Approches

Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction [Bangladesh]

Protibondhita Bandhob Durjog Jhuki Rash

approaches_2001 - Bangladesh

État complet: 94%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

DRR specialist:
DRR specialist:

Islam Shahidul

+8801733143435

shahidulpls@yahoo.com

Centre for Disability in Development (CDD)

Gaibandha

Bangladesh

DRR specialist:

Dey Ashutosh

880-2-9887251 / +8801787662993

ashutosh.dey@cbm.org

CBM

Country Coordination Office CBM International H # 12 (GF) R # 2/A, Block-F Banani, Dhaka-1213

Bangladesh

DRR Specialist:
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Christoffel Blindenmission (CBM) - Suisse

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?

09/11/2016

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:

Oui

1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village
technologies

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village [Bangladesh]

The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village provides safe housing, food security and income generation for multiple families, including persons with disabilities, in a highly flood prone area of Gaibandha District in northern Bangladesh. The land was raised above flood level and is protected by deep rooted fruit trees to prevent soil ...

  • Compilateur: Subir Saha

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

The disability inclusive approach is centered around the meaningful contribution and leadership of persons with disabilties during the entire project management cycle, from the planning stage to the evaluation of the impact of a project. It contributes to empowering them to overcome social exclusion and recognizes their needs and priorities as persons who are disproportionally at risk of disaster.

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

The main charactistic and central feature of the approach is that persons with disabilties can actively and meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from sustainable land management/disaster risk reduction activities. The implementing organization needs to invest sufficient time and financial ressources into the formation and strenthening of self-representation groups of persons with disabilities and support their active engagement with the local government and the wider community to address the physical and attitudinal barriers that hinder their full participation in the project and society in general.

The aim is twofold: On the one hand, the participation of persons with disabitities ensures that their needs and priorities are fully taken into account in the project design and implementation, to ensure that they can benefit equally from it. On the other hand, it contributes to reducing barriers beyond the project and empowers them to demand their rights in other areas of human development, like education, health or livelihood.

The main stages of disability inclusion in the implementation of a SLM/DRR technology are:

1) Formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities,
2) trainings and other capacity development activities for the groups, including rights awareness sessions and organizational management trainings,
3) set up the collaboration between the groups and the local government and with other members of the community,
4) participation of persons with disabilities/group members in the planning phase to decide on the technology and adapt the technology to universal design standards, which takes into account their needs and the needs of other groups with other specific accessiblity needs, like the elderly or pregnant women,
5) persons with disabilities (together with other land users) support the introduction of the technology (including the construction activities) by providing manual labor and supervision functions
6) full handover of the technology to land users, ensuring Joint ownership includes persons with disabilities, and provision of trainings for self-maintenance,
7) participation of persons with disabilties in the evaluation of the impact of the technology, sharing of lessons and good practices and continuous advocacy for community development and for the rights of persons with disabilties.

Experience from Bangladesh shows that what the land users, including persons with disabilties, like about the approach is: The strong community engagement, the empowerment and increased status of persons with disabilities, the collaboration between persons with disabilities and persons without disability, and the adaptation of existing technology to fit the needs of persons with disability.





2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée

Pays:

Bangladesh

Région/ Etat/ Province:

Gaibandha District

Autres spécifications du lieu :

Horipur Union, Sundargonj Sub district

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:

2015

Date (année) de fin de l'Approche (si l'Approche n'est plus appliquée):

2016

Commentaires:

Project "Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village" implemented from December 2015 to September 2016.

2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

To empower persons with disabilities to meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from the implementation of an SLM/DRR technology.

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

normes et valeurs sociales/ culturelles/ religieuses
  • entrave

The social stigma and exclusion, that persons with disabilities experience in rural Bangladesh, was a challenge for the project. Persons with disabilities are sometimes believed to be incapable of contributing anything meaningful to society and village life. Some community members did not want to associate with persons with disabilities. This required an extra effort to ensure the participation of the wider community in the project and it required sustained advocacy and awareness raising for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • favorise

The financial resources for the implementation of the technology and the extra ressources needed to ensure disability inclusion, were readily available because the technology was widely and positively recognized by the community and by donors.

cadre institutionnel
  • favorise

The institutional environment was overwhelmingly supportive of the implementation of the project. The local Union Council government, schools, mosques and other civil society organizations were in favor of the technology and approach and supported the implementation.

collaboration/ coordination des acteurs
  • favorise

Beneficiaries/land users were selected in a participative process, involving the whole community. The process was transparent and inclusive. It was a foundation for the smooth collaboration with beneficiaries and other involved stakeholders later on.

cadre juridique (régime foncier, droits d'utilisation des terres et de l'eau)
  • favorise

To ensure joint ownership of beneficiaries of the land on which the SLM/DRR Technology was implemented, an exchange of land was needed. Due to the remoteness and scarce population of the implementation area in rural Bangladesh, a cooperative local government and a manageable legal framework this was easy to achieve.
A deep-rooted tube well was installed for water access of the land users. Water use rights were also easy to acquire.

cadre politique
  • favorise

No specific policies existed, which significantly affected the implementation of the technology.

gouvernance foncière (prise de décisions, mise en œuvre et application des décisions)
  • favorise

Land ownership was recognized by the local government and land governance was controlled by land owners.

connaissances sur la GDT, accès aux supports techniques
  • favorise

Indigenous knowledge about SLM was enabling for the implementation of the technology. Technical expertise by the implementing organization (NGO) was available.

marchés (pour acheter les intrants, vendre les produits) et prix
  • favorise

Inputs for construction and planting were locally available at reasonable prices.

charge de travail, disponibilité de la main-d'œuvre
  • favorise

During the lean season manpower was abundant in the area, but it was scarce during the planting season. The workload for the implementation of the technology was manageable and could easily be provided by land users themselves.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

The land users include 10 families who jointly own and inhabit the land of the cluster village.

