ອົງການ ສະຫະປະຊາຊາດ ໃນການຕ້ານ ການກາຍເປັນທະເລຊາຍ

Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®) [ອູເບກີສຖານ]

  • ​ການ​ສ້າງ:
  • ​ປັບ​ປູງ:
  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ
  • ບັນ​ນາ​ທິ​ການ
  • ຜູ້ທົບທວນຄືນ

ການລາຍງານກິດຈະການ: Uzbekistan

ການພັນລະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຫຼື ເປັນສ່ວນໜຶ່ງຂອງສິດທິ: ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 91%

ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ

ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ

ຫົວຂໍ້ຂອງການປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ:

Raised-bed seeding using the raised-bed planter (Dashmesh®)

ປະເທດ:

ອູເບກີສຖານ

ການລາຍງານກິດຈະການ:

Uzbekistan

ສິດທິທາງຊັບສິນ

ການພັນລະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຫຼື ເປັນສ່ວນໜຶ່ງຂອງສິດທິ:

ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

ການຈັດປະເພດ

ການນໍາໃຊ້ດິນໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ຕັ້ງສະເພາະ

  • ພື້ນທີ່ການປູກພືດ

ປະກອບສ່ວນເຂົ້າໃນມາດຕະການ ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນບັນຫາດິນເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ແລະ ແຫ້ງແລ້ງ (DLDD)

  • ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
  • ການປັບຕົວ

ການປະກອບສ່ວນວັດຖຸປະສົງຍຸດທະສາດ

  • ເພື່ອປັບປຸງ ເງື່ອນໄຂດໍາລົງຊີວິດ ຂອງປະຊາກອນ ທີ່ຖືກກະທົບ
  • ເພື່ອປັບປຸງ ສະພາບຂອງລະບົບນິເວດ ທີ່ຖືກກະທົບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຍງ ກັບການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ອື່ນໆທີ່ເຮັດໄດ້ດີ

  • ສ້າງຄວາມເຂັ້ມແຂງ ແລະ ສ້າງຄວາມຮັບຮູ້
  • DLDD ແລະ ການຕິດຕາມ ແລະ ການປະເມີນຜົນ / ການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ
  • ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ, ການຮ່ວມມື ແລະ ລະບົບເຄືອຂ່າຍ

ຂໍ້ມູນຈໍາເພາະ

ພາກທີ 1: ສະພາບການຂອງການປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ: ສະພາບການພາ (ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມທໍາມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ)

ອະທິບາຍຫຍໍ້ເນື້ອໃນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

The advantage of the raised-bed seeder is the simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizer with minimum soil disturbance into stubbles on directly shaped beds

ສະຖານທີ່

Kazakhstan (near Kyzlorda city), Kyrgyzstan (near Bishkek), Turkmenistan (near Dashoguz city) and Republic of Uzbekistan (Jizzak and Syrdarya region)|

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າສະຖານທີ່ໄດ້ກໍາໜົດໄວ້ຂອບເຂດຊາຍແດນ, ລະບຸການຂະຫຍາຍຂອງຕົນເປັນເຮັກຕາ:

10 ha (research area)

ການຄາດຄະເນປະຊາກອນດໍາລົງຊີວິດໃນສະຖານທີ່:

Approx. 15000

ອະທິບາຍຫຍໍ້ ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມ ພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່

The region has a continental climate with long hot summers and cold dry winters. Winter temperatures range between -3 °C and 20 °C, and summer temperatures range from 20 to 40 °C. Precipitation is received mainly during the winter season. Irrigated agriculture in the four countries is generally practiced in areas with an annual precipitation of less than 250 mm.|
Kazakhstan: marsh and meadow-marsh soils with various salt levels
Kyrgyzstan: meadow grey desert, heavy loamy, repeatedly saline
Turkmenistan: irrigated meadow soil with various salt levels
Uzbekistan: prolluvial-alluvial zones of the Hungry steppe
The topography of the irrigated areas of the project sites are characterized by flat slopes with slight inclination.

