Technologies

Emergency infrastructure including shelter and linked transport infrastructure [Bangladesh]

দুর্যোগ সহনশীন অবকাঠামো উন্নয়ন (Durjog-shahonshil abokathamo unnayon)

technologies_664 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 88%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

Project Staff:

Mustafa Golam

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

Bangladesh

Project Staff:

Razzak Abdur

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

Bangladesh

Project Staff:

Islam Saiful

Bangladesh Red Crescent Society

Bangladesh

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Swiss Red Cross (Swiss Red Cross) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

Comentários:

The technology presented has no direct bearing on land degradation.

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Early Warning Message Dissemination
approaches

Early Warning Message Dissemination [Bangladesh]

An effective system for dissemination of early warning messages was established among the vulnerable communities in Chars (riverine sandy islands) of Gaibandha district, Bangladesh, in order to strengthen their coping mechanisms and reduce loss and damage caused by floods.

  • Compilador/a: TUHIN SAMADDAR

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Emergency infrastructure including shelter and linked transport infrastructure, consists in establishing specific flood shelters (for people and animals) including flood-proof collective water sources and communication infrastructure as well as health and school facilities that may serve at the same time as emergency shelters during floods.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The technology applies to the specific context of the ‘Char’ land in Bangladesh, characterised as riverine sandy Islands along the Jamuna River. More than 80% of the land in the intervention area can be classified as 'Char' and is inhabited by 60% of the population served by the project. Every year, especially during floods, the rivers deposit huge amount of silt sediment that makes the land fertile. At the same time, river action washes away some portion of the 'Char' which at times can be quite large and has a strong impact on people's lives and livelihoods. Before the intervention, people living on 'Char' land depended on their traditional early warning mechanisms and were frequently surprised by floods that destroyed their crops and put their lives in danger. Due to recurring floods, people didn’t have the means to improve their built environment. The 'Char' land is furthermore characterised by its lack of public infrastructure and remoteness to public services.

The technology consists of setting up an emergency infrastructure and ensuring community access to these infrastructures during times of floods. It has to be understood in close interrelation with the approach of setting up an early warning system. The emergency infrastructure includes specific flood shelters (for people and animals), flood-proof collective water sources and sanitation systems, transport infrastructure such as foot bridges and elevated rural roads, as well as flood-proof health and school facilities that also serve as emergency shelters during floods. The flood shelters are built on a raised bed of soil and located at sites selected by the communities that are relatively better protected from flood and river erosion within the 'Chars'. The purpose of the technology is to ensure safety of life and protection of assets during times of emergency and also to mitigate sufferings related to floods. The flood shelter is an elevated plane land which is on an average 220 square feet by size and at least five feet high from the existing ground level. The site is selected by the community and should be connected through an elevated road to the nearest community. This arrangement helps people to get easy access during times of floods. The shelter has collective hygienic latrine facilities and safe water sources. People generally dismantle their housing while evacuating and reinstall it on the flood shelter.
The major activities include facilitating the development of community-led risk reduction action plans and their implementation through community participation and engagement of local governance institutions. This includes maintenance of the built infrastructure as the joint responsibility of the community and the local government. Land use, especially sowing and harvesting, is increasingly linked to flood related forecasting measures which has led to significant adaptation in the timing of farming activities. This coupled with the creation and access to emergency infrastructure allows for a relatively safe and healthy living. The adopted technology and approach has led to adapted livelihoods, reduced health costs and increased income. The technology has furthermore led to mainstreaming disaster risk management in policies and approach of local government institutions. Increasingly the local government’s cash and food for work programmes are targeting establishment and/or reinforcement of emergency infrastructure that can cater to larger population. Increased investments are made especially towards flood shelters and improving communication and access to emergency infrastructure. Since the technology is based on local knowledge and has been developed in consultation with the involved communities, it is generally well accepted with a fair degree of ownership and involvement. However, parts of the region are also prone to river erosion and this has a destructive impact on built infrastructures. The technology does not assure any safeguard against this form of uncertain river action.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

General remarks regarding photos:

Glimpse of few technologies that served as emergency infrastructure, shelter and access to health and water and sanitation facilities.

