Technologies

'Forage Christine' [Burkina Faso]

Forage Christine

technologies_2994 - Burkina Faso

Completeness: 92%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: Guidelines to Rangeland Management in Sub-Saharan Africa (Rangeland Management)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles (INERA Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles) - Burkina Faso

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

A modern hydraulic complex in the centre of the Sahelian region of Burkina Faso for watering livestock in the dry season.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The well called 'Forage Christine' was constructed in 1971 by a French engineer, which named it after his wife, and opened it for the first time in 1972. Due to conflicts between Burkina and Mali it was ruined in 1976, and then again in 1985. In 1996 the National Office for Wells and Boreholes (ONFP), a government agency, rehabilitated the well and made two supplementary boreholes. The complex consists of a main well with an operating flow rate of 120 m3/h, having a submersible pump of brand KSB, type OPA 150s-65/8, and a pump capacity of 60 m3/h. Next to the main well there is a secondary well, which is equipped with a hand-operated pump with a capacity of 18 m3/h.
The energy for pumping water from the wells is provided by a generator with an engine of brand DEUTZ (type: F3 - 6L 912) and a switch of brand LEROY SOMER – Type LSA 42.1 L8L C1/4, a voltage of 400 V and continuous power of 50 kW. The generator has a switch and a battery. A diesel tank with a volume of approximately 9 m3 was installed for the power supply to the generator. The pumped water is stored in an elevated water tank, which is located at a distance of about 200 m from the well, and has a volume of 50 m3. The water from the elevated water tank is distributed to four artificial ponds with a dimension of 50 m x 50 m x 1.5 m at equal distances on all sides of the central reservoir. The water is conducted to the artificial ponds through PVC piping, which is buried underground over a distance of 8 km, or 2 km for each pond. The water flow is controlled by nine valves of type Nr. 4000, Reg. Nr. W 1.129, installed on the pipes. The hydraulic complex was installed in 1996 by the National Agency for Water and Sanitation (ONEA). The complex is managed by the livestock keepers through the User Association of 'Forage Christine' (AUFC). The statutes of this organisation were adopted on 2 May 2014. The well is managed according to a set of requirements which specify the terms for access to water: date of opening and closure of the well, the amount to be paid per animal and the management of the cash money provided.
'Forage Christine' is a major water infrastructure, established in the northern part of the Sahel region in Burkina Faso between longitude 0°45’W and latitude 14°48’N, providing drinking water to herds within an area of 100 to 300 km from its central location between Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It was established in 1971 in the context of major droughts that had affected the Sahel, and it was opened for the first time in 1972. It is located in the middle of the Sahel region of Burkina Faso, at two km from the pond of Tin-Arkachen in the department of Déou, at approximately 45 km from the capital of the department, and 85 km from Gorom-Gorom. At the sub-regional level, the well is a around ten km from the border with Mali, and at 100 km from the border with Niger. The climate is of Sahelian type, and has a rainy season of 3 to 4 months (from June-July to September), which is subject to strong temporal and spatial variations in precipitation, and a dry season of 8 to 9 months. The climatic conditions are characterized by highly irregular winds, precipitation, evapotranspiration and moisture due to fluctuations in atmospheric circulation patterns. Annual precipitation is around 500 mm on average, with roughly 30 rainy days, and is marked by significant inter-annual variations. The stream network of the region consists of several streams, with one permanent river: Béli. To this river, ponds and many depressions are connected, which disappear after the month of January. The soils are very diverse in general, and mostly of sandy texture. They do not provide a good medium for plant growth due to the low permeability, which reduces water infiltration. Therefore water availability appears to be one of the major limitations for rainfed agriculture, in addition to the limited retention and availability of nutrients. According to the phytogeographic division of Burkina Faso (Fontes and Guinko, 1995), the area of 'Forage Christine' is situated in the northern or strict Sahelian phytogeographic sector. This sector is characterized by a set of typical Saharan and Sahelian vegetation species which mainly occur in shrub and woody steppes (48.85%) and grassy steppes (24.37%), which form the larger part of the rangelands (***). This vegetation provides the most important natural grazing land to livestock.
With regard to the human environment, the last General Population and Housing Census mentions a population of 25321 inhabitants for the municipality of Déou. Yet this number varies significantly due to the seasonal migration of people from other regions to use water and forage resources. The ethnic groups in the region are mainly Fulbé, Kurumba, Songhai, Tuareg, Mossi and Hausa people.
Economic activities in the region are livestock keeping, farming, craftmanship, fishing, trade, tourism and hunting. Several socio-economic groups are guiding these activities. Some 60 farmer groups, 53 groups of livestock keepers, six of which for female livestock keepers, and three organisations for environmental protection. With regard to infrastructure for education, sanitation and socio-economical conditions, the municipality of Déou has three markets, 18 schools, one middle school, 47 permanent functional literacy centers (CPAF), one recreation center, six cereal banks, three healthcare and welfare centers (CSPS), three medical stores, one tourist camp and one financial institution.
Farming and livestock keeping continue to be the most important socio-economic activities. The agricultural crops produced include millet, sorghum, maize, cowpea, rice and groundnut. In 2009, a total area of 345.5 ha was sown for these crops. The Sahel region in Burkina Faso has excellent conditions for livestock keeping. The animal species found in the region are mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, donkeys and horses and poultry. Several facilities and installations for water supply to pastoral areas are available in the region, as well as storage facilities for agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (SPAI) and infrastructure for trade and animal health care. The municipality of Déou disposes of one reservoir, five artificial ponds, 43 firm wells, ten vaccination centers, one store for agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (SPAI), one animal shelter, a facility for slaughtering and a livestock market.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