ສະພາວະທາງສັງຄົມ ແລະ ເສດຖະກິດ ຂອງຜູ້ຄົນທີ່ດໍາລົງຊີວິດ ໃນສະຖານທີ່ ແລະ / ຫຼືໃກ້ຄຽງ

Kazakhstan site: ca. 3000 USD/year
Kyrgyzstan site: ca. 600 USD/year
Uzbekistan sites: ca. 600 USD/year
Turkmenistan site: ca. 2000 USD/year
(all based on official statistics of GDP)
Irrigated crop production (cotton, wheat, rice, others), livestock, remittances|
Irrigated crop production; leased land (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) and private ownership (Kyrgyzstan)|

ບົນພື້ນຖານປະເພດ ແລະ ຕົວຊີ້ວັດ (ຫຼາຍ) ອັນໃດ (ບໍ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຍຸດທະສາດ) ຊຶ່ງຈຸດປະສົງ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ໄດ້ຮັບການພິຈາລະນາ ວ່າເປັນການຈັດຕັ້ງທີ່ "ດີທີ່ສູດ"?

The use of the raised-bed seeding unit immediately reduces the need for mechanized activities in the field, seeding rates and thus production expenses. Furthermore, it is an excellent platform for diversification of the common cotton-wheat systems through intercropping, relay-cropping, and mixed farming aimed at integrating crop-livestock systems. Combined with laser-assisted land leveling, the raised-bed planting system can improve the productivity of high-value crops and reduces leaching and irrigation water equipments. Distributed to the participating countries, the raised-bed planters were used for several research activities including seed management, crop diversification and zero-tillage (conservation agriculture), a sustainable agricultural practice with potential to reduce soil erosion and salinization, and increase soil fertility. |

ພາກທີ 2. ການບັນຫາການແກ້ໄຂ (ກົງ ແລະ ທາງອ້ອມສາເຫດ) ແລະ ຈຸດປະສົງຂອງການປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

ບັນຫາຕົ້ນຕໍໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

1. yield stabilized| crop productivity increased
2. production cost and risk reduced
3. food security by diversification option

ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ທີ່ດີແມ່ນແນ່ໃສ່ການແກ້ໃຂບັນຫາ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

- water productivity can be increased
- soil fertility can be improved due to option of intercropping with legumes
- possibility of planting into residues can potentially decrease risk of erosion and salinization

ແຈ້ງຈຸດປະສົງ ຂອງການປະຕິບັດທີ່ດີທີ່ສຸດ

1. increase crop productivity and farm income
2. reduce water use
3. move from mono-cropping to cropping system diversification
4. possibility for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)

ພາກທີ 3. ກິດຈະກໍາ

ລາຍລະອຽດຂອງກິດຈະກໍາຕົ້ນຕໍ, ໂດຍຈຸດປະສົງ

Goal3.
1. intercropping of cotton with legumes tested
2. intercropping of maize with legumes tested
3. possibility of seeding barley| wheat and other crops tested
Goal 2.
1. homogeneous furrow shaping improves uniform water distribution
2. improved crop growth and water application improves water productivity
Goal 1.
1. seeding rate reduced| germination rate improved| homogeneous stand| increased yield
2. reduced mechanized field activities reducing fuel and labor costs
Goal 4.
1. planting into standing stubble or left plant residues

ຄໍາອະທິບາຍສັ້ນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ກໍາໜົດ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®) in the frame of the SLMR project have the advantage that they can simultaneously seed, fertilize and shape the furrows for irrigation. The direct seeding unit allows for seeding different crops alongside, i.e. intercropping.|
The raised-bed seeding units imported from India (Dashmesh®)

ພາກທີ 4: ສະຖາບັນ / ພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ (ການຮ່ວມມື, ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ,​ ພາລະບົດບາດຂອງພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)