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

North-Bengal

Further specification of location:

Kamarjani and Mollar Char Union (i.e. municipality) in Sadar Upazila and Haldia Union in Shaghata Upazila of Gaibandha District

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2
Comentários:

Since the disaster resilient infrastructure set up by the project is installed at a huge number of sites (as indicated in the description above), only a sample of the various emergency infrastructures are indicated on the map above (If needed a comprehensive GPS reading of all infrastructure built by the project can be provided separately).
Though emergency infrastructures are built at specific sites, their use and benefits are evenly spread over an expanded area.

2.6 Data da implementação

Indique o ano de implementação:

2014

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • Como parte do sistema tradicional (>50 anos)
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The technology has elements of traditional practice (raised plinths for flood protection) and project promoted interventions (emergency shelter and access infrastructure).

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico
  • Cria impacto social benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - other
  • cereals - rice (wetland)
  • cereals - wheat (winter)
  • legumes and pulses - other
  • root/tuber crops - sweet potatoes, yams, taro/cocoyam, other
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • Kharif and Rabi (Cereals)
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • medicinal, aromatic, pesticidal plants - perennial
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 3
Especifique:

Kharif (monsoon crop), Rabi (winter crop), and Summer/pre-monsoon crop

Pastagem

Pastagem

  • Every household have at least a pair or more of livestock.
Animal type:
  • buffalo
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • cattle - non-dairy working
  • goats
  • mules and asses
  • sheep
Is integrated crop-livestock management practiced?

Não

Assentamentos, infraestrutura

Assentamentos, infraestrutura

  • Assentamentos, edificações
  • Tráfego: estradas, ferrovias
Comentários:

Despite the lack of public infrastructure and services and being exposed to natural hazards people tend to prefer to live in the 'Char' as it brings significant economic benefits for them: crops grow rapidly and abundantly with significantly lower input costs than on the mainland.
Cow, buffalo, goat, lamb and donkey are very common in the area. People rear these for cultivation, transportation and for having meat. Every household have at least a pair or more of livestock.

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Misto de precipitação natural-irrigado
Comentários:

Water supply for the land comprises a mix of rainfed, irrigated and post flooding sources.

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Emergency infrastructure, shelter and linked transportation infrastructure

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S9: Abrigo para plantas e animais
  • S11: Outros
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M4: Principal mudança no calendário de atividades
Comentários:

In addition to the structural and management measures described above, the technology involves additional elements such as flood-proof collective water supply and sanitation systems and communication infrastructure.

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wr: erosão das margens
  • Wo: efeitos de degradação externa
Comentários:

N/A

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Adaptar à degradação do solo
Comentários:

NA

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

The built structural mitigation options have following technical specification:
1. Flood shelter: Dimension: Length-220' x Width-220' x Height- 5.5', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 350 families, Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass)
2. Raised school compound: Dimension: Length-112' x Width-75' x Height- 5.5', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 540 person, Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass)
3. Community Resource Centre and Community Clinic (CRC-CC): Dimension: Length-60' x Width-38' x Height- 5.6', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 1500 families from 5 villages, Construction material used: soil and grass plantation, bricks, sand, cement, rod, iron angel and CGI sheet.
4. Disaster resilient tube well: Dimension: Length-5' 10" x Width-5' x Height- 3', Boring: 100 feet, Capacity: 200 families, Construction material used: bricks, sand, cement, rod, tube well head, pvc pipe, cylinder, piston rod etc. Vertical intervals: 2 in each village.
5. Concrete platform for (existing) tube well: Dimension: Length-4' 10" x Width-4' x Height- 1', Capacity: 100 families, Construction material used: bricks, sand, cement, pvc pipe
6. Wooden bridge: Dimension: Length-99' x Width-7' x Height- 12', Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 900 families approximately, Construction material used: wood, nails, tar, soil and grass plantation
7. Road construction/repair: Dimension: Length-925' x Width-12' x Height- 3' (from existing level), Slope: 1:1.5, Capacity: 3 villages (approx:1000 families), Construction material used: soil and turfing (grass).

