Technologies

Tree nurseries to test tree species adapted to local climate [Tajikistan]

technologies_1453 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 78%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Kyrgyzstan Mountain Societies Development Support Programme, Aga Khan Development Network (MSDSP KG) - Kyrgyzstan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Tree nurseries are established to test and identify varieties of tree species that are tolerant to climate change in the region.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

In 1995-96 the first tree nursery was established in the Vanj valley with support from the Mountain Societies Development Support Programme (MSDSP) of the Aga Khan Foundation. During Soviet times there were no tree nurseries in this region and seedlings had to be brought in from outside. Only the Pamir Biological Institute (PBI) was able to obtain seedlings for research purposes. A nursery of about 0.1 ha was established by one farmer on his own land. Tree species grown in the nursery include apple, peach, apricot, walnut, cherry and pear.

Purpose of the Technology: The main goal of the project was to make varieties of tree species adapted to different climatic conditions in GBAO locally available. The seedlings are used for other MSDSP projects, such as orchards for soil stabilisation, and are also purchased by private land users for their own land. In addition, the land user was taught how to establish a business by selling seedlings to other land users. There is a strong need for quality tree seedlings in the whole region and even people from as far away as Ishkhashim (7 hour journey by car) travel to Vanj valley to purchase seedlings from this nursery. The economic benefit for the land user is very high as during one year he can make more than 18,000 TJS (4000 USD) of profit from selling seedlings while the investments in fertilisers are comparably small.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The steps necessary for the establishment of a tree nursery are the following: (1) a suitable plot of flat land is chosen by the farmer, (2) the plot is fenced with dead branches to protect it from roaming animals, (3) in March, the farmer prepares several wooden boxes filled with humid soil in which he distributes 10 kg of seeds of different tree species and varieties. Those boxes have to be irrigated for a month while the seeds are germinating, (4) in April, the nursery plot is ploughed along the contour using animal traction and 1 ton of organic manure, 20 kg of phosphor and 2.5 kg of nitrogen is mixed with the soil, (5) seedlings are planted linearly along the contour with small irrigation ditches running parallel to the planting lines. These ditches were automatically established through the ploughing process, (6) two more times during the first season another 3 kg of nitrogen are applied. In the second year the grafting process is started and in the third year the farmer starts selling the seedlings. The farmer therefore splits up the nursery plot in three parts so that he can always have newly planted seedlings at the same time with second-year seedlings for grafting and third-year seedlings for selling

Natural / human environment: The technology was adopted by two other farmers from the village who had successfully applied to MSDSP for financial support for seeds and fertilisers. Many other farmers from neighbouring villages are interested. The bridge that is currently being built to allow for more trade between Afghanistan and Tajikistan might open further market opportunities for the land user. Furthermore this type of experience is being widely replicated in other districts and supported by MSDSP.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Tajikistan

Further specification of location:

Vanj

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

1995, through MSDP project

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Tree and shrub cropping
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 90Longest growing period from month to month: March-May

Comments:

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): reduction of vegetation cover, erosion of slope areas, decline of soil fertility,

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ct: Tree and shrub cropping

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Cropland

Cropland

  • Tree and shrub cropping

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation
Comments:

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ct: Tree and shrub cropping

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved plant varieties/ animal breeds

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
Comments:

Main measures: vegetative measures

Secondary measures: management measures

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats

Main causes of degradation: soil management, deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), overgrazing

Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature, change of seasonal rainfall, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), wind storms / dust storms, floods, droughts, other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (avalanches, mud flows), population pressure, poverty / wealth, education, access to knowledge and support services

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Secondary technical functions: increase of infiltration

Aligned: -linear
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 3000 / 0.1 ha
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.6
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.1

Trees/ shrubs species: apple, peach, apricot, walnut, cherries, pear

Change of land use practices / intensity level: from cropland to tree nursery

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Somoni

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4.5

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

4.50

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Select a place with enough water and good soil fertility on flat land for establishment of nursery
2. Fencing with dead branches
3. Ploughing and distribution of fertilisers March-April
4. Plant seeds in box with humid soil and irrigate March
5. After one month transfer seedlings to planting lines March-April

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Fencing with dead branches Persons/day 80.0 20.0 1600.0 100.0
Labour Ploughing and distribution of fertilisers Persons/day 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
Labour Plant seeds in box with humid soil and irrigate Persons/day 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
Labour Transfer seedlings to planting lines Persons/day 28.0 20.0 560.0 100.0
Plant material Seeds kg 10.0 5.0 50.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer kg 30.0 3.0 90.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2370.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 526.67
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 36 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding during first year
2. Apply nitrogen fertiliser twice more during the growing season during the growing season
3. Grafting second year
4. None None
5. None

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Apply nitrogen fertiliser Persons/day 1.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
Labour Weeding Persons/day 28.0 20.0 560.0 100.0
Labour Grafting Persons/day 28.0 20.0 560.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer kg 6.0 3.0 18.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 1158.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 257.33
Comments:

The costs were calculated for a nursery of 0.1 ha.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The most determinate factors affecting the costs are for labour, although in the documented example, labour was provided voluntarily by the family of the land user. Costs for labour are estimates for a situation in which labour had to be paid in Tajikistan.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

500.00

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1800 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • animal traction
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

Off-farm income specification: teacher

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Comments:

The land belongs to the state but the land user has a certificate.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Nursery established on cropland

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

The economic benefit for the land user is very high as during one year he can make more than 18,000 TJS (4000 USD) of profit from selling seedlings while the investments in fertilisers are comparably small.

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Availability of fruits

health situation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

More fruits provide a more balanced diet with more vitamins

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Aesthetic value of trees

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

Livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Higher income from selling the tree seedlings, about 3,000 USD per year, allowing people to provide better education for their children and better access to healthcare

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

evaporation

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

plant diversity

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

Other ecological impacts

Hazard towards adverse events

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Indirect benefit, occuring where the trees grown in tree nursery will be planted later

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
local windstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

Increased income and benefit start after three years when seedlings can be sold.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

3 households

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: people from other villages in the valley contacted MSDSP because they would like to adopt the technology (however, they would need financial or material support).

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The technology is very important to the whole of the GBAO region as nurseries were not available during Soviet times and all tree seedlings were brought from outside

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Improved access for farmers of interesting tree varieties that they can reproduce in their nurseries
Creation of business opportunities.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Experience sharing between farmers from outside GBAO
Through the spreading of this technology there will be more seedlings available to all interested households

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Establishment of farmer field schools to disseminate the positive experiences of this technology and to increase the number of nurseries
Varieties of trees that are adapted to local climate can be more easily obtained

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Access to other new varieties should be improved

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
It is quite a complicated process that requires some expertise; the farmer needs to know about planting technologies, grafting and market opportunities etc. Farmer to farmer dissemination of knowledge could be facilitated through the establishment of farmer field schools.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

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