Area closure on degraded lands [Etiopía]

Yetrakot Meret mekelel (Amharic)

technologies_1598 - Etiopía

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:

Bekure Melese



Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Water and Land Resource Centre Project (WLRC)

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

1.4 Declaración de la sostenibilidad de la Tecnología descrita

¿La Tecnología aquí descrita resulta problemática en relación a la degradación de la tierra, de tal forma que no puede considerársela una tecnología sostenible para el manejo de la tierra?


1.5 Referencia al (los) Cuestionario(s) de Enfoques MST (documentados usando WOCAT)

'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' (CCG)

'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' … [Etiopía]

Cut and carry grazing system (alternatively called zero grazing) is an approach where the community is consulted to identify and agree on areas to be closed and protected from free grazing; establish user groups are established to share the fodder biomass harvested from communal closed areas equitably; they utilize tree/shrub …

  • Compilador: Gizaw Desta Gessesse

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Area closure on degraded lands is a land management practice used to rehabilitate and conserve the natural resource bases, and enhance its natural regeneration and restoring capacity and productive functions by excluding animal and human interferences through community consultation and collective actions.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología


Area closure is a land management practice that helps to rehabilitate degraded lands, restore the biophysical conditions like soil, vegetation and hydrology by avoiding the interference of animals and human. Because of over grazing and erosion impact, areas delineated for closure are usually degraded shrub or pasture lands that served for grazing. First of all, implementing area closure requires continuous dialogue and discussion with community to reach consensus to close. The community wants to make sure they have benefited from the technology as the land was serving for grazing. They should take the responsibility and create sense of ownership to implement conservation measures, protect and maintain closure areas, and regulate utilization of benefits gained out of it. Questions raised from the community must be discussed thoroughly ahead of the implementation. What part of the degraded land? For what purpose the area is closed? Who are the users? Who are responsible to protect and manage the developed resourcess? How is the benefit sharing among identified users? Commonly, the shared benefits from area closures are hay for livestock through cut-and-carry system, timbers from plantations, and honey production.
Depending on the soil, rainfall and slope conditions different structural and vegetative measures are integrated to enhance the fast regeneration of plant species, restore the soil and increase water availability. It includes enrichment used to rehabilitate and increase the vegetation cover, vegetative and structural measures to retain the soil and water on its place. Structures such as hillside terrace often integrated with grass or shrub hedgerows is used to control soil erosion. In-situ water harvesting structures such as trenches or half moon or eye brow are used to harvest and infiltrate rain or runoff water to increase regeneration and survival of planted trees. Trees and/or shrub species that have high rehabilitation and multipurpose values are used as enrichment plantations. Closed areas need collective action to protect, maintain and manage the common resources. Collective user rights have to be entitled to bring equity on resource sharing and minimize social conflicts.

The purposes of area closure are: 1) rehabilitate degraded lands, 2) protect and restore the natural resource base, and 3) change into productive land and enhance economic and environmental functions of rehabilitated lands.

Implementation of area closure begins with the selection and demarcation of area through genuine participation of land users. After identifying the area to be closed, at establishment stage construction of ditches and terraces is made using stones combined with grasses or shrubs of multipurpose value such as Vetiver grass, Dinsho grass, Bana grass, susbania, etc. Depending on site conditions, enrichment tree species which have rehabilitation and soil restoration purposes are planted in the form of wood lot or scattered tree plantation. Among the common species, A. albida, A. saligna, A. decurrense, Gravilia robusta, etc. are used to rehabilitate and serve as fuel wood and timber. In moisture stress areas structures like trench, level bunds, and half moon should be constructed to increase survival rate of planted tree/shrub species whereas in areas having sufficient moisture these structures, depending on the landforms and soil drainage conditions, help to increase infiltration and recharging of ground water in downstream areas. Therefore, site selection and demarcation, construction of soil conservation and moisture conservation structures, and seedling management and plantation of multipurpose trees, shrubs and grasses are the activities accomplished at establishment stage of area closure. The required inputs are stones, seeds/seedlings, grass cuttings/splits, hand tools, and collective labor. For recurrent maintenance activities, seedlings and cuttings for re-plantation purpose or replace dead seedlings, stones to repair damage stone terraces and moisture conservation structures. Harvesting and transporting of area closure products such as grass and timber become a recurrent activity. Person days per hectare per year required for plantation (preparation of holes and planting) is 11.5, for harvesting and transporting harvested grass is 30, and for terrace construction is 26.5.