Autor:

Abdur Razzak

Data:

17/10/2016

Autor:

Abdur Razzak

Data:

31/07/2016

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • Por unidade de tecnologia
Especifique a unidade:

flood shelter, raised school compound, disaster resilient tube well, concrete platform for (existing) tube well, wooden bridge, road construction/repair

Specify dimensions of unit (if relevant):

road: per meter

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Bangladeshi Taka (BDT)

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

79,0

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

350 BDT

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Construction of Flood Shelter During dry season
2. Raising school compound During dry season
3. Construction of Community Resource Center (CRC) During dry season
4. Installation of disaster resilient tube well During dry season
5. Construction of concrete platform for (existing) tube well During dry season
6. Construction of wooden bridge During dry season
7. Road construction above flood level During dry season
Comentários:

All activities are structural in nature and can be undertaken efficiently only in dry season.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Flood shelter: earth work m3 8000,0 64,0 512000,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra CRC: earth work m3 53,0 138,0 7314,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra CRC: sand filling m3 302,0 99,0 29898,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra Raised school compound: earth work m3 1790,0 64,0 114560,0 10,0
Material vegetal Flood shelter: grass plantation (turfing) m2 4620,0 13,0 60060,0 10,0
Material vegetal Flood shelter: seedlings piece 20,0 53,0 1060,0 10,0
Material vegetal CRC: grass plantation (turfing) m2 3890,0 13,0 50570,0 10,0
Material vegetal CRC: seedlings piece 50,0 53,0 2650,0 10,0
Material vegetal Raised school compound: grass plantation (turfing) m2 1390,0 13,0 18070,0 10,0
Material vegetal Raised school compound: seedlings piece 40,0 53,0 2120,0 10,0
Material de construção CRC: roof truss kg 4375,0 100,0 437500,0
Material de construção CRC: grill and iron work m2 88,0 2091,0 184008,0
Material de construção CRC: gypsum board m2 478,0 922,0 440716,0
Material de construção CRC: RCC work m3 2,9 19557,0 56715,3
Material de construção CRC: deformed bar kg 397,0 85,0 33745,0
Material de construção CRC: boundary fencing m2 184,0 440,0 80960,0
Material de construção CRC: brick work m3 44,0 5515,0 242660,0
Outros CRC: electric ware and solar panel lumpsum 1,0 73000,0 73000,0
Outros CRC: water supply lumpusm 1,0 66150,0 66150,0
Outros CRC: transportation lumpsum 1,0 89000,0 89000,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 2502756,3
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 31680,46
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

10% of all construction cost (except community resource center) is borne by the user. Another 15% is provided by the local government bodies. The remaining 75% is subsidised by the project.

Comentários:

Defining costs of establishment is bit tricky as the measures differ in size and number, costs vary from one village to another depending on the geographical location. However, average costs of the measures further to those highligted in the table are given below:
Disaster resilient tube well: labour (mason) 3'000, equipment (drilling charge) 1800, construction material (bricks, cement, sand, iron rod, PVC pipe, cylinder, GI pipe, tubewell head) 23'250, transportation 2'650, total unit costs (BDT) 30'700
Concrete platform for (existing) tube well : labour (mason) 600, construction material (bricks, cement, sand) 2'450, other (Transportation, waste water disposal) 1650, total unit costs (BDT) 4'700
Wooden bridge: labour (mason, mason assitant, painting assistant, earthwork) 30'000, plant material (grass plantation) 12'500, equipment (painting brush etc.) 1'000, construction material (timber, nails, tar, tarpin oil, paint) 260'000, Transportation 30'000, total unit costs (BDT) 333'500
Road construction/repair: labour (earthwork) 102'500, plant material (grass plantation/turfing), 12'500, total unit costs (BDT) 115'000