General remarks regarding photos:

The dates of the picture and the photographer are unknown.

2.4 Vídeos da tecnologia

Comments, short description:

No video

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Burkina Faso

Region/ State/ Province:

Sahel/Oudalan

Further specification of location:

Déou

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Aplicado em pontos específicos/concentrado numa pequena área
Comentários:

The infrastructure was created in 1971, but the facilities for use were installed in 1996.
The well is located in the municipality of Déou, but is used for livestock from the entire Sahel region in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.

2.6 Data da implementação

Indique o ano de implementação:

1971

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

A French aid worker introduced the technology with support from the government of Burkina Faso, through the National Agency for Water and Sanitation (ONEA).

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico
  • Cria impacto social benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-pastoralism (incl. integrated crop-livestock)

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • oilseed crops - groundnuts
  • cereals - millet
  • cereals - sorghum
  • legumes and pulses - peas
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Especifique:

Mid-June to September

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Animal type:
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • goats
  • camels
  • mules and asses
  • sheep
Comentários:

In addition to livestock keeping, subsistence farming is practiced. The main crops are sorghum, millet, groundnut and cowpea. The size of the fields varies between 0.5 and 3 ha. The farm type is family-based.
Animal species: cattle, sheep, camels, donkeys and goats.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão de pastoralismo e pastagem
  • Gestão do lençol freático

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S7: colheita de água/ equipamento de abastecimento/irrigação

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Ha: aridificação
  • Hs: mudança na quantidade de água de superfície
  • Hg: mudança no lençol freático/aquífero
  • Hp: declínio da qualidade de água de superfície
Outro

Outro

Comentários:

The technology aims to remediate water scarcity for livestock during the dry season.

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

1. Main well, flow rate 120 m3/h.
2. Secondary well, flow rate 18 m3/h.
3. Submersible pump, brand KSB, type OPA 150s-65/8, flow rate 60m3/h, year of constrcuction1996
4. Elevated water storage tank, volume 50 m3.
5. Four ponds of 50 m x 50 m x 1.5 m.

Autor:

SNV

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • Por unidade de tecnologia
Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

FCFA

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

550,0

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

35 000 per month

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Main well
2. Elevated water storage tank
3. Artificial ponds
Comentários:

Not evaluated.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Comentários:

Not applicable.

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Use of diesel year
2. Use of oil and filters year
3. Periodic maintenance of the generator year
4. Fuel delivery year
5. Transport costs of the maintenance operator year
6. Wage of the guard year
7. Compensation of the manager of the generator year
8. Charges for accounting year

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Periodic maintenance of the generator season 1,0 150000,0 150000,0
Mão-de-obra Compensation of the GE manager person-month 12,0 37500,0 450000,0
Mão-de-obra Charges for accounting person-month 12,0 175,0 2100,0
Mão-de-obra Wage of the guard person-month 12,0 50000,0 600000,0
Outros Use of diesel season 1,0 2921000,0 2921000,0
Outros Use of oil, filters season 1,0 68000,0 68000,0
Outros Reparations to the hydraulic complex season
Outros Fuel delivery season 1,0 125000,0 125000,0
Outros Transport costs of maintenance operator season 1,0 60000,0 60000,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 4376100,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 7956,55
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

The municipality, the management committee and the NGOs operating in the area (SNV).

