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技术
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Planting pits for soil fertilisation and moisture improvement [乌干达]

EBISANIYA (Runyankore language)

technologies_1587 - 乌干达

完整性: 80%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - 意大利

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

16/11/2013

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Planting pits in banana plantation filled with a mixture of manure, organic material and soil, to improve soil moisture and fertility and to enhance crop production and famer's income.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

The planting pits are established between banana stems and filled with organic vegetative material mixed with decomposing manure to form a reservoir of nutrients for a long run. On gentle slopes covered with extensive banana plantations, the planting pits are dug at the center of banana stands. Before estbalishment of this technology, only the composting process was available for the conversion of organic domestic waste into manure. However, compost manure takes slightly longer to produce and is more bulky than conservation troughs making the latter easier to adopt. The technology can be applied to annual cropland as well. Application of the technology improves banana bunch size and plantation yield by over 300%.

Purpose of the Technology: The main objective is to improve soil fertility. The planting pits also check runoff thereby reducing soil erosion, improving moisture infiltration and retention, and enabling the plantation to withstand the dry months. Cabbages, beans and other high value vegetables can be grown directly on top of the trough.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The planting pits are established using simple tools such as the hand hoe, spade, panga and wheelbarrow. The hoe is used to dig up the soil and soften it. The soil is then scooped out using a spade, to create a bowl-shaped trough. The panga is used to chop the remains of harvested bananas (stems and leaves) which are then, carried to the troughs using a wheel barrow. The planting pit is 0.45 m to 0.60 m deep depending on the amount of manure available and 0.6 m wide. Each trough is about 0.60 m from the nearest banana stand. It is filled with chopped banana stems, followed by a layer of manure and then covered with mulch to prevent excessive evaporation of moisture. The planting pit is then covered with soil. After 3 to 4 months, the vigor of the banana stems improves. If the trough is opened by digging, roots are observed to have grown through the walls of the planting pit from all directions.

During the rainy season, the trough slowly fills with sediment from surface erosion. Weeding at the trough is done by uprooting the weeds using hands or a hand hoe.

Natural / human environment: Over time, the banana stands grow towards the trough. To maintain the distance between the stands, the suckers nearest to the trough are pruned.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

乌干达

区域/州/省:

Uganda

有关地点的进一步说明:

Mbarara

注释:

Boundary points of the Technology area: -0.86269 30.62587; -0.86275 30.62622; -0.86279 30.62631; -0.86405 30.62522; -0.86393 30.62539, -0.86387 30.62503

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过土地使用者的创新
注释(项目类型等):

In 2012, Kagera TAMP introduced the Farmer Field School methodology. The members of these schools have been experimenting on several SLM technologies since then and the troughs are one of the successful innovations

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产
  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • 创造有益的经济影响

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

  • 多年一作(非木材)
主要农作物(经济作物及粮食作物):

Major cash crop: Banana
Major food crop: Banana
Major other crops: Maize, beans, peas, Irish potatoes

注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The light, sandy loam soil on a hilly slope has very little capacity to hold water. The soils are dry a few days after it rains. The banana plantation therefore suffers two problems: inadequate soil water for plant growth and low nutrient retention. The problem of soil erosion is critical in the area but is addressed more adequately by fanya ju retention trenches stabilized with Napier grass strips.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Low productivity of the land compared to past seasons.

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
每年的生长季节数:
  • 2
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 120 Longest growing period from month to month: February to May Second longest growing period in days: 90 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to November

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 土壤肥力综合管理

3.5 技术传播

注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.04 km2.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

农艺措施

农艺措施

  • A6:其它
结构措施

结构措施

  • S4:平沟、坑
注释:

Main measures: structural measures

Specification of other agronomic measures: Manure application (supp.

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

化学性土壤退化

化学性土壤退化

  • Cn:肥力下降和有机质含量下降(非侵蚀所致)
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: soil management (No manure was being applied to replenish nutrients inspite of continuous banana harvesting)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化
  • 减少土地退化
注释:

Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

Byonabye Proscovia, Kagera TAMP, Kabale District

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

Conservation troughs (0.4-0.6 m deep) are partially filled with a mixture of manure, undecomposed banana stems and other organic matter to add organic matter into the soil. They also capture rainfall runoff and help to maintain suitable soil moisture. The conservation trough should be dug about 0.6 m from banana plant so that the heat produced during decay does not affect the plant.

Location: Rubagano, Mwizi, Mbarara district. Uganda

Date: 29-Nov-2013

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low (Self explanatory)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Basic training required on the construction methodology e.g. location selection, recommended dimentions of the trough (depth))

Main technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan)

Retention/infiltration ditch/pit, sediment/sand trap
Vertical interval between structures (m): n/a
Spacing between structures (m): 3
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): n/a
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): n/a
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): n/a

Reshaping surface
Vertical interval between structures (m): n/a
Spacing between structures (m): n/a
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 2
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): n/a
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): n/a

Construction material (earth): Troughs are developed by excavating soil; soil mixed with manure is used to fill the pit partially.