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Construction of Flood Shelter During dry season
2. Raising school compound During dry season
3. Construction of Community Resource Center (CRC) During dry season
4. Installation of disaster resilient tube well During dry season
5. Construction of concrete platform ror (existing) tube well During dry season
6. Construction of wooden bridge During dry season
7. Road construction above flood level During dry season
Comentários:

Due to the softness of the sandy soil and the annual inundation, every measure requires considerable maintenance. The flooding generally washes out sands and decays the foundation of the structure. If maintenance is done in regular intervals, the entire structure remains functional. Also, grass needs to be frequently replanted as it dries up during the dry season.
The users and the local government (Union Disaster Management Committee) are mainly responsible for maintenance of all built assets and structures including the Community Resource Center. The relevant operation/repair and maintenance training has been provided by the project.. Maintenance manuals and guidelines have been developed and disseminated. Also, repair and maintenance equipment has been provided to cadre of users/caretakers trained in repair/maintenance work.

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Earthwork m3 80,0 63,0 5040,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra Sand bag filling piece 50,0 15,0 750,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra Pipe fitting piece 2,0 300,0 600,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra Mason lumpsum 1,0 500,0 500,0 10,0
Material vegetal Grass plantation (turfing) m2 85,0 13,0 1105,0 10,0
Material vegetal Seedlings piece 15,0 53,0 795,0 10,0
Material de construção Plastic bag piece 50,0 10,0 500,0 10,0
Material de construção PVC pipe m 15,0 120,0 1800,0 10,0
Material de construção Polythene pipe kg 5,0 160,0 800,0 10,0
Material de construção Ciment bag 0,5 540,0 270,0 10,0
Material de construção Sand ft3 5,0 18,0 90,0 10,0
Material de construção Caping socket piece 2,0 35,0 70,0 10,0
Material de construção Tape etc. lumpsum 1,0 250,0 250,0 10,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 12570,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 159,11
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

Maintenance costs are to date (2017) distributed as construction (10% by the users, 15% by the local government). A cost transfer scheme to the users and local government for maintenance is developped to be applied in the follow-up phase.

Comentários:

Again, defining costs of maintenance is also not easy as the measures differ in size and number. Average costs of the measures, further to those for flood shelter including disaster resilient tube well as highligted in the table, are given below:
Raised school compound: labour (earth work and sand bag filling) 7'800, plant material (grass plantation) 1'000, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 500, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 9'300
Community resource Center (CRC): labour 1'200, plant material (grass plantation, seedlings) 10'500, Transportation 1'000, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 12'700
Concrete platform for (existing) tube well : labour (mason) 500, construction material (bricks, cement, sand) 600, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 1'100
Wooden bridge: labour (earthwork) 2'500, plant material (grass plantation) 3'000, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 2'000, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 7'500
Road construction/repair: labour (earthwork) 10'000, plant material (grass plantation/turfing), 1'500, construction material (plastic bag, rope) 500, total unit maintenance costs (BDT) 12'000

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Transportation of raw material from the mainland to the sites on the 'Char' Islands varies across seasons. In the dry season it is much higher compared to monsoon as the delivery of material is easier in the latter due to extended river outreach.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):

2134,80

Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Rainy season: April- October
Occurrence of heavy rain: June-July
Length of dry period: November-March

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

18 Gaibandha Sadar, Gaibandha

Zona agroclimática
  • úmido

Tropical humid climatic zone.
Temperature: maximum 33.5°C, minimum 10.5°C

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Information on altitudinal zone collected from the website: www.getamap.net

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

N/A

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Não

Ocorre inundação da área?

Sim

Regularidade:

Frequentemente

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

In the dry season water crisis occurs. Open defecation and use of pesticide in farming are key pollutants of water sources.

