Technologies

Conversion of grazing land to fruit and fodder plots [Tajikistan]

technologies_977 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 76%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Soil Science Institute (Soil Science Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
NCCR North-South (NCCR North-South) - Kyrgyzstan

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Farmer innovation and self-help group
approaches

Farmer innovation and self-help group [Tajikistan]

An innovative land user, assisted by a self-help group has overcome many administrative and technical problems to establish a fruit garden on previously degraded communal grazing land.

  • Compilador/a: Murod Ergashev

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Fencing part of an overgrazed hillside, combined with terracing, manuring and supplementary irrigation for grape, fruit and grass production.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

In the Varzob valley of Tajikistan, slopes of around 30% are used communally, and are heavily overgrazed. This has led to a reduction in vegetation cover, to soil compaction, and to severe sheet and rill erosion. In 1982, one innovative land user began to set up half a hectare vineyard/fruit plot with intensive grass/fodder production for cut-and-carry and also a separate section above for hay making - by his own initiative. By the application of various conservation measures, within five years an area exposed to severe water erosion was converted into an area of sustainable use. Fodder and fruits are now flourishing and the natural resources of soil and water are conserved more effectively.

Purpose of the Technology: The start of the process was fencing of the plot to keep out animals. Scrap metal and other materials from a machinery depot were used to build a 1.5 m high fence. To harvest and hold runoff water from the hillside for grapes and fruit trees, narrow backsloping terraces were constructed, each with a water retention ditch along the contour. During the initial phase, the terraces did not harvest enough water for establishment of the seedlings. So water for supplementary irrigation was carried to the plot by donkeys in old inner tubes from car tyres. Manure is applied to the plot to improve soil fertility. The manure is collected on the high pastures where the herders graze their animals during summer. The total amount of manure applied to the plot so far amounts to about 3 t/ha over 20 years.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The establishment of such a plot is very demanding in terms of manpower. However within 5-6 years the system becomes self-sustaining and the productivity of the land is improved several times over. Following this positive experience, other households in the area have adopted the technology spontaneously, and today about 15 ha of degraded grazing land in the Varzob valley have been converted into productive fruit gardens.

Natural / human environment: For the innovator, his most valuable fruits are grapes, followed by apricots, almonds and plums. He has also successfully grown mulberry, pomegranate and cherry trees. Not all the seedlings survive: the farmer considers a 40% survival rate of grape vines to be reasonable. The fruit harvest is mainly used for home consumption. However, in a good year the table grapes and apricots are sold on the market. The hay harvest, from naturally regenerated grasses and fodder plants between the fruits amounts on average to 0.2 t/ha/year. The pruned branches from the vines are collected and used as firewood.
The establishment of such a plot is very demanding in terms of manpower. However within 5-6 years the system becomes self-sustaining and the productivity of the land is improved several times over. Following this positive experience, other households in the area have adopted the technology spontaneously, and today about 15 ha of degraded grazing land in the Varzob valley have been converted into productive fruit gardens.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Tajikistan

Further specification of location:

Varzob

Comentários:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.15 km2.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • atráves de inovação dos usuários da terra

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrossilvipecuária

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Cultura de árvores e arbustos
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - grasses
  • fodder crops - other
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • berries
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • grapes
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 210Longest growing period from month to month: March-October

Pastagem

Pastagem

Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

Produtos e serviços:
  • Lenha
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): - shortage of cultivable land on the gentle slopes next to the rivers
- low yield of natural pastures due to overgrazing
- heavy erosion taking place near residential areas

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): heavy erosion near the settlements

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Ma: Agro-silvopastoralism

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agrossilvipecuária
Pastagem

Pastagem

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Irrigação completa

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Agrofloresta
  • Hortas familiares

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S1: Terraços
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra
Comentários:

Main measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, structural measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Pc: compaction, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado
Comentários:

Main goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

The fenced-off agroforestry system comprising fruit trees and cereals grown on a steep hillside. Terracing is crucial for water conservation. Grass cover (right) is established for fodder production and simultaneous soil conservation. Note the adjacent plot for haymaking (above) and degraded rangeland outside the protected area (right).

Location: Varzob. Varzob, Tajikistan

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), retain/trap dispersed runoff, increase in soil fertility

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, water harvesting / increase water supply, reduction in wind speed, retain/trap concentrated runoff (prevention of gully erosion)

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: manure
Remarks: 3 t per ha over 20 years

Vegetative measure: fruit trees/vines aligned
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1-2
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2.4-3.2

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: grapes, apricot trees, almond trees, plum trees, mulberry trees, pomegranate trees, cherry trees

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 16-30%

Terrace: backward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1-2
Spacing between structures (m): 2.4-3.2
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5

Structural measure: fence

Construction material (other): waste material, from a machinery depot

Change of land use type: from grazing land to tree crops

Autor:

Mats Gurtner, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Planting of vines and fruit tree seedlings (apricot, plums, almonds)
2. 1. Fencing of an area of 0.5 ha using waste material from a machinerydepot.
3. 2. Construction of backward sloping bench terraces.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Planting/Fencing/Constructing ha 1,0 600,0 600,0 100,0
Equipamento Machine use ha 1,0 50,0 50,0 100,0
Equipamento Animal traction ha 1,0 200,0 200,0 100,0
Material vegetal seedlings ha 1,0 40,0 40,0 99,0
Material vegetal grape vines ha 1,0 1500,0 1500,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas manure ha 1,0 300,0 300,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 2690,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 2690,0
Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 72 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Irrigation (old inner tubes filled with water carried to the plot by donkeys). In summer: 5 litres of water per tree, per week. first 5–6 years
2. Irrigation (old inner tubes filled with water carried to the plot by donkeys). In summer: 5 litres of water per tree, per week. first 5–6 years
3. Manuring: applied at first to the newly planted vines/trees only,with restricted availability. During the second half of the establishment phase also applied elsewhere within the plot
4. Manuring: applied at first to the newly planted vines/trees only,with restricted availability. During the second half of the establishment phase also applied elsewhere within the plot
5. Irrigation of new seedlings.
6. Harvesting of fruits and fodder: transport of the yield to the house by donkey
7. Manuring, when replacing grapes or trees that had died. every year
8. Vines and trees that fail are replaced.
9. Grapes and trees pruned every year.
10. 1. Repairs to the fence every year

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Irrigation/manuring/keeping in good repair ha 1,0 180,0 180,0 100,0
Equipamento Animal traction ha 1,0 200,0 200,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seedlings ha 1,0 20,0 20,0 100,0
Material vegetal Grape vines (replacment) ha 1,0 150,0 150,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas manure ha 1,0 20,0 20,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 570,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 570,0
Comentários:

Labour cost per day is US$2. The fence constructed by the farmer was free because he utilised scrap from a machinery depot. Note that the total length of fencing is relatively less for a larger plot. In the villages, almost no money changes hands: there is a barter system between the farmers. Even salaries are often paid in terms of fruits, wood or free rent of land.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil fertility: low - medium

Soil drainage / infiltration: good

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • Comercial/mercado
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Off-farm income specification: 50% of the families' total income comes from three sons working in Moscow

Market orientation of production system commercial/ market: apricots sold on the market, in good years

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Comunitário (organizado)
  • Indivíduo

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de madeira

Diminuído
Elevado
Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

for manure application

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

high labour input needed for establishment and recurrent irrigation

Outros impactos socioeconômicos

fruit production

decreased
increased

Impactos socioculturais

Instituições comunitárias

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido
Comentários/especificar:

terrace construction requires collaboration with relatives and friend

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

in the beginning conflicts due to jealousy, loss of community grazing land and fear of landslides caused by water retention on sloping loess areas

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Drenagem de excesso de água

Reduzido
Melhorado
Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

poorly maintained terraces may lead to increased erosion (medium (20-50%))

Outros impactos ecológicos

soil fertility

decreased
icreased

biodiversity

diminished
enhanced

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Sedimentos transportados pelo vento

Elevado
Reduzido

flooding of the road at the bottom of the slope

increased
reduced
Comentários/especificar:

conserved area is too small to have significant impact

risk of landslides due to water harvesting

increased
decreased

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • casos isolados/experimental
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

5 households in an area of 15 ha

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comentários:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

5 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Adoption was spontaneous in all cases and there are signs of further spread.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Rehabilitation of degraded areas: reduced soil erosion and increased productivity

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Complement manure inputs by using other fertilisers.
Production increase: good fruit yields

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Introduce low input demanding crops
Diversification: different kinds of fruit trees growing on the plot

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Other trees (nuts for example) and annual crops such as wheat might also be suitable for this area.
Income generation.
Where open access communal grazing leads to land degradation, individuals sometimes enclose land for productive purposes. This positive example is from Tajikistan where the initiative began during the period of the soviet regime. Similar initiatives can be seen in western Iran. However, if a significant number of land users follow suit, there will be a reduction in the amount of land available for common use. 2.6.11: Level of technical knowledge required: land user: partly moderate (construction of terraces) and partly low (simple knowledge of agronomy, manure application, harvesting etc)

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Bringing water for supplementary irrigation to the orchard is very labour intensive An irrigation supply system could be installed (irrigation channels, water tank). But so far this is too expensive, and it is questionable whether irrigation could be installed and maintained sustainably
Not all tree species can grow in these dry conditions (for example apple trees will not survive without regular irrigation or watering) irrigation water required (see above).
Difficulty in establishment of the young vines in the well developed grass Remove or cut down grass and herbaceous plants around the vines at least until they have been well established.
Generally high manual labour input Difficult to reduce labour inputs.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Loes Masselink. 2012. Monitoring SLM Practices in Tajikistan. BSc thesis, Land Degradation and Development Group, International Land and Water Management at Wageningen University. The Netherlands.

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Theses/Masselink2012.pdf

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