to the rice field.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Compost is produced in compost houses and is seen as a good and easy soil amendment. It is produced by mixing organic components (in this case study cow manure, rice straw, different leaves and ash) which are locally available. The ideal mix of ingredients shows an N-to-C ratio of approximately 1 to 25. By adding compost to the topsoil, its humus content is increased, and therefore the soil fertility and water holding capacity are enhanced. Although the technology can be applied with little technological knowledge, the land user’s workload is augmented. This can be detrimental in a human environment with constantly decreasing available labour force.

The purposes of compost production are multifaceted. From the land user’s point of view, the increased yields are certainly one of the most determining factors. This is due to the augmentation of organic matter and nutrients in the topsoil which results in a higher soil fertility. Therefore, the use of chemical fertilizer can be diminished while the yields stay the same. This results in the amelioration of the land user’s livelihood, since he needs to buy less fertilizer. Also, the improved soil structure (according to the land user, the soil is softer and easier to cultivate) and water retention capacity are of importance in this area, since the soils are sandy/loamy, and due to climate change the rainfall is more erratic and droughts more recurrent. Compost also buffers the soil’s pH and prevents acidification. As a consequence, the nutrient availability is increased. Finally, compost adds more biota to the soil.

First, the compost house is built. This can be done either with external inputs such as bricks, cement, and a tin roof (the initial investment is higher, but the recurrent maintenance activities lower), or with locally available, natural inputs such as rice straw and clay for the walls and dried sugar palm leaves for the roof (the initial investment is lower, however there are more recurrent maintenance activities which can be detrimental for the continuation of compost production).
Once the compost house is built, the organic matter (approximately 70 % cow manure, and 30 % rice straw and different leaves, with a small amount of ash) is collected in the surroundings and carried to the compost house. In this case study, compost is produced once during the dry season and once during the wet season. During the dry season, water is added to the organic matter in order to facilitate the composting process. Ideally, the organic matter should be turned in order to guarantee a complete composting process. However, this includes a rather big workload. As a result, turning is not always practiced in the area (high migration rates result in a decrease of available labour force).
When the composting process is completed, the compost is carried to the fields with the use of animal traction. This is done several times: once when the fields are plowed, once when the rice seedlings are transplanted and once while the rice is growing (“top dressing”).

The analyzed area is flat (slope < 2%), with a tropical climate with a (dry and a wet season), and the soils are mostly sandy or loamy. The soils have a low fertility, contain little organic matter, the pH is sinking, the area has been deforested a long time ago and the groundwater table is rather high (1-2 m during the dry season, on the surface during wet season).
Due to climate change, land users notice more erratic rainfalls, temperatures rise and more recurrent droughts. Rice is the predominant crop grown in the area, since it serves as staple food (mix subsistence and commercial activities). Rice is often grown in monocultures and harvested once a year. Once the rice is harvested (dry season), the cattle are released to the paddy fields.

As an addition to rice, most land users grow vegetable and fruits in small home gardens (subsistence) and complement their income by producing handicrafts or through off farm income / remittances from family members working in other places. The increasing migration rate (the young generation leaves the villages to work in the cities, garment industry or abroad) results in a decrease of available labour force in the area. This has detrimental effects on the agricultural activities. Furthermore, the civil war in the 1970s (Khmer Rouge) led to the loss of agricultural knowledge.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Cambodia

Region/ State/ Province:

Kampong Chhnang

Further specification of location:

Rolear Pha-er

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

A local NGO provided a training on compost making, about 5 years ago.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-pastoralism (incl. integrated crop-livestock)

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - rice (wetland)
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 210, Longest growing period from month to month: June - December

Pastagem

Pastagem

Animal type:
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • cattle - non-dairy working
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Lack of organic matter, lack of water retention in soil, irregularity of rainfall, low soil fertility (sandy soil), monocultures, bare soil during dry season, ploughing.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Rice field: lack of nutrients, need fertilizer and compost otherwise no good yield. Not enough compost available, need to use also small amount of chemical fertilizer even though compost is applied. Lack of water. Soil erosion.

