Current agroforestry: orchard with wheat intercropping [Tajikistan]

technologies_1134 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 71%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Current agroforestry of a degraded mulberry and apple orchard with wheat intercropping

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Since 1992 an area of around one ha has been owned by the farmer. He planted mulberry trees the same year. At that time, orchards were established in the whole surrounding area because the government decreed that a territory should have plenty of mulberry trees. Despite the government plan, all the land users of that area began to switch their orchards into wheat crops. Five years later the farmer planted apple trees within the mulberry orchard. The orchard had 200 mulberry and 100 apple trees. The motivation was to feed the working farmers of the fields around. Five years later the apple trees gave fruits. But only the first two years gave a good yield and income from selling them. Later on the fruits were just eaten by the farmer’s family. After another seven or eight years the farmer grew a wheat crop in between the tree lines. Nowadays it's the only remaining orchard in that area. Due to the lack of proper maintenance and water availability the orchard is degraded and the output is very low.

Purpose of the Technology: The government established a large territory of mulberry orchards, for three reasons: First to reduce the impact of natural hazards, second to increase silk production and last to improve fire wood availability. The planting of apple trees should be beneficial for farmers working in the surrounding crops and well as for the family, who sell the fruits and the mulberry leaves. As the yield started to decrease the wheat crop was established to have a bigger output for that crop.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Due to the government’s order to establish orchards, the local authorities provided the mulberry trees. Hence, it was in the responsibility of the farmer to plant the trees and to look after them by soil loosening and pruning. The latter activity must be done once in the first five years after planting. The farmer bought the apple trees himself as they were cheap at that time. To establish the wheat crop, ploughing, seeding, fertilizing and finally harvesting must be done. One person is supposed to guard the orchard and wheat crop every day. Yearly maintenance consists of soil loosening around the fruit trees and the above mentioned task for cropping. The maintenance of the orchard seems to be abandoned more and more, probably because the output decreases year by year.

Natural / human environment: The orchard is situated below Momandion village, on the very last foot slope before the valley plain begins and, hence, it has a slight slope,. In the past, orchards were numerous, but nowadays wheat crops have mostly replaced the orchard. As there is no fence and no one to control it regularly, livestock invades the property. During its first two years there was a water source, which had dried up by the time. The orchard is a relic being the only and last one in that area. Broken branches, unpruned trees and a trampled crop, show signs of insufficient control and maintenance and therefore of a gradual abandonment of the orchard.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Khatlon, Tajikistan

Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.01 km2.

According to farmer it's 1 ha, according to GoogleEarth around 1.6 ha

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

  • government
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Since 1992 it's property of the farmer

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry



  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - wheat (spring)
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • berries
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • fruits, other
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: April-Sept/Oct

Is intercropping practiced?


If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

wheat crop

Grazing land

Grazing land

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Trampled and degraded soil as a consequence of no fences or control. Soil crusting and compaction because of lack in organic matter resulting in a low infiltration rate.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): water scarcity and low soil moisture, small yield of the fruit trees

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: In the past the wheat and apple yield was much higher thereby they were cash crops. As the yield decreased by then and he gets low yield the use them as food crops.

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

Type of agronomic measures: mixed cropping / intercropping

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
  • Pk: slaking and crusting
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pc: compaction, Pk: sealing and crusting

Main causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (monocropping, lack of maintenance)

Secondary causes of degradation: overgrazing (Because if no fence), education, access to knowledge and support services (More agronomic/ technical advice needed)

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Location: Muminobod, South of Momandion, Obishur Watershed. Khatlon, Tajikistan

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (How to regenerate the poor soil and water conditions, which species are useful to plant etc)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), increase / maintain water stored in soil

Secondary technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: wheat intercropping within orchard

Agronomic measure: vertical plowing

Aligned: -linear
Number of plants per (ha): 200
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6

Fruit trees / shrubs species: mulberry, apple

Change of land use type: Mulberry and apple orchard combined additionally with wheat crop

Change of land use practices / intensity level: More pressure on natural resources because of additional wheat crop in the orchard


