Rangeland Improvement in Savanah with High Livestocks [Tanzania, United Republic of]

Uboreshaji wa Nyanda za malisho katika uoto wa asili wa savana wenye ng'ombe wengi.

technologies_1314 - Tanzania, United Republic of

Completeness: 82%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Poder Alexander

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Missenyi District Council (Missenyi District Council) - Tanzania, United Republic of

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Improvement of degraded rangeland in savannah using multiple rangeland improvement techniques that complement each other to optimize livestock production and productivity sustainably.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Multiple rangeland and pasture improvement techniques that combines water harvesting, rangeland reseeding and pasture establishment, livestock breeding management techniques to restore degraded rangeland in savannah with high livestock and optimize livestock production and productivity sustainably. These includes; 1. Chaco dam excavation for rain runoff harvesting mainly during the rainy season (February to April and August to December) mostly;(i).To ensure year round availability of water largely for watering livestock and partly for domestic and agriculture use especially during the main dry season when local sources (Ponds, springs or stream) are dry,(ii).To reduce soil erosion by water (lily or gully erosion, (iii).To reduce river bank erosion and silitation due direct watering of livestock in to Kagera river, (iii). To reduce the distance animal has to walk for watering and (iv) to reduce water use conflicts between herders and other land users. 2. Establishment of pasture demonstration plots where farmers are exposed to a basket choice (Low cost technique Vs high cost technique) of pasture and rangeland improvement technique either through ;( a). Tilling the land and broadcasting drought tolerant indigenous degenerated palatable pasture species of high nutritive value and, mainly (i).Grass; Cenchrus cliaris, Chloris gayana and (ii).Legumes; Centrocema puberse, Lablab purpureus, Mucuna Pluriens and Puperaria Phaseilides ) to a manured degraded rangeland; (b).i. Encouraging re-growth of proper pasture species in a degraded area to take place through clearing bushes, shrubs or trees ( leaving edible shrubs and few selected shed trees especially acacia spp which allow pasture re-growth underneath and provide shed against intense sun radiations to livestock especially during the main dry season- July to September); ii. Closing the degraded area by fencing using live indigenous trees or using wooden pole with or without barbed wire for 2 -3 years, removal of anthills and discouraging regeneration of unproductive invasive species and hence returning the rangeland to productivity;3. Genetical improvement of local cattle (Ankole or Zebu) through crossbreeding with introduced improved bull especially boran, Frisian or Mpwapwa bulls to allow farmers to keep few improved offspring of high production and productivity ;4.Farmer training on rangeland improvement and grazing management including hay making and how to estimate carrying capacity 5. Establishment of livestock markets directly on the rangeland to encourage off take and hence control stocking rate and increase carrying capacity.

Purpose:To contribute to the increase of herders’ standard of living through increased livestock production and productivity while conserving the environment

Estblishment activities:1. Community mobilization and formation of project management commetee with 10 members; 2. Identification of project sites; 3. Land clearing; 4. Establishment of pasture demonstration plots; 5. Excavation of chacodam and construction of watering troughs; 6. Fencing of individual owned land using wooden pole with barbed wire or live fencing using euphobia spp; 7. Farmer training on pasture establishment and controll of stocking rate; 8. Procurement of bulls (Boran or Mpwapwa) for cross breeding with ankole females; 9. Construction of livestock market
Maintanence Activities: 1. Repair of livestock infrastructures (Chacodam, watering troughs, livestock fence, livestock markets).

The technology is implemented in extensive grazing land under semi arid condition receiving 600 -1000mm of rains per year. A combination of rangeland improvement measures (Excavation of chacodam for rainwater runoff harvesting, pasture improvement and establishment techniques, fencing and breeding management through cross breeding local cow (Ankole/zebu) with Boran/Mpwapwa bulls) complement each other to restore degraded rangeland and increase livestock production and productivity in savannah. The slope is gentle to moderate; soil depth is shallow and soil texture clay. Heavy tools (Bulldozer) to Simple hand tools are traditional used. Bulldozers are used during chacodam excavation and bush clearing by well-off herder will small hand tools such as hand hoe, bush knife and spade are used smallholder herders for excavation of water pond and construction of indigenous livestock watering points. Land ownership is Communal/village, individual titled and individual not titled. Water use rights is open access (unorganized), communal (organized). Application of this technology determined by high establishment costs.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment


Tanzania, United Republic of

Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:

Missenyi, Tanzania

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Tree and shrub cropping
Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Animal type:
  • cattle - non-dairy working
  • Ankole, Zebu

Livestock density (if relevant):

> 100 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Major land use problem without conservation includes, overgrazing, soil erosion, siltation of water bodies (Kagera River) and loss of paratable pasture spp.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Shortage of pasture and water for livestock

