Cluster Level Pasture User Union [Tayikistán]

Чамъияти Чарогохистифодабарандагон дар сатхи кластер

approaches_3443 - Tayikistán

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Especialista MST:

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?


El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

1.4 Referencia/s al/los Cuestionario(s) de Tecnologías MST

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) at cluster level is consolidating several communities to jointly plan and implement pasture and livestock management related interventions. This approach is supporting to cover big area of pasture lands, which is used by several communities and do not have physical boundaries to define. Therefore joint planning of several communities at cluster level will help communities to meet the need of sustainable pasture and livestock management planning to improve their livelihoods.

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) are legally recognized institutional structures under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan (Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on March 19, 2013, #951). Communities and individuals started the establishment of PUUs after the law passed on to organize themselves for better management of their pasture resources. Establishment of PUUs started with introducing development projects immediately after the law passed. The PUU approach had been tested at different levels starting from small units of pasture area, on village level and up to the sub-district level. Under ELMARL project for the purpose for the bigger environmental effects and coverage PUU was tested at cluster level, combining several community level pasture user groups (PUGs) with their representation at cluster level.
The main goal of this approach is to bring several communities under one legal structure for better management of pasture resources, which are interlinked in terms of physical boundaries and social aspects.
The project used participatory methods to bring several villages/communities under one umbrella in the framework of Governmental law on pastures. The planning process for the PUU starts with the first sector on stakeholder analysis, where the main actors are identified. The main stakeholders are community based organizations or village organizations, which also include livestock owners who become members of the PUU, land users of dehkan farms (peasant farms), which are the owners of the pasture/land resources, local governments and their related departments (e.g. land committee, agricultural department, environmental department).
Community based organizations/village organizations are community level structures, which come together to form their legal structure at higher levels for better management of pasture resources. Land/pasture users are the main actors which are responsible for day to day use of the pasture and implementation of technologies and local governments, that takes a leading role in distribution of land and facilitating the process of land use in the area. The majority of community members did like the approach when it was introduced and the purpose was explained, because it contributes to a more sustainable use of their resources. Only those livestock owners that own a big number of livestock are not willing to become part of the PUUs and to participate in the sustainable management of pasture resource. This is because they own big areas of pasture by themselves and are not interested to collaborate with the community.

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

Comentarios generales sobre las fotos:

Livestock owners came together to discuss the possibility of establishing their own community level structure under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan with project experts to explain them the new law and advantages of creating their own institute.

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado



Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Central Asia/Tajikistan/Rasht Valley

Especifique más el lugar :

Faizobod, Roghun, Lakhsh and sub-ordinate districts


Under ELMARL project cluster level PUUs had been established in four districts of Rasht Valley, which are Faizobod, Roghun, Tavildara and Lakhsh.

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada en la que se inició el Enfoque:

hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)


PUUs are still functional in this area.

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • iniciativa local reciente/ innovadora

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

Support and empower legal structures with focus on pasture management and livestock development according to the Pasture Law of the Republic of Tajikistan.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

normas y valores sociales/ culturales/ religiosos
  • facilitan

Traditionally communities are involved in the management of their pasture resources, previously based on traditional structure, therefore the proposed approach is socially and culturally applicable and well perceived by communities.

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • impiden

only project based, further depends on community and PUU leadership, how active they are

entorno institucional
  • facilitan

The PUU is a legal structure according to the pasture law.

colaboración/ coordinación de actores
  • facilitan

All partners and stakeholders are involved in managing the PUU.

marco de trabajo legal (tenencia de tierra, derechos de uso de tierra y agua)
  • facilitan

gives rights to the PUU to own the pasture lands

gobernanza de tierras (toma de decisiones, implementación y aplicación)
  • facilitan

Once the land and pasture resources are owned by PUU they are legally enabled to make their own decisions on the use and management of the resources according to the existing laws and regulations.

conocimiento de MST, acceso a apoyo técnico
  • facilitan

helps communities and PUU to implement diverse technologies in management and improvement of the pasture lands

mercados (para comprar insumos, vender productos) y precios
  • impiden

Marketing issues are not targeted.

carga de trabajo, disponibilidad de mano de obra
  • impiden

Because of the high volume of migration some of the management and leadership teams can migrate and hinder the availability of management. Youth is mainly in migration therefore hindering the availability of manpower.

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

members of PUU and livestock owners

are the main actors of the PUU, responsible for overall management of the PUU and day to day activities' implementation with regards to pasture use. They also responsible for the implementation of the pasture plan which is developed jointly with the support of the project technical team.

