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Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®) [Узбекистан]

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Отчитывающаяся организация: Uzbekistan

Укажите, защищена ли правами собственности (полностью или частично) технология, информация о которой предоставлена в типовой форме: Нет

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Общая информация

Общая информация

Название передовой практики:

Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®)

Страна:

Узбекистан

Отчитывающаяся организация:

Uzbekistan

Права собственности

Укажите, защищена ли правами собственности (полностью или частично) технология, информация о которой предоставлена в типовой форме:

Нет

Классификация

Преобладающий тип землепользования в конкретном месте

  • Пахотные угодья

Вклад в меры по борьбе с опустыниванием, деградацией земель и засухами (ОДЗЗ)

  • Смягчение
  • Адаптация

Вклад в достижение стратегических целей

  • Улучшение условий жизни населения, подверженного воздействию
  • Улучшение состояния затрагиваемых экосистем

Взаимосвязь с передовой практикой по другим темам

  • Наращивание потенциала и повышение осведомленности
  • Мониторинг и оценка/исследования ОДЗЗ и УЗП
  • Широкое участие, сотрудничество и сетевая деятельность

Спецификация

Раздел 1. Контекст передовой практики: рамочные условия (природная среда и среда обитания человека)

Краткое описание Технологии

The advantage of the raised-bed seeder is the simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizer with minimum soil disturbance into stubbles on directly shaped beds

Местоположение

Kazakhstan (near Kyzlorda city), Kyrgyzstan (near Bishkek), Turkmenistan (near Dashoguz city) and Republic of Uzbekistan (Jizzak and Syrdarya region)|

Если участок имеет четкие границы, укажите его площадь в гектарах:

10 ha (research area)

Примерная численность населения, живущего в данном месте:

Approx. 15000

Краткое описание природной окружающей среды в месте применения

The region has a continental climate with long hot summers and cold dry winters. Winter temperatures range between -3 °C and 20 °C, and summer temperatures range from 20 to 40 °C. Precipitation is received mainly during the winter season. Irrigated agriculture in the four countries is generally practiced in areas with an annual precipitation of less than 250 mm.|
Kazakhstan: marsh and meadow-marsh soils with various salt levels
Kyrgyzstan: meadow grey desert, heavy loamy, repeatedly saline
Turkmenistan: irrigated meadow soil with various salt levels
Uzbekistan: prolluvial-alluvial zones of the Hungry steppe
The topography of the irrigated areas of the project sites are characterized by flat slopes with slight inclination.

Преобладающие социально-экономические условия населения, проживающего в месте применения и/или в окрестностях

Kazakhstan site: ca. 3000 USD/year
Kyrgyzstan site: ca. 600 USD/year
Uzbekistan sites: ca. 600 USD/year
Turkmenistan site: ca. 2000 USD/year
(all based on official statistics of GDP)
Irrigated crop production (cotton, wheat, rice, others), livestock, remittances|
Irrigated crop production; leased land (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) and private ownership (Kyrgyzstan)|

На основании какого критерия и/или показателя (не относящихся к Стратегии) предложенная практика и соответствующая технология считается передовой?

The use of the raised-bed seeding unit immediately reduces the need for mechanized activities in the field, seeding rates and thus production expenses. Furthermore, it is an excellent platform for diversification of the common cotton-wheat systems through intercropping, relay-cropping, and mixed farming aimed at integrating crop-livestock systems. Combined with laser-assisted land leveling, the raised-bed planting system can improve the productivity of high-value crops and reduces leaching and irrigation water equipments. Distributed to the participating countries, the raised-bed planters were used for several research activities including seed management, crop diversification and zero-tillage (conservation agriculture), a sustainable agricultural practice with potential to reduce soil erosion and salinization, and increase soil fertility. |

Раздел 2. Затронутые проблемы (прямые и косвенные причины) и цели передовой практики

Основные проблемы, которые позволяет решить передовая практика

1. yield stabilized| crop productivity increased
2. production cost and risk reduced
3. food security by diversification option

Укажите конкретные проблемы деградации земель, которые решаются благодаря применению передовой практики

- water productivity can be increased
- soil fertility can be improved due to option of intercropping with legumes
- possibility of planting into residues can potentially decrease risk of erosion and salinization

Укажите цели передовой практики

1. increase crop productivity and farm income
2. reduce water use
3. move from mono-cropping to cropping system diversification
4. possibility for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)

Раздел 3. Деятельность

Краткое описание и основные деятельность по каждой цели

Goal3.
1. intercropping of cotton with legumes tested
2. intercropping of maize with legumes tested
3. possibility of seeding barley| wheat and other crops tested
Goal 2.
1. homogeneous furrow shaping improves uniform water distribution
2. improved crop growth and water application improves water productivity
Goal 1.
1. seeding rate reduced| germination rate improved| homogeneous stand| increased yield
2. reduced mechanized field activities reducing fuel and labor costs
Goal 4.
1. planting into standing stubble or left plant residues

Краткое описание и технические характеристики технологии

The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®) in the frame of the SLMR project have the advantage that they can simultaneously seed, fertilize and shape the furrows for irrigation. The direct seeding unit allows for seeding different crops alongside, i.e. intercropping.|
The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®)

Раздел 4. Задействованные учреждения/субъекты (сотрудничество, участие, роль субъектов деятельности)

Название и адрес организации, разработавшей данную технологию


In the framework of the Sustainable Land Management Research Project, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) conducted research using this equipment developed by Dashmesh|ICARDA Regional office in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Была ли технология разработана в партнерстве?

