Cluster Level Pasture User Union [Tadjikistan]

Чамъияти Чарогохистифодабарандагон дар сатхи кластер

approaches_3443 - Tadjikistan

État complet: 94%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?


Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) at cluster level is consolidating several communities to jointly plan and implement pasture and livestock management related interventions. This approach is supporting to cover big area of pasture lands, which is used by several communities and do not have physical boundaries to define. Therefore joint planning of several communities at cluster level will help communities to meet the need of sustainable pasture and livestock management planning to improve their livelihoods.

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) are legally recognized institutional structures under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan (Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on March 19, 2013, #951). Communities and individuals started the establishment of PUUs after the law passed on to organize themselves for better management of their pasture resources. Establishment of PUUs started with introducing development projects immediately after the law passed. The PUU approach had been tested at different levels starting from small units of pasture area, on village level and up to the sub-district level. Under ELMARL project for the purpose for the bigger environmental effects and coverage PUU was tested at cluster level, combining several community level pasture user groups (PUGs) with their representation at cluster level.
The main goal of this approach is to bring several communities under one legal structure for better management of pasture resources, which are interlinked in terms of physical boundaries and social aspects.
The project used participatory methods to bring several villages/communities under one umbrella in the framework of Governmental law on pastures. The planning process for the PUU starts with the first sector on stakeholder analysis, where the main actors are identified. The main stakeholders are community based organizations or village organizations, which also include livestock owners who become members of the PUU, land users of dehkan farms (peasant farms), which are the owners of the pasture/land resources, local governments and their related departments (e.g. land committee, agricultural department, environmental department).
Community based organizations/village organizations are community level structures, which come together to form their legal structure at higher levels for better management of pasture resources. Land/pasture users are the main actors which are responsible for day to day use of the pasture and implementation of technologies and local governments, that takes a leading role in distribution of land and facilitating the process of land use in the area. The majority of community members did like the approach when it was introduced and the purpose was explained, because it contributes to a more sustainable use of their resources. Only those livestock owners that own a big number of livestock are not willing to become part of the PUUs and to participate in the sustainable management of pasture resource. This is because they own big areas of pasture by themselves and are not interested to collaborate with the community.

2.3 Photos de l'approche

Remarques générales concernant les photos:

Livestock owners came together to discuss the possibility of establishing their own community level structure under the Law on Pasture of the Republic of Tajikistan with project experts to explain them the new law and advantages of creating their own institute.

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée



Région/ Etat/ Province:

Central Asia/Tajikistan/Rasht Valley

Autres spécifications du lieu :

Faizobod, Roghun, Lakhsh and sub-ordinate districts


Under ELMARL project cluster level PUUs had been established in four districts of Rasht Valley, which are Faizobod, Roghun, Tavildara and Lakhsh.

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Si l'année précise est inconnue, indiquez approximativement quand l'Approche a démarré:

il y a moins de 10 ans (récemment)


PUUs are still functional in this area.

2.7 Type d'Approche

  • initiative/ innovation récente locale

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

Support and empower legal structures with focus on pasture management and livestock development according to the Pasture Law of the Republic of Tajikistan.

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

normes et valeurs sociales/ culturelles/ religieuses
  • favorise

Traditionally communities are involved in the management of their pasture resources, previously based on traditional structure, therefore the proposed approach is socially and culturally applicable and well perceived by communities.

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

only project based, further depends on community and PUU leadership, how active they are

cadre institutionnel
  • favorise

The PUU is a legal structure according to the pasture law.

collaboration/ coordination des acteurs
  • favorise

All partners and stakeholders are involved in managing the PUU.

cadre juridique (régime foncier, droits d'utilisation des terres et de l'eau)
  • favorise

gives rights to the PUU to own the pasture lands

gouvernance foncière (prise de décisions, mise en œuvre et application des décisions)
  • favorise

Once the land and pasture resources are owned by PUU they are legally enabled to make their own decisions on the use and management of the resources according to the existing laws and regulations.

connaissances sur la GDT, accès aux supports techniques
  • favorise

helps communities and PUU to implement diverse technologies in management and improvement of the pasture lands

marchés (pour acheter les intrants, vendre les produits) et prix
  • entrave

Marketing issues are not targeted.

charge de travail, disponibilité de la main-d'œuvre
  • entrave

Because of the high volume of migration some of the management and leadership teams can migrate and hinder the availability of management. Youth is mainly in migration therefore hindering the availability of manpower.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

members of PUU and livestock owners

are the main actors of the PUU, responsible for overall management of the PUU and day to day activities' implementation with regards to pasture use. They also responsible for the implementation of the pasture plan which is developed jointly with the support of the project technical team.