Area closure management is commonly practiced on degraded hills where soil is highly depleted, its water holding capacity is low, and vegetation is denuded. Usually degraded lands are used to serve for communal grazing system. The degree of land degradation becomes severe where there are high livestock and human population pressure. Management of closure area and the benefit sharing has to be regulated using agreed bylaws.

The living condition depends on subsistence crop-livestock mixed farming. On average households have 5-6 family size. Crop production is meant for home consumption with small surplus for local market. The services related to water supply, energy supply, and infrastructure are low. Besides it is an asset, animals often used to cope shocks during drought periods.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación



Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Amhara National Regional State

Especifique más el lugar :

Mecha / Yilmana Densa / Bahir Dar Zuria

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • distribuida parejamente sobre un área
Si se desconoce el área precisa, indique el área aproximada cubierta:
  • 1-10 km2

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

Area closure as an integrated SLM technology is practiced in recent years. However, the land users have their own traditional practice by closing grass lands or shrub lands during the rainy season.

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.1 Propósito(s) principal(es) de la Tecnología MST

  • conservar el ecosistema

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Mezcla de tipos de uso de tierras dentro de la misma unidad de tierras: :

Especifique el uso combinado de tierras (cultivos/ pastoreo/ árboles):
  • Agropastoralismo (incluyendo cultivo-ganado integrados)

Tierras cultivadas

Tierras cultivadas

  • Cultivos perennes (no leñosos)
  • Cosecha de árboles y arbustos
  • Vetiver grass, Dinsho grass, Bana grass, susbania
  • A. albida, A. saligna, A. decurrense, Gravilia robusta, napier
Número de temporadas de cultivo por año:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 220, Longest growing period from month to month: May to December; Second longest growing period in days: 180, Second longest growing period from month to month: June to November

Tierra de pastoreo

Tierra de pastoreo

Pastoreo extenso:
  • Pastoralismo semi-nómada
Pastoreo intensivo/ producción de forraje:
  • Cortar y llevar/ cero pastoreo


Productos y servicios:
  • Madera
  • Leña
  • Pastoreo/ ramoneo

Livestock density (if relevant):
> 100 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Land degradation due to different forms of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, excess removal of crop residues, excessive overgrazing, shortage of pasture lands and its low productivity, excessive and inappropriate construction of traditional ditches, and increased demand of trees for the purpose of fuel wood and timber.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion, shortage of cultivated land, shortage of grazing land and wood for fuel wood

3.4 Provisión de agua

Provisión de agua para la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología:
  • de secano

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • veda de zona (detener uso, apoyar la restauración)

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas vegetativas

medidas vegetativas

  • V1: Cubierta de árboles y arbustos
  • V2: Pastos y plantas herbáceas perennes
medidas estructurales

medidas estructurales

  • S2: Taludes, bancos
  • S3: Acequias graduadas, canales, vías fluviales
  • S4: Acequias niveladas, fosas
medidas de manejo

medidas de manejo

  • M1: Cambio de tipo de uso de la tierra
  • M2: Cambio de gestión/ nivel de intensidad

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, scattered / dispersed, in blocks

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

erosión de suelos por agua

erosión de suelos por agua

  • Wt: pérdida de capa arable/ erosión de la superficie
  • Wo: efectos de degradación fuera del sitio
deterioro químico del suelo

deterioro químico del suelo

  • Cn: reducción de la fertilidad y contenido reducido de la materia orgánica del suelo (no ocasionados por la erosión)
degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo
  • Bh: pérdida de hábitats

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), overgrazing, population pressure, governance / institutional
Secondary causes of degradation: soil management, over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), land tenure, education, access to knowledge and support services

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • reducir la degradación del suelo
  • restaurar/ rehabilitar tierra severamente degradada

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Integrated practices of area closure including hillside bunds, trenches, micro-basins, and trees/shrubs
Location: Debre Yacob Learning Watershed. Mecha/West Gojam/Amhara
Date: 2014-5-23

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (Field staffs need to acquire technical knowledge on how to integrate different practices and strategies depending on the conditions and degree of degradation.)
Technical knowledge required for land users: low (Land users require low knowledge. Once they implement practices in the closure area, they are able to coordinate and respect the bylaws and equitable distribution of benefits.)