Malgorzata Conder

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Buying, transport and planting of mulberry trees, 10 days (7 hours/day), 3 people once, 1992
2. Buying, transport and planting of apple trees, 5 days (7 hours/day), 3 people once, 1997

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 497.4 497.4 100.0
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 311.0 311.0 33.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 808.4
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 167.37

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Plowing vertically, 4 hours of labour, tractor and petrol every year, spring (since 2007)
2. Buying (200 kg) and sowing wheat, 2 hours, 3 persons every year, spring (since 2007)
3. Applying fertilizer, 2 hours, 1 person, 2 bucks à 50 kg once a year, september
4. Cutting wheat, 4-5 days (6 hours/ day), 4 people September, once a year
5. Guardening every day
6. loosening around trees (ca. on 1/3 of the trees), 4-5 trees a day every year, spring
7. pruning (ca. 1/2 of mulberry trees), 7-8 days (2-3 hours/ day), 3 persons every year, autumn

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 572.2 572.2 100.0
Equipment Machine use ha 1.0 24.8 24.8 100.0
Equipment Petrol l 25.0 28.5 712.5 100.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 82.8 82.8 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer ha 1.0 76.6 76.6 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 1468.9
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 304.12

The cost were calculated for 1 ha, but one have to consider that an orchard and wheat crop is on the same plot. This means that there's not fully a wheat crop of 1 ha.
Mulberry seedling were paid by the government, apple trees by the farmer.
Machine use and petrol, are all included in the labour input in the establishment phase, as it was not separately mentioned by the farmer.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour is the most important input, but as it is done mostly by the farmer or the family itself it's mainly agricultural material as seedlings, seeds and fertilizer. Latter particularly as recurrent costs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Totally 800 mm: 700mm in winter-spring, July-Sept dry season

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

Thermal climate class: temperate, LPG from end of March until September

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Slopes on average: Moderate (ranked1, mostly) and rolling (ranked 2)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: Low
Soil drainage/infiltration: Poor
Soil water storage capacity: Low

5.4 Water availability and quality

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

for agricultural use only (irrigation)

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Availability of surface water: Poor/none (ranked 1, no rainfall from July to August) and medium (ranked 2, winter and spring season with frequent rainfalls (700mm))

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • employee (company, government)
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
Level of mechanization: Manual work (ranked 1) and mechanised (ranked 2, only for plowing)
Market orientation: Subsistence (ranked 1, mainly subsistent, depending on yield more or less commercial) and mixed (ranked 2)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • leased
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual

Based on land user's Certificates

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Comments/ specify:

less apple and wheat production

risk of production failure

Water availability and quality

irrigation water availability

Comments/ specify:

First 2 years water source, which dried out later on

irrigation water quality

Comments/ specify:

First 2 years water source, which dried out later on

demand for irrigation water

Comments/ specify:

First 2 years water source, which dried out later on

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

More fertilizer and pesticides needed than in the past

farm income

Comments/ specify:

Reduced crop production and fruit yield


Comments/ specify:

less maintenance work

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency


situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

Comments/ specify:

Mulberries were shared with other people working next to the field (no fence)

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity


surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

negligible thanks to a little slope



soil moisture


soil cover


soil crusting/ sealing


soil compaction


soil organic matter/ below ground C


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

buffering/ filtering capacity


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not known

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not well

Higher vegetation cover, which would make the land use more resistant to drought, more stable in case of floods and heavy rainfalls.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
The orchard gave by-product as leaves for silk production and branches.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
It is the only orchard in the neighbourhood, which is why it would be worthy to maintain it.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Put more effort and labour into the orchard, currently only the wheat crops seems to be of interest for the farmer.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Currently the orchard is too old to get a good yield and maintenance activities are comparatively high.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Lack of maintenance and guarding or fencing. More focus on the orchard as it has also ecological benefits. Enhance the farmer to put more labour into the orchard.
Show good examples of orchards and their resulting benefits. Round tables by and for farmers to share experiences.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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