  • organisations communautaires

village organization, common interest groups, village technology groups

are direct partners of the PUU, which also mobilize communities to join and participate in the pasture management

  • Spécialistes de la GDT/ conseillers agricoles

project technical team

well mainly responsible in development of the pasture management plan methodology, capacity building of the pasture users/PUU members and ensure compliance of technical aspects of pasture management with PUU members

  • ONG

locally registered Public Organization involved in environmental and natural resource management

in fundraising, introducing the PUU members with innovative technologies and approach

  • gouvernement local

all departments at local level involved in the management of natural resources like agriculture, environmental protection, land departments, committee of emergency and other

collaborates with PUU and empowers the sector to specify topics and lobby their interests at the district level

  • gouvernement national (planificateurs, décideurs)

Land Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Committee on the Environmental protection

empower and lobby their interest at national level, guidance

  • organisation internationale

all existing in the country, including GIZ, Aga Khan Foundation, World Bank, European Commission, ACTED, Caritas etc.,

support with fund raising, provide guidance and exposure on best practices

3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation soutien extérieur PUU members, livestock owners, mobilization of people to come together, support project team with collecting information, participate in the capacity building campaigns
planification interactive PUU members, livestock owners, active participation in the development of pasture and livestock management plan, participate in the session
mise en œuvre auto-mobilisation PUU members and other livestock owners. After the pasture and livestock management plan is approved PUU members with support of the PUU management structure were supported with funding and they have implemented different interventions, like fencing of pasture areas, support livestock owners with seeds to grow fodder, income generating activities like beekeeping.
suivi/ évaluation soutien extérieur The project team with support of the monitoring and evaluation specialist and technical staff conducted continuos support during the implementation phase.

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)


This is the organizational chart of the PUU, specifically those established at the cluster level with involvement of several communities. Members from each community are represented in the board and the board is selecting the management staff. The highest body as executive is the general meeting of the PUU, which consists of all members of the PUU.


Zevarshoev Askarsho

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • tous les acteurs concernés dans le cadre d'une approche participative

During the planning process all stakeholder participate and decide on which kind of action to implement, but separately pasture users are also actively implementing their traditional practices.

Spécifiez sur quelle base ont été prises les décisions:
  • l'évaluation de connaissances bien documentées en matière de GDT (prises de décision fondées sur des preuves tangibles)?

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?


Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
Si pertinent, spécifiez le sexe, l'âge, le statut, l'ethnie, etc.

mixed, with special focus on equal participation of gender and balanced ages

Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
  • zones de démonstration
  • réunions publiques
  • cours
Thèmes abordés:

pasture management, accounting, proposal development, environmental land management

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?


Spécifiez si le service de conseils est fourni:
  • dans les champs des exploitants?
Décrivez/ commentez:

During visits to the site by the project team consisting of specialists, advisory service was provided to the PUU members. The project also involved specialists from universities and livestock institute who conducted trainings and also provided advisory services.

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, beaucoup
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Décrivez l'institution, ses rôles et responsabilités, ses membres, etc.

Pasture User Union is a legal institute established at local level, which is mainly involved in the sustainable use and management of pastures and livestock. Almost all livestock owners in the targeted zone become members of the PUU to

Précisez le type de soutien:
  • financier
  • renforcement des capacités/ formation
  • équipement
Donnez plus de détails:

All three type of support were provided to the institute, starting from the establishment up to the development of their plan and implementation of this plan.

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :



Continous monitoring of the project was made by the project team to ensure effective implementation of planned activities.

Si oui, ce document est-il destiné à être utilisé pour le suivi et l'évaluation?


4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?


5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • 2 000-10 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihood Project, implemented by the Committee on Environmental Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?


Si oui, spécifiez le(s) type(s) de soutien, les conditions et les fournisseurs:

funding support to facilitate communities to establish their PUU and registration fee under the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Pasture Management

5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

  • équipement
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
machines entièrement financé machinery, like tractors, was provided to the PUU for development of their pasture infrastrucutre
outils en partie financé funding for other interventions like establishment of veterinarian drug store, improvement of pasture etc.
  • matériaux de construction
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
bois en partie financé funding for procurement of wood for construction of animal shed in the remote pasture
  • infrastructures
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
routes en partie financé cost to rent bulldozer, cost for fuel for the machinery to clean and rehabilitate the road
Si la main d'œuvre fournie par les exploitants des terres était un intrant substantiel, elle était:
  • volontaire

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?


5.5 Autres incitations ou instruments

D'autres incitations ou instruments ont-ils été utilisés pour promouvoir la mise en œuvre des Technologies de GDT?