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Misto de precipitação natural-irrigado

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
  • Ca: acidificação
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bl: perda da vida do solo
Comentários:

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Ploughing, soil is left bare for several weeks), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Rice monoculture (rice serves as staple food)), change of seasonal rainfall (More erratic beginning of wet season), droughts (On dry soil, rice cannot be planted and if already planted, rice cannot grow), labour availability (High migration rates from the villages to garment industry, cities or abroad, influences agricultural activities (e.g. broadcasting instead of transplanting of rice seedlings)), education, access to knowledge and support services (Khmer Rouge regime in the 1970s, a lot of knowledge got lost.)
Secondary causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Rice straw is removed for different domestic uses (cattle, mushroom cultivation, etc.)), overgrazing (Cattle eats rice straw left after harvest, less organic matter on the field, grazing is not managed.), change in temperature, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), land tenure (Some incidents of land grabbing, land use rights not clear), poverty / wealth

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Manure, straw, ash and leaves are gathered in a compost hut, and later on dispersed on the paddy fields.
Kampong Chhnang

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate
Technical knowledge required for land users: low (It is not difficult to make compost, however it increases the workload of the land user. This might lead to the adaptation of the Technologies in order to decrease the additional workload.)
Main technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…)
Secondary technical functions: increase / maintain water stored in soil

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: Cow manure, mango leaves, rice straw, wood ash, green plants.
Quantity/ density: 3.7 t/ha
Remarks: 1 part at the beginning of the rainy season (rice transplantation), 1 part during the growing period

Autor:

Stefan Graf

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD
Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

5.00

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Construction of compost house
2. Clay: Dig pit (10 cm) and add clay from the rice field
3. Bricks and cement: make brick walls
4. iron roof
5. poles
6. nails
7. labour

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra labour 1,0 20,0 20,0 100,0
Material de construção iron roof 1,0 15,0 15,0 100,0
Material de construção bricks and cement 1,0 31,0 31,0 100,0
Material de construção poles and nails 5,0 1,0 5,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 71,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 71,0

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Gather material for compost, prepares compost and adds water in dry season all year round
2. Bring compost to fields June - September

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra labour 1,0 140,0 140,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 140,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 140,0
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: Please note that the interviewed land user owns cows that are used for bringing the compost to the field. Hence, the costs for animal traction in this case study are zero.
1 compost house, around 4m^3.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Cost are affected by the availability of material to build the compost house (bricks, roof, etc.), which can be used long term.
Locally available, free material (sugar palm leaves for the roof, straw and clay for the walls) can be used as well, but it decays more quickly than the material used in this case-study (more recurrent maintenance activities).
The transport of manure to the fields is also an important expense. It is often done with the ox carts. As nearly all families owning oxen have a cart for different uses (firewood and product transportation), it is difficult to calculate this cost

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: tropics. 27°C to 35°C

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

< 5 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • low

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Pobre
  • Média
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Difference in the involvement of women and men: The application of compost depends mainly on the commitment of the land users – gender and level of wealth are not determinative. However, the work is divided between men and women (physical strength).
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%
Off-farm income specification: The land user manufactures handicrafts that she sells. Also, one of her daughters works in the garment industry. In addition, she owns pigs and chicken she sells.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
  • Indivíduo, não intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The farmer uses less chemical fertilizer. The yields remain the same on the short term.

Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Less chemical fertilizer used

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado

contribution to human well-being

decreased
increased
Comentários/especificar:

Due to the use of compost, land users are less dependent on chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the cost of production decreases while the income remains the same.

Impactos ecológicos

Solo

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase bem

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Tempestade de vento local bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

neutro/balanceado

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

neutro/balanceado

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • 11-50%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

15% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support 20 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%
Comentários:

Comments on acceptance with external material support: The technology was first introduced by a training (20 people attended), and then the neighbors of these farmers copied it. For each farmer trained, approximately 5 neighbors copied the technology.
85% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
130 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology. Compost making increases the workload of the land users an that impedes the spontaneous adoption of the Technology.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Less chemical fertilizer is used for the same yield, so the farmer can save money since she buys less chemical fertilizer.
Soil fertility is better. She sees more earthworms in the fields.
Ploughing became easier, because the soil is less hard after compost application.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Low cost, locally available and effective fertilizer/soil improving material.
Soil quality (organic matter, nutrient content, water retention, soil biota) is improved
The resilience is increased; farmers are less dependent on external inputs (fertilizer…)
Long term increased yields.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The collection of the material and the preparation of the compost (turning) is time consuming. Monitoring the cost/benefit ratio to show the benefit to the farmer
It is difficult to transport the compost to the field. Collaboration between neighbors to lower costs of hiring someone or lending machines.
She cannot make enough compost for all the fields Work toward an integrated production.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Not enough organic matter to make enough compost (number of cattle is low, rice monoculture). Work toward an integrated production.
Increased workload while labour availability is decreasing due to migration. Increase the handicraft work on the farms. Diversification of the production with less labour intensive species.
Low motivation of the land user because the composting work has to be done each year again. Monitoring to show the long-term cost/benefit ratio.
The composting process is not completely understood; weed and rice seeds survive and are growing on the fields. Explanations about seed survival and dormancy to explain the purpose of composting.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

23/06/2014

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Society for Community Development in Cambodia SOFDEC

Available from where? Costs?

www.sofdec.org

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