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

1. Availability of fuel for the generator.
2. Failures in the functioning of the generator to fill the storage tanks.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):

500,00

Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Mean annual rainfall is around 500 mm, with approximately 30 rainy days and characterized by a strong variation between years. The water system has many streams, of which only one is permanent (the Béli river). To this river, ponds and many depressions are connected, which disappear after the month of January.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

Station of Gorom-Gorom

Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

The climate is of Sahelian type, and has a rainy season of 3 to 4 months (from June-July to September), which is subject to strong temporal and spatial variations in precipitation, and a dry season of 8 to 9 months. The climatic conditions are characterized by highly irregular winds, precipitation, evapotranspiration and moisture due to fluctuations in atmospheric circulation patterns.

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

The soils are very diverse in general, and mostly of sandy texture. They do not provide a good medium for plant growth due to the low permeability, which reduces water infiltration.

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

Na superfície

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Precário/nenhum

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Não

Ocorre inundação da área?

Não

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Limited water availability appears to be one of the major limitations for rainfed agriculture, in addition to the low retention and availability of nutrients.

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • low
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

The area around the 'Forage Christine' is characterized by a variety of typical Saharan and Sahelian vegetation units which mainly occur in shrub and woody steppes (48.85%) and grassy steppes (24.37%), and which form the larger part of the rangelands.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
  • Seminômade
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Several socio-economic groups are guiding the activities of land users. These include 60 farmer groups, 53 groups of livestock keepers, six of which for female livestock keepers, and three organisations for environmental protection.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala
  • Média escala
Comentários:

Most of the agro pastoralist are smallholder farmers, livestock keeping is their main livelihood activity.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Disponibilidade de água para criação de animais

Diminuído
Elevado

Qualidade da água para criação de animais

Diminuído
Elevado

Impactos socioculturais

Direitos do uso da terra/à água

Agravado
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da seca

Elevado
Diminuído

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Disponibilidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado

Caudal confiável e estável em período seco

Reduzido
Elevado

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca muito bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • > 50%
Comentários:

Not applicable

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Não

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Existence of a temporary coordinating committee on the site of the well, acting as an interface between the authorities and the livestock keepers using the well.
The arrangement of the use of the artificial ponds according to the terms set by the authorities and the technical services.
Monitoring of animal health and informing the livestock keeping service in case of suspected infectious diseases.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Water availability and access to water for users when the well is operational; potential users are willing to contribute to the operation of the well.
Water availability for livestock.
Strong involvement of the authorities and the technical services in issues relating to 'Forage Christine'.
Implementation of several methods to solve management problems.
Good organisation of the management of the water source.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Lack of transparency in the use and management of contributions intended to cover the functioning and the maintenance of the generator and the wage of the guard, who also operates the generator and supervises the related installations. Good functioning of the management committee and committee meetings will enable to overcome this disadvantage.
A low level of representation of the different population groups in the management committee (only the Djelgobé of Gandéfabou are members; these people settled in the area in Boula and claim to be the indigenous people in the area). Involving all groups using the well more closely in order to have an appropriate representative in the management committee.
Lack of consultation between the management committee and the livestock keepers having their residence in the area. Stimulating the management committee to communicate more closely with the neighboring livestock keepers through a framework for consultation on the way in which they manage the infrastructure of the 'Forage Christine'.
Insufficient awareness of the roles and responsibilities of the management committee by the livestock keepers (only the role of the guard is known to the livestock keepers).
The undemocratic establishment of the management committee (self-appointed members), which explains why livestock keepers consider the committee as an imposed structure.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The non-involvement of livestock keepers (potential users) in the management of the well in some management methods (concession to RMC); their weak involvement in the management of the well, and their continued low representation in the committees (2 to 3 persons). Involving livestock keepers more closely in the management committees and in the decision-making bodies related to 'Forage Christine'. Increasing the number of representatives of livestock keepers in the management bodies of the well.
The failure to address the concerns of livestock keepers in the implementation of the management methods. Ensuring that the livestock keepers are considered by the management committee, and that they can effectively participate in the committee.
The inappropriate use of contributions from users of the well for operating the facilities of the well in a sustainable way. Ensuring that the funds generated by the well are managed properly by the management committee.
Competition for water between humans and animals. Providing wells or pumps for human consumption of water.
Huge inflow of animals which overgraze the area, thereby threatening the environment. Raising awareness among livestock keepers and herders on the need to manage the natural resources properly in the area influenced by 'Forage Christine', with the aim to mitigate the environmental degradation that could result from overgrazing.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

03

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

03

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

01/06/2017

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Boundaoné et al., 2015. Textes fondamentaux et outils de gestion du forage Christine, PGP-FC/GRP, SVN, 60 p.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

SNV, 2011. Etude pour la sécurisation des ressources foncières pastorales autour du Forage Christine dans la province de l’Oudalan. Final report, 142 p.

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

News paper article: Elevage dans le Sahel : "Christine" ou le symbole de l’hydraulique pastorale.

URL:

http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article31821

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