技术

Conversion of grazing land to fruit and fodder plots [塔吉克斯坦]

technologies_977 - 塔吉克斯坦

完整性: 76%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Soil Science Institute (Soil Science Institute) - 塔吉克斯坦
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - 瑞士
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
NCCR North-South (NCCR North-South) - 吉尔吉斯斯坦

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Fencing part of an overgrazed hillside, combined with terracing, manuring and supplementary irrigation for grape, fruit and grass production.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

In the Varzob valley of Tajikistan, slopes of around 30% are used communally, and are heavily overgrazed. This has led to a reduction in vegetation cover, to soil compaction, and to severe sheet and rill erosion. In 1982, one innovative land user began to set up half a hectare vineyard/fruit plot with intensive grass/fodder production for cut-and-carry and also a separate section above for hay making - by his own initiative. By the application of various conservation measures, within five years an area exposed to severe water erosion was converted into an area of sustainable use. Fodder and fruits are now flourishing and the natural resources of soil and water are conserved more effectively.

Purpose of the Technology: The start of the process was fencing of the plot to keep out animals. Scrap metal and other materials from a machinery depot were used to build a 1.5 m high fence. To harvest and hold runoff water from the hillside for grapes and fruit trees, narrow backsloping terraces were constructed, each with a water retention ditch along the contour. During the initial phase, the terraces did not harvest enough water for establishment of the seedlings. So water for supplementary irrigation was carried to the plot by donkeys in old inner tubes from car tyres. Manure is applied to the plot to improve soil fertility. The manure is collected on the high pastures where the herders graze their animals during summer. The total amount of manure applied to the plot so far amounts to about 3 t/ha over 20 years.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The establishment of such a plot is very demanding in terms of manpower. However within 5-6 years the system becomes self-sustaining and the productivity of the land is improved several times over. Following this positive experience, other households in the area have adopted the technology spontaneously, and today about 15 ha of degraded grazing land in the Varzob valley have been converted into productive fruit gardens.

Natural / human environment: For the innovator, his most valuable fruits are grapes, followed by apricots, almonds and plums. He has also successfully grown mulberry, pomegranate and cherry trees. Not all the seedlings survive: the farmer considers a 40% survival rate of grape vines to be reasonable. The fruit harvest is mainly used for home consumption. However, in a good year the table grapes and apricots are sold on the market. The hay harvest, from naturally regenerated grasses and fodder plants between the fruits amounts on average to 0.2 t/ha/year. The pruned branches from the vines are collected and used as firewood.
The establishment of such a plot is very demanding in terms of manpower. However within 5-6 years the system becomes self-sustaining and the productivity of the land is improved several times over. Following this positive experience, other households in the area have adopted the technology spontaneously, and today about 15 ha of degraded grazing land in the Varzob valley have been converted into productive fruit gardens.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

塔吉克斯坦

区域/州/省:

Tajikistan

有关地点的进一步说明:

Varzob

注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.15 km2.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 10-50年前

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过土地使用者的创新

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产
  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

同一土地单元内混合使用的土地::

具体说明混合土地使用(作物/放牧/树木):
  • 农林牧业

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
  • 多年一作(非木材)
  • 乔木与灌木的种植
年作 - 具体指明作物:
  • 饲料作物 - 草
  • 饲料作物 - 其他
多年生(非木质)作物 - 指定作物:
  • 浆果类
乔木和灌木种植 - 指定作物:
  • 葡萄
  • 核果(桃、杏、樱桃、李子等)
  • 树坚果(巴西坚果、开心果、核桃、杏仁等)
  • 仁果类(苹果、梨子、柑橘等)
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 210Longest growing period from month to month: March-October

牧场

牧场

集约放牧/饲料生产:
  • 收割和携带/零放牧
森林/林地

森林/林地

产品和服务:
  • 薪材
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): - shortage of cultivable land on the gentle slopes next to the rivers
- low yield of natural pastures due to overgrazing
- heavy erosion taking place near residential areas

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): heavy erosion near the settlements

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Ma: Agro-silvopastoralism

3.3 由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?

同一土地单元内混合使用的土地::

具体说明混合土地使用(作物/放牧/树木):
  • 农林牧业
牧场

牧场

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 充分灌溉

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 农业林学
  • 家庭花园

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

农艺措施

农艺措施

  • A2:有机质/土壤肥力
植物措施

植物措施

  • V1:乔木和灌木覆盖层
结构措施

结构措施

  • S1:阶地
管理措施

管理措施

  • M1:改变土地使用类型
注释:

Main measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, structural measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
物理性土壤退化

物理性土壤退化

  • Pc:压实
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Pc: compaction, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地
注释:

Main goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

The fenced-off agroforestry system comprising fruit trees and cereals grown on a steep hillside. Terracing is crucial for water conservation. Grass cover (right) is established for fodder production and simultaneous soil conservation. Note the adjacent plot for haymaking (above) and degraded rangeland outside the protected area (right).

Location: Varzob. Varzob, Tajikistan

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), retain/trap dispersed runoff, increase in soil fertility

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, water harvesting / increase water supply, reduction in wind speed, retain/trap concentrated runoff (prevention of gully erosion)

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: manure
Remarks: 3 t per ha over 20 years

Vegetative measure: fruit trees/vines aligned
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1-2
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2.4-3.2

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: grapes, apricot trees, almond trees, plum trees, mulberry trees, pomegranate trees, cherry trees

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 16-30%

Terrace: backward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1-2
Spacing between structures (m): 2.4-3.2
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5

Structural measure: fence

Construction material (other): waste material, from a machinery depot

Change of land use type: from grazing land to tree crops

作者:

Mats Gurtner, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Planting of vines and fruit tree seedlings (apricot, plums, almonds)
2. 1. Fencing of an area of 0.5 ha using waste material from a machinerydepot.
3. 2. Construction of backward sloping bench terraces.