ຊື່ ແລະ ທີ່ຢູ່ຂອງສະຖາບັນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ


In the framework of the Sustainable Land Management Research Project, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) conducted research using this equipment developed by Dashmesh|ICARDA Regional office in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

ການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ມີການຮ່ວມມືບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ລາຍຊື່ບັນດາຄູ່ຮ່ວມ:

1. Kazakhstan: Soil and Agrochemistry Science Research Institute after U.U. Uspanov| Almaty; Rice Research Institute| Kyzlorda
2. Kyrgyzstan: Agricultural Research Institute| Bishkek
3. Uzbekistan: SANIIRI| Cotton Research Institute
4. Turkmenistan: National Institute of Deserts| Flora and Fauna

ລະບຸ ຂົງເຂດວຽກງານໃດ ທີ່ໄດ້ຮັບການສົ່ງເສີມໃຫ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • ຄງການ / ການລິເລີ່ມໂຄງການ
  • ອື່ນ ໆ (ກະ​ລຸ​ນາ​ລະ​ບຸ​)
ລະບຸ:

International initiative in collaboration with national research organizations and scientists

ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ຂອງພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ, ປະກອບດ້ວຍ CSOs, ຜຸ້ທີ່ມີສ່ວນໃນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ລາຍຊື່ພາກສ່ວນກ່ຽວຂ້ອງໃນທ້ອງຖິ່ນມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ:

1. regional branches of the research institutes and their scientific staff
2. farmers collaborating with the research institutes

ສໍາລັບພາກສ່ວນກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ທີ່ລະບຸໄວ້ຂ້າງເທິງ, ລະບຸ ພາລະບົດບາດ ຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າໃນການອອກແບບ, ການແນະນໍາ, ການນໍາໃຊ້ ແລະ ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ, ຖ້າມີ.

- the staff of the regional branches of the research institutes implemented the activities, supervised and advised the farmers, and organized field days and visits for showing the work and use of the seeder
- experiments were farmer-managed trials, where the respective farmer worked, managed, observed, assessed crop production using the raised-bed seeder; he gave the most objective opinion, as well as critically assessed the constraints of the seeder

ມີປະຊາກອນ ທີ່ອາໃສຢຸ່ໃນພື້ນທີ່ ແລະ ພື້ນທີ່ຢູ່ໃກ້ຄຽງ ໄດ້ເຂົ້າຮ່ວມ ໃນການພັດທະນາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ການວິເຄາະ

ພາກທີ 5. ການປະກອບສ່ວນໃສ່ຜົນກະທົບ

ອະທິບາຍ ຜົນກະທົບ ທາງກົງຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ການຜະລິດ (2 ຜົນກະທົບຫຼັກໂດຍແບ່ງໝວດໝູ່)

1. possibility of using the seeder together with a laser leveler reduced water use by 25-30%
2. possibility of planting into standing stubble showed potential for conservation agriculture (sustainable agricultural practices)
Socio-economic level (including cultural level):
1. production costs were reduced due to reduced mechanized activities; more than 200% net benefit increase
2. intercropping with legumes increased net benefit by 200%
1. irrigation water use reduced by 10%
2. other nature protection impact (e.g., erosion, salinization) could not be measured due to short period of the project
1.  enhanced germination up to 20%; reduced seed quantity by 40%; yield increased
2.  possible diversification of current cropping system by intercropping using legumes thus improving soil fertility, and food and feed provision

ພັນລະນາ ຄວາມໝາຍ ຂອງຜົນກະທົບ ທາງອ້ອມ ທີ່ກະທົບໃສ່ນອກພື້ນທີ່ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ທີ່ບໍ່ປະກົດໃນພື້ນທີ່ ແຕ່ຢູ່ອ້ອມແອ້ມພື້ນທີ່)

3. other impacts beyond the implementation area could not be measured due to short period of the project
1. raised interest by farmers in the proximity of the experiments
2. raised interest by researchers to continue working with the seeder

ຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ຊີວະນາໆພັນ ແລະ ສະພາບການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ

ອະທິບາຍເຫດຜົນ:

- raised-bed seeder can be seen as water-wise technology that increases water productivity and has the potential to decrease soil salinity
- crop productivity and farm income increased (production costs decreased); and potential for diversification of the cropping system positively tested, all of which reduces vulnerability to climate change
- possibility of planting into standing stubble/left residues has potential for reducing water-related erosion, soil evaporation and thus salinization, and increases soil fertility, thus making the system more resilient

ໄດ້ມີການວິເຄາະຕົ້ນທຶນການຜະລິດບໍ?

ໄດ້ມີການວິເຄາະຕົ້ນທຶນການຜະລິດບໍ?

ແມ່ນ

ລະບຸ:

The most important benefit and most convincing for the national scientists and farmers was the cost reduction due to the reduction of mechanized activities from 11 to 5. Turkmenistan reported reduced production costs of winter wheat of nearly 23%, and Uzbekistan of around 12%. Consequently, the net profit could be doubled. Intercropping maize or cotton with legumes increased the net benefit by 200%.
The production of a seeder in Uzbekistan costs up to about 6.5 million UZS. Depending on the depreciation assumptions and the number of ha to be seeded it could take up to 2-4 years to cover the investments. This payback period would increase in case the entire equipment is imported since in addition to the purchase price also the relatively high transport costs would need to be recovered.

ພາກ 6 ການຮັບເອົາ ແລະ ການເຮັດຊໍ້າ

ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ເຜີຍແຜ່ / ການນໍາສະເໜີສະຖານທີ່ອື່ນໆ?

ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ເຜີຍແຜ່ / ການນໍາສະເໜີສະຖານທີ່ອື່ນໆ?

ແມ່ນ

ຢູ່ໃສ?

Implementation area: raised-bed seeder is still actively used by the research institutions and respective farmers for research on other fields

ທ່ານສາມາດກໍານົດ 3 ເງື່ອນໄຂຫຼັກ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ປະສົບຜົນສໍາເລັດ ແລະ ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດໄດ້ດີບໍ?

1. reduced costs and mechanized activities attracted farmers
2. possibility of using the planter for conservation agriculture, intercropping, etc. interested researchers and farmers|

ການເຮັດຊໍ້າ

ໃນທັດສະນະມູມມອງຂອງທ່ານ, ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດເອົາໄປນໍາໃຊ້ໄດ້ຢູ່ພື້ນທີ່ອື່ນໆບໍ ເຖິງວ່າມີບາງລະດັບການປັບຕົວ?

ແມ່ນ

ໃນລະດັບໃດ?
  • ທ້ອງຖິ່ນ
  • ລະຫວ່າງປະເທດ
  • ອະນຸພາກ

ພາກທີ 7. ບົດຮຽນທີ່ຖອດຖອນໄດ້

ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຊັບພະຍາກອນມະນຸດ

1. Support and development of extension-type structures for awareness-creation among producers and trainings
2. Encourage shift in research paradigms and agricultural thinking
3. Improve links between farmers| markets and service organizations

ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບລັກສະນະທາງດ້ານການເງິນ

1. Import and/or development of machinery suitable for raised-bed seeding and implementing conservation agriculture essential for further spreading this practice
2. micro-finance system needed for farmers to purchase new equipment
3. Investing in the raised-bed seeder could be a suitable strategy for farmers with larger farms. Smaller-scale farms could either hire the planter from neighbors or group together. Alternatively| the MTP| WUA or extension services could rent such equipment to farmers

ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບລັກສະນະດ້ານວິຊາການ

. Modifications needed as imported seeder is too heavy to use with local MTZ 80 tractors; and furrow openers are too weak for Central Asian soils

ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

ຂະຫຍາຍທັງໝົດ ຍຸບທັງໝົດ

ເນື້ອໃນ