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, improvement of ground cover, increase of biomass (quantity)
Secondary technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase in organic matter, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 4000-6000
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 5
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5-1.0
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 160

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2

Trees/ shrubs species: Gravilia, Susbania, Acacia decurrence
Grass species: Napier
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20-30%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.5%

Diversion ditch/ drainage
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3-0.7
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.2-2.8
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 100-250

Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.5-2.0

Bund/ bank: level
Spacing between structures (m): 5
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-1.5

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 15-35%
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: Initially, the land is highly degraded and waste land. After an increase in vegetation cover and biomass, its use is thus changed from waste/shrub land/open grazing to cut-and-carry grazing system
Change of land use practices / intensity level: The land use management is changed from open access /communal grazing or shrub land to regulated or organized form of land use management


Bekure Melese, WLRC

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

otra / moneda nacional (especifique):


Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:


Indique el costo promedio del salario de trabajo contratado por día:


4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Preparation of seedlings March-May
2. Transporting seedlings July
3. Transporting grass splits July
4. Sowing seeds on bunds July
5. Planting of trees and shrubs July
6. Planting of grass splits or cuttings July
7. Construction of bunds or terraces February-April
8. Construction of cutoff drains and ditches Fegruary-April
9. Construction of waterways February-April
10. Surveying or layout of structures January-March
11. Consultation of the community
12. Establish bylaws to control free grazing
13. Establish user groups and arrange equitable benefit sharing

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 1766,0 1766,0 80,0
Equipo tools ha 1,0 300,6 300,6 50,0
Material para plantas seedlings ha 1,0 405,6 405,6 100,0
Material para plantas seeds ha 1,0 20,0 20,0 100,0
Material de construcción stone ha 1,0 1300,0 1300,0 100,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 3792,2
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 189,61

Duration of establishment phase: 15 month(s)

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Preparation of seedlings March-May
2. Seedling transportation July
3. Grass split transportation July
4. Planting seedlings July
5. Planting grass splits July
6. Maintenance of bunds / cutoff drains
7. Enforcing bylaws Throught the year
8. Benefit sharing among user groups Throughout the year

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 624,0 624,0 29,0
Material para plantas seedlings ha 1,0 250,0 250,0 100,0
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 874,0
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 43,7

Machinery/ tools: Spade, pickaxe, crowbar,

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

The costs of area closure affected by the labour availability, regeneration capacity of trees on the degraded lands

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Sub-húmeda

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • mediana (limosa)
  • fina/ pesada (arcilla)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • baja (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

> 50 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:


Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de mala calidad (requiere tratamiento)

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • baja

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Orientación del mercado del sistema de producción:
  • subsistencia (autoprovisionamiento)
Ingresos no agrarios:
  • menos del 10% de todos los ingresos
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • pobre
  • promedio
Individuos o grupos:
  • grupos/ comunal
  • mujeres
  • hombres
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Women has their own role in the establishment of the rea closure by collecting stones, support construction and planting activities. In addition they will harvest and transport fodder for livestock
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
80% of the land users are average wealthy.
20% of the land users are poor.