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Planting/Fencing/Constructing ha 1.0 600.0 600.0 100.0
设备 Machine use ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
设备 Animal traction ha 1.0 200.0 200.0 100.0
植物材料 seedlings ha 1.0 40.0 40.0 99.0
植物材料 grape vines ha 1.0 1500.0 1500.0 100.0
肥料和杀菌剂 manure ha 1.0 300.0 300.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 2690.0
技术建立总成本,美元 2690.0
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 72 month(s)

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. Irrigation (old inner tubes filled with water carried to the plot by donkeys). In summer: 5 litres of water per tree, per week. first 5–6 years
2. Irrigation (old inner tubes filled with water carried to the plot by donkeys). In summer: 5 litres of water per tree, per week. first 5–6 years
3. Manuring: applied at first to the newly planted vines/trees only,with restricted availability. During the second half of the establishment phase also applied elsewhere within the plot
4. Manuring: applied at first to the newly planted vines/trees only,with restricted availability. During the second half of the establishment phase also applied elsewhere within the plot
5. Irrigation of new seedlings.
6. Harvesting of fruits and fodder: transport of the yield to the house by donkey
7. Manuring, when replacing grapes or trees that had died. every year
8. Vines and trees that fail are replaced.
9. Grapes and trees pruned every year.
10. 1. Repairs to the fence every year

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Irrigation/manuring/keeping in good repair ha 1.0 180.0 180.0 100.0
设备 Animal traction ha 1.0 200.0 200.0 100.0
植物材料 Seedlings ha 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
植物材料 Grape vines (replacment) ha 1.0 150.0 150.0 100.0
肥料和杀菌剂 manure ha 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 570.0
技术维护总成本,美元 570.0
注释:

Labour cost per day is US$2. The fence constructed by the farmer was free because he utilised scrap from a machinery depot. Note that the total length of fencing is relatively less for a larger plot. In the villages, almost no money changes hands: there is a barter system between the farmers. Even salaries are often paid in terms of fruits, wood or free rent of land.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
农业气候带
  • 半湿润

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil fertility: low - medium

Soil drainage / infiltration: good

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
  • 商业/市场
非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Off-farm income specification: 50% of the families' total income comes from three sons working in Moscow

Market orientation of production system commercial/ market: apricots sold on the market, in good years

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)
  • 个人

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料质量

降低
增加

木材生产

降低
增加
收入和成本

农业投入费用

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

for manure application

农业收入

降低
增加

工作量

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

high labour input needed for establishment and recurrent irrigation

其它社会经济效应

fruit production

decreased
increased

社会文化影响

社区机构

削弱
加强
注释/具体说明:

terrace construction requires collaboration with relatives and friend

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良

冲突缓解

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

in the beginning conflicts due to jealousy, loss of community grazing land and fear of landslides caused by water retention on sloping loess areas

生态影响

水循环/径流

多余水的排放

减少
改良
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良

土壤流失

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

poorly maintained terraces may lead to increased erosion (medium (20-50%))

其它生态影响

soil fertility

decreased
icreased

biodiversity

diminished
enhanced

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

风力搬运沉积物

增加
减少

flooding of the road at the bottom of the slope

increased
reduced
注释/具体说明:

conserved area is too small to have significant impact

risk of landslides due to water harvesting

increased
decreased

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

消极

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

消极

长期回报:

非常积极

6.5 技术采用

  • 单例/实验
如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

5 households in an area of 15 ha

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 91-100%
注释:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

5 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Adoption was spontaneous in all cases and there are signs of further spread.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Rehabilitation of degraded areas: reduced soil erosion and increased productivity

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Complement manure inputs by using other fertilisers.
Production increase: good fruit yields

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Introduce low input demanding crops
Diversification: different kinds of fruit trees growing on the plot

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Other trees (nuts for example) and annual crops such as wheat might also be suitable for this area.
Income generation.
Where open access communal grazing leads to land degradation, individuals sometimes enclose land for productive purposes. This positive example is from Tajikistan where the initiative began during the period of the soviet regime. Similar initiatives can be seen in western Iran. However, if a significant number of land users follow suit, there will be a reduction in the amount of land available for common use. 2.6.11: Level of technical knowledge required: land user: partly moderate (construction of terraces) and partly low (simple knowledge of agronomy, manure application, harvesting etc)

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Bringing water for supplementary irrigation to the orchard is very labour intensive An irrigation supply system could be installed (irrigation channels, water tank). But so far this is too expensive, and it is questionable whether irrigation could be installed and maintained sustainably
Not all tree species can grow in these dry conditions (for example apple trees will not survive without regular irrigation or watering) irrigation water required (see above).
Difficulty in establishment of the young vines in the well developed grass Remove or cut down grass and herbaceous plants around the vines at least until they have been well established.
Generally high manual labour input Difficult to reduce labour inputs.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

7.3 链接到网络上的相关信息

标题/说明:

Loes Masselink. 2012. Monitoring SLM Practices in Tajikistan. BSc thesis, Land Degradation and Development Group, International Land and Water Management at Wageningen University. The Netherlands.

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Theses/Masselink2012.pdf

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