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • Médio
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Biodiversity can be rated as moderate or medium both in terms of species and habitat. It is stable and and often self generating.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
  • Seminômade
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Tração animal
  • Mecanizado/motorizado
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

N/A

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala
Comentários:

People living in Chars have small landholding which often produces enough for subsistence and, in some cases, for market purposes.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
  • Indivíduo, não intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Arrendado
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Comunitário (organizado)
  • Indivíduo
Comentários:

Land ownership is quite complex as Chars by nature are unstable habitats. In principle land is owned by state but in most cases the politician - musclemen nexus exercises real control. This results in leasing and renting of land which is the predominant form of land ownership in Chars.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Access to mobile phone and internet:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

3600 kg/hectare (maize)

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

11400 kg/hectare (maize)

Comentários/especificar:

Crop production has increased thrice due to stability of household which has led to stable use of land in the chars.

Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Disponibilidade de água potável

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

No safe drinking water source was available

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

More than 40% water source are safe

Comentários/especificar:

Collective water supply systems have groundwater sources and thus no treatment is needed. Further, aspects of availability, easy access and sustainable availability of sufficient water of acceptable quality are well considered. Families can access 10 litres per capita per day (LPCD) during emergencies (which is in line with Sphere standards) and during normal times 40 LPCD is what families can collect from these water sources. All such water sources are within a distance of 50 metres from the settlement as per Bangladesh standards.

Qualidade da água potável

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Reliable data not available

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

All households have access to safe drinking water as per govt. standard for rural areas

Comentários/especificar:

The collective water infrastructure built by the project ensures fulfillment of minimum standards set by the govt for safe drinking water.

Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

25% families had farm income

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

95% families have farm income

Comentários/especificar:

Cattle and poultries are safe during disaster

Impactos socioculturais

Estado de saúde

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The disaster mitigation measures has significantly improved the health situation of the target population.

Instituições comunitárias

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Few credit groups in intervention villages

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

30 community based organisatons (i.e. village disaster management committees) and 3 Local Government Committees (Union disaster management committee)

Comentários/especificar:

Community based organisations and government mandated institutions have been promoted through project initiatives.

Instituições nacionais

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido
Comentários/especificar:

CRC is also being used for UDMC office which is an important committee of union parishad.

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Widespread

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Rare

Comentários/especificar:

Conflict sensitive approach has significantly reduced the incidence of conflicts.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Quantidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Data not available

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Same

Comentários/especificar:

The disaster resilient tube well ensures year round drinking water.

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da inundação

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

95% families were effected from flood

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

47% families are affected from flood

Comentários/especificar:

The above figures are from 2016 when Bangladesh experienced one of the worst floods in recent times.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements):

N/A

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local moderadamente
Tempestade de areia/tempestade de poeira bem
Tempestade de vento local bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Onde de calor bem
Onde de frio bem
Seca bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem
Deslizamento de terra não bem
Comentários:

In some cases the appropriate answer would have been "not applicable" but since this is not there, we have selected "well".

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Comentários:

The limited returns that have been generated by the project is highly valued by the users from a cost - benefit perspective; especially when they understand that the project is not directly linked to land management practices. Thus, the indirect benefits are perceived to have high value.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • > 50%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

Out of a total of 8828 HHs targeted by the project, around five thousand HHs in three union have benefitted from the implementation of the technology.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, indique as condições variáveis as quais ela foi adaptada:
  • Disponibilidade de mão-de-obra (p. ex. devido à migração)
Especifique a adaptação da tecnologia (desenho, material/espécie, etc):

Dredging machine has been used for building some emergency infrastructure at few sites due to unavailability of labour at the time of construction.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Emergency structures are collectively owned and have a multipurpose use; in 'normal' (non-emergency) times they are used for other purpose than safety and protection which includes community meeting, workshop and training
Expanded opportunities of communication during flood
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Community is aware and driven to implement flood preparedness and risk reduction measures on its own
Appropriate measures can significantly change people's mindset and behaviour

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
River erosion threatens built structures Careful site selection for construction work through in depth discussion with community people supported by scientific analysis
High investment needed for building physical structures (e.g. CRC building) in the char which the local government and community find difficult to finance without external support. Install portable semi-permanent structures in the char; Lobby for greater decentralisation of finances to local government

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • interviews with land users

3

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

4

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

2

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

04/10/2016

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Latrine and Tube well maintenance manual, SRC-BDRCS-DASCOH

Available from where? Costs?

SRC

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