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • pequeña escala

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • estado
Derechos de uso de agua:
  • acceso abierto (no organizado)
  • comunitarios (organizado)

5.9 Acceso a servicios e infraestructura

  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
asistencia técnica:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
empleo (ej. fuera de la granja):
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
caminos y transporte:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
agua potable y saneamiento:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
servicios financieros:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos


producción de forraje

Comentarios/ especifique:

Mainly serve for grass harvest

producción animal

Comentarios/ especifique:

Cut and carry improve the production

área de producción

Comentarios/ especifique:

By improving the land use management, production area for pasture increased

Ingreso y costos

diversidad de fuentes de ingreso

Comentarios/ especifique:

People try to diverse apiculture production in closed areas

carga de trabajo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Labor requirement to harvest and transport fodder and pasture increase

Impactos socioculturales

instituciones comunitarias

se debilitaron
se fortalecieron
Comentarios/ especifique:

Establishment of user groups and watershed users association

MST/ conocimiento de la degradación del suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Increase the level of awareness that area closure can shortly reverse land degradation

mitigación de conflicto

Comentarios/ especifique:

Reduce conflict arise due to pasture shortage

situación de grupos en desventaja social y económica

Comentarios/ especifique:

Some rural unemployed youths get employed in apiculture production and fruit production

contribution to human well-being

Comentarios/ especifique:

The livestock production is moderately improved due to increase in biomass/ pasture harvest

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

cantidad de agua


escurrimiento superficial


nivel freático/ acuífero


humedad del suelo


cubierta del suelo


pérdida de suelo

Biodiversidad: vegetación, animales

biomasa/ sobre suelo C


diversidad vegetal


diversidad de hábitats

Reducción de riesgos de desastres y riesgos climáticos

riesgo de incendio


6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

corriente confiable y estable fluye en estación seca

Cantidad antes de MST:

End of Nov

Cantidad luego de MST:


Comentarios/ especifique:

Because of high vegetation cover, the recharrging capacity improved resulting in prolonging the stream flow/baseflow

inundaciones río abajo


colmatación río abajo


6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de lluvia local bien
Desastres climatológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
sequía bien
Desastres hidrológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
inundación general (río) no muy bien

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de establecimiento (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

ligeramente positivo

Ingresos a largo plazo:


¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:


Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo


Short term economic benefits can be attained by harvesting forage biomass for livestock while in the long term downstream agricultural productivity can be improved as they witnessed the change in stream flows to be used for irrigation. This is very much pronounced in Aba Gerima watershed where farmers in the downstream get to access more water.

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología


The technology is implemented in group or at community level.
The spontaneous adoption of this technology is possible without integrating plantations of improved trees/shrubs and grasses
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Adoption to area closure is increasing as it provides better pasture for livestock and benefit those who do not have power or for poor community groups

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Increase in vegetation cover and biomass production for livestock feed
Increase the duration and flow of streams
Decrease erosion
Decrease transmission of animal disease often a problem during open grazing system
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Increase the fodder and grass biomass production for livestock feed
Increase the regeneration of lost plant diversities
Create alternative livelihood options (off farm activities like honey production, timber, tree or fodder seed production)
Enhance the micro-climatic conditions and on-site vegetation cover, organic matter, and soil water holding capacity. In addition it improves off-site surface and subsurface water flows

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Land users' perceived that implementation of the technology decreases open access to communal pasture lands to maximize their benefit Awareness creation activities has to be provided
Shortage of labor to harvest and transport forages to feed animals Cost effective technologies to prepare feed, handle and transport forage has to be introduced and adopted. It can be overcomed by organizing service provider groups.
The amount of pasture/fodder produced and shared among users is much less than the feed requirement of all animals hold by a household Introduce fodder species producing high biomass and high quality fodder; decrease livestock number per household.
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Labor constraint for cut-and -carry for stall feeding It can be sustained through organizing service providers groups
Stall feeding restricted the cross breeding of animals in the village easily accessible during open grazing Artificial insemination and bull services and synchronization breeding system has to be promoted

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo
  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

7.2 Vínculos a las publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Sustaining the win-win benefits of improved grazing land management in EthiopiaPost written by Wolde Mekuria, WLE. March 30, 2015

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

WLE post

Título, autor, año, ISBN:


Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Vegetation Improvement in Communal Closed Areas in Tigray, Ethiopia.Sarah Tewolde-Berhan 1,4, Ralph Mitlöhner 2, Bart Muys3 , and Mitiku Haile 4

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Natural Regeneration Practice in Degraded High Lands of Ethiopia Through Area Enclosure Wondie Mebrat, Department of Biology, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Area Closure: Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands and Grasslands and its Multiple Benefits. WLRC Brief No. 2. June 2015

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