Si oui, spécifiez:

Specialized training was provided for the PUU members on the new Pasture Law and community participation in the round table discussion on revision and providing feedback to improvement of pasture law organized by the Pasture Network Secretariat.

6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les exploitants locaux des terres, amélioré la participation des parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

First the approach was brought together under one structure to discuss the common issues, which relates to all involved stakeholder. Land users become the owner of legal structure under the law of the government, which empowered them to lobby their interest at the governmental level.

Est-ce que l'Approche a permis la prise de décisions fondées sur des données probantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

during the process of pasture and livestock management plan development in a participatory manner, where youth and women have also participated

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The approach lead to the development of the pasture and livestock management plan with a specific action plan for implementation. The implementation plan involves different technologies and approach to test and learn for dissemination and replication to other areas.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré la coordination et la mise en œuvre de la GDT selon un bon rapport coût-efficacité?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Since the approach brought together several communities at cluster level to manage their pasture resources, it required a lot of effort to coordinate the activities among each other in consultation with experts.

Est-ce que l'Approche a mobilisé/ amélioré l'accès aux ressources financières pour la mise en œuvre de la GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

As a legal structure the PUU is eligible to apply for any available funding.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les connaissances et les capacités des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

After establishment of the PUU, a series of trainings and sharing of experiences were provided to the members to learn from best practices and test them in their area.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les connaissances et les capacités des autres parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Through establishment the PUUs their management as an institute conducted meeting with other involved stakeholders and explained them their structure. Other identified stakeholders, like land users from neighbor communities were also invited to the capacity building sessions and trainings.

Est-ce que l'Approche a construit/ renforcé les institutions, la collaboration entre parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

In the action plan of the PUU roles and responsibilities of direct involved stakeholders were defined and their roles to interact with other relevant institutions identified. The approach of participatory planning took all stakeholders interests into consideration.

Est-ce que l'Approche a atténué les conflits?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Several communities came together with all stakeholders to talk on the existing challenges and mitigate the possible conflict arising from the use of pasture resources.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré l'égalité entre hommes et femmes et autonomisé les femmes et les filles?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Women's roles in the management of livestock and pasture management were identified and taken into consideration to involve them in the decision making process.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les questions foncières et des droits d'utilisation qui entravent la mise en œuvre des Technologies?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

PUU enabled the members to own certain amount of pasture land and have to go through certain procedures to improve the ownership over their land.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré la capacité des exploitants des terres à s'adapter aux changements/ extrêmes climatiques et a atténué les catastrophes liées au climat?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

PUU enabled land users and its members to get introduced to the best practices on improvment of pasture management, which also helps them to mitigate the climate change and prevention of possible disasters like landslide and mudflow which is common as a result of pasture degradation

Est-ce que l'Approche a conduit à des emplois, des opportunités de revenus?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

With establishment of PUU three people already became official employees of the institute and other got income through implementation of intervention. Once the pasture condition improves, the livestock productivity will also improve and will increase income.

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • augmenter la production

increase pasture productivity and livestock products

  • réduire la dégradation des terres

PUU to contribute to improve ownership over land resource and prevent overgrazing in the realm of degradation protection

  • réduire les risques de catastrophe

Pasture degradation usually is mainly caused by land slides and mudflows in this area. Once the condition of pastures is improved, it will also prevent natural hazards.

  • conscience environnementale

As the project mainly focuses on environmental land management the approach considers also improvement of pasture condition to contribute to environmental protection.

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • oui
Si oui, décrivez de quelle manière:

The PUU is a legal structure according to the law of the country and empowers the communities to become owner of their pasture resources. Through coordination from the local government there is continuous supervision on the performance of the structure, which contribute to its sustainability.

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
can participate in the decision making, the communities own the resources, have their own structure
better opportunities for getting access to financial resources
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
owned by communities, legally registered according to the official law on pasture of the country
as a legal and community based structure recognized taking into consideration of all stakeholders and involves women and youth into decision making

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Comparing to other PUUs established only at one community level it is a more complicated structure and difficult to manage. empower the community and the PUU leadership in management and leadership skills, more capacity building campaigns
Pasture resources owned by separate dekhkan farms, which are also legal structure according to the law More facilitation processes should be applied to support and empower the PUU to become the full and only owners of the pasture resource.

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • interviews/ entretiens avec les spécialistes/ experts de GDT

through direct interviews with the Implementing Agency technical experts and field facilitators

  • compilation à partir de rapports et d'autres documents existants


7.3 Liens vers les informations pertinentes disponibles en ligne

Titre/ description:

Pasture Management Networking Platform (PMNP)