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism

Grazing land: Extensive grazing land

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Number of growing seasons per year:


3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • pastoralism and grazing land management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A7: Others
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V3: Clearing of vegetation
  • V5: Others
structural measures

structural measures

  • S5: Dams, pans, ponds
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level
  • M5: Control/ change of species composition

Type of agronomic measures: legume inter-planting, manure / compost / residues
Type of vegetative measures: in blocks

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing (Overgrazing due overstocking due to illegal migration on livestock), change in temperature (increased average temperature from 20.9o to 21.5oC in the past 20 years), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (decreased average annual rainfall from 1000mm to 870mm in the past 20 years), droughts, land tenure (Lack of village land use plan), inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …)
Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Uncontrolled bush fire set purposely to remove overgrown bushes), disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff), change of seasonal rainfall, population pressure (In migration of people from neighbourig districts and countries), education, access to knowledge and support services

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Location: Bubale Village. Missenyi District/Kagera
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high
Technical knowledge required for land users: high

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, water harvesting / increase water supply, promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)
Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase / maintain water stored in soil

Legume inter-planting
Remarks: Legumes are inter-planted with grass to increase the nutritive value of the pasture
Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: Farmyard manure
Quantity/ density: 60t/Ha
In blocks
Vegetative material: G : grass, O : other
Grass species: Cenchrus cliaris, Chloris gayana, elephant grass,
Other species: Legumes:Centrocema puberse, Lablab purpureus, Mucuna Pluriens and Puperaria Phaseilides
Dam/ pan/ pond
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 40
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 80
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 6
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 4
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 240
Structural measure: Water trough
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 21
Structural measure: Appron
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 27
Construction material (earth): Clay soil
Construction material (concrete): concrete
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.
Control / change of species composition: Crossbreeding local female cattle(Ankole or Zebu) with boran or mpwapwa bulls
Other type of management: Closing the degraded area by fencing using pole or live indigenous trees with or without barbed wire for 2 -3 years, removal of anthills and discouraging regeneration of unproductive invasive species.


Jasson Rwazo, P.O.BOX 38, Missenyi Tanzania,email:

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Tanzanian Shilling

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Procurement of 6 Boran/Mpwapwa bulls
2. Transportation of bulls from Dodoma
3. Vaccination against East Cost fever (ECF)
4. Fencing Procument Barbed wire
5. Excavation of water chaco dam During the dry season
6. Fence construction During the dry season
7. Construction of livestock market
8. Land preparation Eary June to september
9. Manure application Mid september to early november
10. Planting Early octobar

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour labour ha 1.0 810.93 810.93
Equipment tools ha 1.0 34.0 34.0
Plant material seeds ha 1.0 1204.0 1204.0
Fertilizers and biocides compost/manure ha 1.0 274.42 274.42 20.0
Construction material Chacodam Excavation ha 1.0 16007.0 16007.0 20.0
Construction material Const livestock makert ha 1.0 12577.0 12577.0 20.0
Other Procument of 6 bulls ha 1.0 548.84 548.84 20.0
Other Vaccination ha 1.0 54.88 54.88
Other Fencing ha 1.0 1957.7 1957.7
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 33468.77
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 15.31

Duration of establishment phase: 36 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Repair of the fence Once per year
2. Weeding and bush thinning 0nce per year
3. Construction of fire break Once per year
4. Harvesting pasture seeds Once per year

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour labour ha 1.0 205.34 205.34 20.0
Equipment tools ha 1.0 34.0 34.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 239.34
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 0.11

Machinery/ tools: Hand hoe, bush knife, Bulldozer, handhooe, spade, truck, Hand hoe, hamer, nails, woods

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Excavation of chacodam, fencing and procurement of breeding bulls

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • commercial/ market
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
  • very rich
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
5% of the land users are very rich and own 50% of the land.
35% of the land users are rich and own 25% of the land.
55% of the land users are average wealthy and own 10% of the land.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • individual, not titled

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


fodder production


fodder quality


animal production


wood production

Water availability and quality

drinking water availability

Income and costs

farm income


Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency


health situation


community institutions


SLM/ land degradation knowledge


conflict mitigation


contribution to human well-being

Comments/ specify:

Grazing management and conservation knowledge

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity


harvesting/ collection of water


soil cover


soil compaction

Climate and disaster risk reduction

fire risk


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability


downstream siltation


damage on neighbours' fields


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well

Construction of chaco dam for water harvesting during the wet season to be used during the dry season, planting drought tolerant pasture sp

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology


50 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Increased livestock production(Milk and Meat)
Increased farm income
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Increased water availability for livestock and domestic use
Increased pasture availability for livestock
Increased conservation knowledge
Increased livestock production and productivity

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
High fire risk Strengthener fire control bylaw, control burning and use of fire break

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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