Construction material (stone): n/a

Construction material (wood): n/a

Construction material (concrete): n/a

Construction material (other): n/a

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): n/a%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: n/a%

Lateral gradient along the structure: n/a%

Specification of dams/ pans/ ponds: Capacity n/am3

Catchment area: n/am2

Beneficial area: n/am2

Slope of dam wall inside: n/a%;
Slope of dam wall outside: n/a%

Dimensions of spillways: n/am

Other specifications: n/a

For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:n/a

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

UGX

注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

2500.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

4.00

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Measuring and marking pit positions 结构性的 Wet season
2. Excavating pits 结构性的 Wet season
3. Mixing top soil with animal manure, filling mixture into pits, putting domestic and field organic residues into pits, covering pits 结构性的 Wet season

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 44.0 44.0 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 7.0 7.0
肥料和杀菌剂 Compost/manure ha 1.0 40.0 40.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 91.0
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Weeding by hand 结构性的 Wet season
2. Addition of manure and residues 结构性的 Once a year

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 10.0 10.0 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 4.0 4.0 100.0
肥料和杀菌剂 Compost/manure ha 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 34.0
注释:

Machinery/ tools: hand hoe, wheel barrow

The calculations were made for the rainy season of September to November, 2013.

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Availability of labour and animal manure are the most important factors affecting cost of the establishment activities. To reduce cost of labour it is recommended to apply Farmer Field Schools approach. To reduce cost of manure farmers can produce their own farmyard manure, e.g. by implementing zero-grazing technology.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

1400 mm spread over 2 seasons

农业气候带
  • 半湿润

Thermal climate class: tropics. Located at the Equator. A good supply of rain much of the year, but plenty of sunshine too

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 不相关
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Altitudinal zone: 1501-2000 m a.s.l. (1715 to 1740 m a.s.l.)
Landforms: Hill slopes (ranked 1, concave) and ridges (ranked 2, convex)
Slopes on average: Hilly (Where the technology has been applied so far is on hilly slopes (< 30%) but the adjacent slopes where the technology is planned next is quite steep (> 45%))

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil depth on average: Shallow (The soils are generally shallow)
Soil fertility: Low
Topsoil organic matter: Medium (Mulching had already introduced topsoil organic matter)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Good
Soil water storage capacity: Medium

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

> 50米

地表水的可用性:

匮乏/没有

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Ground water table: >50 m (Boreholes have been sank before to great lengths but have invariably dried up)
Availability of surface water: Poor/none (Available only as trapped runoff behind rocky formations, but soon dries up)
Water quality (untreated): Poor drinking water (treatment required, runoff)

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: n/a
Population density: 100-200 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 3% - 4%
and own 20% of the land.
and own 30% of the land.
40% of the land users are average wealthy and own 40% of the land.
and own 10% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: There has been an improvement in yields which translate into money generated per hectare. However, the farmers applying the technology have not yet diversified into other enterprises.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (Hand hoe, spade, wheel barrow)
Market orientation: Mixed (Surplus has grown to such a level that the commercial component has become inevitable)

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
  • 个人
注释:

Individual access to water rights is relatively new with the introduction of water harvesting.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

8 Kg

SLM之后的数量:

25 Kg

注释/具体说明:

Bunch of bananas is bigger and heavier at harvest

生产故障风险

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

20%

SLM之后的数量:

67%

注释/具体说明:

During the dry season or extended drought periods, only about 20% of the banana stands would have a fruiting stem; now well over two thirds of the stands do.

收入和成本

农业投入费用

增加
降低

农业收入

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

80 US$

SLM之后的数量:

200 US$

注释/具体说明:

Monthly harvests for sale have increased from 20 to over 50 bunches

工作量

增加
降低

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

50%

SLM之后的数量:

100%

注释/具体说明:

Whereas extended drought posed food insecurity, this is no longer the case

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

The earning power has increased greatly. Children are going to school because tuition fees are no longer burdensome and health needs are easily met. The farmers practicing the technology report making some savings from their incomes unlike before.

生态影响

水循环/径流

蒸发

增加
降低
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

养分循环/补给

降低
增加

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 气候变化/极端天气的类型 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨
局地风暴
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 未知

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期
注释:

The advantages of the technology to cropland are to be found underground. Therefore the technology is protected against most natural adversities above ground.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

积极

长期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

注释:

Costs at establishment are the only ones involved. There are no maintenance costs involved though pits need to be re-established every 2-3 years

6.5 技术采用

如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

22

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发地采用该技术,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 90-100%
注释:

Comments on acceptance with external material support: It is a farmer initiative and no support has been received for the adoption of this technology.

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

22 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: This is a farmer field school initiative and the district facilitator for Kagera TAMP (and also an Agricultural officer of the local government) provided guidance on positioning the pits for maximum utility.

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Noticing the results in only 3 seasons, the other farmers (not members of farmer field school) are also adopting the technology.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
The technology requires the use of only the simplest of farm tools such as a hand hoe, a spade and a wheel barrow.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Dissemination of the the technology through regular community meetings and a local language newsletter
Demonstration of benefits is achieved quite quickly and therefore adoption by farmers is good.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Emphasize technology at farmer field school demonstration plots
Technology bears similar benefits to composting but with a shorter list of activities

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage adoption through demonstration
Since the technology utilizes stem cuttings, whole stems are harvested reducing the risk of pests and diseases especially banana bacteria, that would be harbored by exposed rotting stems

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Knowledge dissemination through regular community meetings and local language newsletter

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
The technology is labor intensive Farmer Field Schools bring farmers together in a community level effort
The technology requires livestock manure in a predominantly cultivator community Introduce zero-grazing livestock for manure production

7. 参考和链接

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Kagera TAMP project website

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/

模块