  • organizaciones comunitarias

village organization, common interest groups, village technology groups

are direct partners of the PUU, which also mobilize communities to join and participate in the pasture management

  • especialistas MST/consejeros agrícolas

project technical team

well mainly responsible in development of the pasture management plan methodology, capacity building of the pasture users/PUU members and ensure compliance of technical aspects of pasture management with PUU members

  • ONG

locally registered Public Organization involved in environmental and natural resource management

in fundraising, introducing the PUU members with innovative technologies and approach

  • gobierno local

all departments at local level involved in the management of natural resources like agriculture, environmental protection, land departments, committee of emergency and other

collaborates with PUU and empowers the sector to specify topics and lobby their interests at the district level

  • gobierno nacional (planificadores, autoridades)

Land Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Committee on the Environmental protection

empower and lobby their interest at national level, guidance

  • organización internacional

all existing in the country, including GIZ, Aga Khan Foundation, World Bank, European Commission, ACTED, Caritas etc.,

support with fund raising, provide guidance and exposure on best practices

3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación apoyo externo PUU members, livestock owners, mobilization of people to come together, support project team with collecting information, participate in the capacity building campaigns
planificación interactivo PUU members, livestock owners, active participation in the development of pasture and livestock management plan, participate in the session
implementación auto-movilización PUU members and other livestock owners. After the pasture and livestock management plan is approved PUU members with support of the PUU management structure were supported with funding and they have implemented different interventions, like fencing of pasture areas, support livestock owners with seeds to grow fodder, income generating activities like beekeeping.
monitoreo y evaluación apoyo externo The project team with support of the monitoring and evaluation specialist and technical staff conducted continuos support during the implementation phase.

3.3 Flujograma (si estuviera disponible)


This is the organizational chart of the PUU, specifically those established at the cluster level with involvement of several communities. Members from each community are represented in the board and the board is selecting the management staff. The highest body as executive is the general meeting of the PUU, which consists of all members of the PUU.


Zevarshoev Askarsho

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • todos los actores relevantes, como parte de un enfoque participativo

During the planning process all stakeholder participate and decide on which kind of action to implement, but separately pasture users are also actively implementing their traditional practices.

Especifique las bases que sustentaron la toma de decisiones:
  • la evaluación de conocimiento MST bien documentado (la toma de decisiones se basa en evidencia)

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
Si fuese relevante, también especifique género, edad, estatus, etnicidad, etc.

mixed, with special focus on equal participation of gender and balanced ages

Forma de capacitación:
  • en el contexto de trabajo
  • áreas de demostración
  • reuniones públicas
  • cursos
Temas avanzados:

pasture management, accounting, proposal development, environmental land management

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

Especifique si servicio proporcionado se realizó:
  • en los campos de los usuarios de tierras
Describa/ comentarios:

During visits to the site by the project team consisting of specialists, advisory service was provided to the PUU members. The project also involved specialists from universities and livestock institute who conducted trainings and also provided advisory services.

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • sí, mucho
Especifique el nivel o los niveles en los que se fortalecieron o establecieron las instituciones:
  • local
Describa la institución, roles y responsabilidades, miembros, etc.

Pasture User Union is a legal institute established at local level, which is mainly involved in the sustainable use and management of pastures and livestock. Almost all livestock owners in the targeted zone become members of the PUU to

Especifique el tipo de apoyo:
  • financiero
  • construcción de capacidades/ entrenamiento
  • equipo
Proporcione detalles adicionales:

All three type of support were provided to the institute, starting from the establishment up to the development of their plan and implementation of this plan.

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?


Continous monitoring of the project was made by the project team to ensure effective implementation of planned activities.

Si respondió que sí, ¿la documentación se utilizará para monitoreo y evaluación?

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?


5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • 2,000-10,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):

Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihood Project, implemented by the Committee on Environmental Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan

5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

Si respondió sí, especifique el tipo o los tipos de apoyo, condiciones y proveedor(es) :

funding support to facilitate communities to establish their PUU and registration fee under the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Pasture Management

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • equipo
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
maquinaria totalmente financiado machinery, like tractors, was provided to the PUU for development of their pasture infrastrucutre
herramientas parcialmente financiado funding for other interventions like establishment of veterinarian drug store, improvement of pasture etc.
  • construcción
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
madera parcialmente financiado funding for procurement of wood for construction of animal shed in the remote pasture
  • infraestructura
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
caminos parcialmente financiado cost to rent bulldozer, cost for fuel for the machinery to clean and rehabilitate the road
Si la mano de obra de usuarios de tierras fue un insumo sustancial, ¿fue:
  • voluntario?

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?