Да

Перечислите партнеров:

1. Kazakhstan: Soil and Agrochemistry Science Research Institute after U.U. Uspanov| Almaty; Rice Research Institute| Kyzlorda
2. Kyrgyzstan: Agricultural Research Institute| Bishkek
3. Uzbekistan: SANIIRI| Cotton Research Institute
4. Turkmenistan: National Institute of Deserts| Flora and Fauna

Укажите рамки, в пределах которых осуществлялась поддержка технологии

  • Инициатива в рамках программы/проекта
  • Другое (пожалуйста, уточните)
Поясните :

International initiative in collaboration with national research organizations and scientists

Способствовало ли разработке технологии участие местных субъектов деятельности, включая организации гражданского общества?

Да

Перечислите местные заинтересованные стороны, участвующие в процессе:

1. regional branches of the research institutes and their scientific staff
2. farmers collaborating with the research institutes

Укажите роль субъектов деятельности, перечисленных выше, в проектировании, внедрении, использовании и поддержке технологии, в соответствующем случае

- the staff of the regional branches of the research institutes implemented the activities, supervised and advised the farmers, and organized field days and visits for showing the work and use of the seeder
- experiments were farmer-managed trials, where the respective farmer worked, managed, observed, assessed crop production using the raised-bed seeder; he gave the most objective opinion, as well as critically assessed the constraints of the seeder

Принимало ли участие в разработке технологии население, проживающее в месте применения технологии и/или в окрестностях?

Да

Анализ

Раздел 5. Вклад в воздействие

Опишите результаты воздействия технологии на территории применения (два основных результата воздействия в каждой категории)

1. possibility of using the seeder together with a laser leveler reduced water use by 25-30%
2. possibility of planting into standing stubble showed potential for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)
Socio-economic level (including cultural level):
1. production costs were reduced due to reduced mechanized activities; more than 200% net benefit increase
2. intercropping with legumes increased net benefit by 200%
1. irrigation water use reduced by 10%
2. other nature protection impact (e.g., erosion, salinization) could not be measured due to short period of the project
1.  enhanced germination up to 20%; reduced seed quantity by 40%; yield increased
2.  possible diversification of current cropping system by intercropping using legumes thus improving soil fertility, and food and feed provision

Укажите два основных результата воздействия за пределами территории применения (то есть на прилегающей территории)

3. other impacts beyond the implementation area could not be measured due to short period of the project
1. raised interest by farmers in the proximity of the experiments
2. raised interest by researchers to continue working with the seeder

Воздействие на биоразнообразие и изменение климата

Объясните причины:

- raised-bed seeder can be seen as water-wise technology that increases water productivity and has the potential to decrease soil salinity
- crop productivity and farm income increased (production costs decreased); and potential for diversification of the cropping system positively tested, all of which reduces vulnerability to climate change
- possibility of planting into standing stubble/left residues has potential for reducing water-related erosion, soil evaporation and thus salinization, and increases soil fertility, thus making the system more resilient

Был ли выполнен анализ "затраты-выгоды"?

Был ли выполнен анализ "затраты-выгоды"?

Да

Поясните :

The most important benefit and most convincing for the national scientists and farmers was the cost reduction due to the reduction of mechanized activities from 11 to 5. Turkmenistan reported reduced production costs of winter wheat of nearly 23%, and Uzbekistan of around 12%. Consequently, the net profit could be doubled. Intercropping maize or cotton with legumes increased the net benefit by 200%.
The production of a seeder in Uzbekistan costs up to about 6.5 million UZS. Depending on the depreciation assumptions and the number of ha to be seeded it could take up to 2-4 years to cover the investments. This payback period would increase in case the entire equipment is imported since in addition to the purchase price also the relatively high transport costs would need to be recovered.

Раздел 6. Принятие и тиражируемость

Была ли технология внедрена на других участках/ в других местах?

Была ли технология внедрена на других участках/ в других местах? :

Да

Где?

Implementation area: raised-bed seeder is still actively used by the research institutions and respective farmers for research on other fields

Можете ли вы определить три основных условия, которые способствовали успеху представленной передовой практики/технологии?

1. reduced costs and mechanized activities attracted farmers
2. possibility of using the planter for conservation agriculture, intercropping, etc. interested researchers and farmers|

Тиражирование

Считаете ли вы, что предложенная вами передовая практика/технология может быть воспроизведена в другой местности, но с некоторой адаптацией?

Да

На каком уровне?
  • Местный
  • Субнациональный
  • Субрегиональный

Раздел 7. Приобретенный практический опыт

Имеющий отношение к человеческим ресурсам

1. Support and development of extension-type structures for awareness-creation among producers and trainings
2. Encourage shift in research paradigms and agricultural thinking
3. Improve links between farmers| markets and service organizations

Имеющий отношение к финансовым аспектам

1. Import and/or development of machinery suitable for raised-bed seeding and implementing conservation agriculture essential for further spreading this practice
2. micro-finance system needed for farmers to purchase new equipment
3. Investing in the raised-bed seeder could be a suitable strategy for farmers with larger farms. Smaller-scale farms could either hire the planter from neighbors or group together. Alternatively| the MTP| WUA or extension services could rent such equipment to farmers

Имеющий отношение к техническим аспектам

. Modifications needed as imported seeder is too heavy to use with local MTZ 80 tractors; and furrow openers are too weak for Central Asian soils

Модули