5.5 Otros incentivos o instrumentos

¿Se usaron otros incentivos o instrumentos para promover la implementación de Tecnologías MST?

Si fuera el caso, especifique :

Specialized training was provided for the PUU members on the new Pasture Law and community participation in the round table discussion on revision and providing feedback to improvement of pasture law organized by the Pasture Network Secretariat.

6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque empoderó a los usuarios locales de tierras, mejoró el involucramiento de las partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

First the approach was brought together under one structure to discuss the common issues, which relates to all involved stakeholder. Land users become the owner of legal structure under the law of the government, which empowered them to lobby their interest at the governmental level.

¿El Enfoque facilitó la toma de decisiones basada en evidencia?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

during the process of pasture and livestock management plan development in a participatory manner, where youth and women have also participated

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The approach lead to the development of the pasture and livestock management plan with a specific action plan for implementation. The implementation plan involves different technologies and approach to test and learn for dissemination and replication to other areas.

¿El Enfoque mejoró la coordinación e implementación efectiva en costos de MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Since the approach brought together several communities at cluster level to manage their pasture resources, it required a lot of effort to coordinate the activities among each other in consultation with experts.

¿El Enfoque movilizó/mejoró el acceso a recursos financieros para implementar MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

As a legal structure the PUU is eligible to apply for any available funding.

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de los usuarios para implementar MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

After establishment of the PUU, a series of trainings and sharing of experiences were provided to the members to learn from best practices and test them in their area.

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de otras partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Through establishment the PUUs their management as an institute conducted meeting with other involved stakeholders and explained them their structure. Other identified stakeholders, like land users from neighbor communities were also invited to the capacity building sessions and trainings.

¿El Enfoque construyó/ fortaleció instituciones, colaboración entre partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

In the action plan of the PUU roles and responsibilities of direct involved stakeholders were defined and their roles to interact with other relevant institutions identified. The approach of participatory planning took all stakeholders interests into consideration.

¿El Enfoque mitigó conflictos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Several communities came together with all stakeholders to talk on the existing challenges and mitigate the possible conflict arising from the use of pasture resources.

¿El Enfoque mejoró la equidad de género y empoderó a las mujeres y niñas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Women's roles in the management of livestock and pasture management were identified and taken into consideration to involve them in the decision making process.

¿El Enfoque mejoró cuestiones de tenencia de tierra/ derechos de usuarios que obstaculizaron la implementación de la Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

PUU enabled the members to own certain amount of pasture land and have to go through certain procedures to improve the ownership over their land.

¿El Enfoque mejoró la capacidad de los usuarios de tierras a adaptarse a los cambios climáticos/ extemos y mitigar desastres relacionados al clima?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

PUU enabled land users and its members to get introduced to the best practices on improvment of pasture management, which also helps them to mitigate the climate change and prevention of possible disasters like landslide and mudflow which is common as a result of pasture degradation

¿El Enfoque llevó a oportunidades de empleo, ingresos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

With establishment of PUU three people already became official employees of the institute and other got income through implementation of intervention. Once the pasture condition improves, the livestock productivity will also improve and will increase income.

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • producción incrementada

increase pasture productivity and livestock products

  • reducción de la degradación del suelo

PUU to contribute to improve ownership over land resource and prevent overgrazing in the realm of degradation protection

  • reducción del riesgo de desastres naturales

Pasture degradation usually is mainly caused by land slides and mudflows in this area. Once the condition of pastures is improved, it will also prevent natural hazards.

  • conciencia medioambiental

As the project mainly focuses on environmental land management the approach considers also improvement of pasture condition to contribute to environmental protection.

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?
Si respondió que sí, describa cómo:

The PUU is a legal structure according to the law of the country and empowers the communities to become owner of their pasture resources. Through coordination from the local government there is continuous supervision on the performance of the structure, which contribute to its sustainability.

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
can participate in the decision making, the communities own the resources, have their own structure
better opportunities for getting access to financial resources
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
owned by communities, legally registered according to the official law on pasture of the country
as a legal and community based structure recognized taking into consideration of all stakeholders and involves women and youth into decision making

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Comparing to other PUUs established only at one community level it is a more complicated structure and difficult to manage. empower the community and the PUU leadership in management and leadership skills, more capacity building campaigns
Pasture resources owned by separate dekhkan farms, which are also legal structure according to the law More facilitation processes should be applied to support and empower the PUU to become the full and only owners of the pasture resource.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • entrevistas con especialistas/ expertos en MST

through direct interviews with the Implementing Agency technical experts and field facilitators

  • compilación de informes y otra documentación existente


7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Pasture Management Networking Platform (PMNP)



Vínculos y módulos

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