Land users were closely engaged in the implementation of the technology by participating in decision making processes, informing the design of the technology and contributing to the construction process.

  • organisations communautaires

Self-help (self-representation) groups of persons with disabilities are informal community based groups of 15 persons with different types of disabilities (physical-, sensory- and mental disabilities).

The group is closely engaged in the implementation of the technology. It participates in decision making processes, informs the design of the technology, contributes to the construction process, is engaged in the evaluation of the technology and the sharing of learnings about it to the wider community.
The group also provides benefits for its members by supporting them with everyday challenges, which can be of economic, legal or social nature, and promotes the rights of all persons with disabilities in the community.

  • ONG

The implementing NGOs included an international and a local organization in partnership (CBM and CDD).

CDD was responsible for the overall management of project implementation and the collaboration with other involved local stakeholders. CBM provided training and technical support.

  • gouvernement local

The Union Parishad government is the lowest level of local government.

The Union Parishad government managed land ownership and approved construction projects.

3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation interactive Land users contributed to the initial situation analysis and joined self-help groups for persons with disabilities.
planification interactive Land users, and in particular those who are persons with disabilities, participated in all planning and decision making processes related to the design and introduction of the technology, including the selection of the land.
mise en œuvre soutien extérieur Land users engaged in the construction of the technology by providing paid and unpaid labor.
suivi/ évaluation interactive The land users monitored the implementation process and gave feedback to the implementing NGOs when changes were needed. Land users participated in the evaluation of the technology and the approach and contributed to the dissemination of good practices and learnings.

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)

Description:

Not available.

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • tous les acteurs concernés dans le cadre d'une approche participative
Expliquez:

The cluster village technology was known to the community before the implementation. The technology was suggested by the implementing NGOs to the community, which supported its implementation. The technology was adapted to fit the needs of persons with disabilities based on the decisions of land users with technical support of the implementing NGOs.

Spécifiez sur quelle base ont été prises les décisions:
  • l'évaluation de connaissances bien documentées en matière de GDT (prises de décision fondées sur des preuves tangibles)?

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?

Oui

Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
  • personnels/ conseillers de terrain
Si pertinent, spécifiez le sexe, l'âge, le statut, l'ethnie, etc.

10 males and 15 females, aged between 18 to 55. Three were persons with disabilities. Most of them were daily laborers and share croppers.

Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
  • zones de démonstration
  • cours
Thèmes abordés:

On the job training and demonstration on the construction and maintenance of the technology. Training to self-help groups for persons with disabilities on the rights of persons with disabilities, the use and benefits of the technology for persons with disabilities and the management of self-help groups.

Commentaires:

Training Subjects were: 1) Group dynamics and Development, 2) Disability inclusive DRR 3) Tree plantation and Vegetable Gardening using organic fertilizer 4) Government safety nets and Rights of the persons with disabilities.

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?

Oui

Spécifiez si le service de conseils est fourni:
  • dans les champs des exploitants?
  • construction/implementation of technology
Décrivez/ commentez:

The implementing NGOs provided detailed technical support to land users on the adaptation of the technology to the needs of persons with disabilities, following the standards of universal design.

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, modérément
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Décrivez l'institution, ses rôles et responsabilités, ses membres, etc.

Local self-help groups and their APEX body (umbrella group) at Union level were strengthened. Their roles of the self-help groups were to establish a mutual support network, raise awareness among group members of disability rights and development issues, pool ressources and give individual persons with disabilities a greater political voice. The APEX body gave the groups contact points beyond their immediate community and gave further weight to their political voice.

Précisez le type de soutien:
  • financier
  • renforcement des capacités/ formation
  • équipement
Donnez plus de détails:

To strengthen self-help groups, they were provided with, 1) awarness- and skill development trainings, 2) financial support for climate resilient income generation through agricultural and non-agricultural activities, and 3) assistive devices.

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :

Oui

Commentaires:

A participatory monitoring and evaluation system was implemented with support of the self-help groups for persons with disabilties.

Si oui, ce document est-il destiné à être utilisé pour le suivi et l'évaluation?

Non

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?

Non

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Indiquez le budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche en $ US:

218702,00

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • 100 000-1 000 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

The annual budget includes the total funds used for the introduction of the technology. Funds were provided through the implementing NGOs CBM and CDD, with the support of a private donor from Germany.

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?

Oui

Si oui, spécifiez le(s) type(s) de soutien, les conditions et les fournisseurs:

Land users received a daily fee for the labor provided for the introduction of the technology. The NGOs also provided most material input for the technology, including soil, sand, seeds, seedlings, grass, trees, ramp, water and sanitation facilties.

5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

  • main d'œuvre
Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
en partie financé Labor provided by land users for certain construction actvities was compensated with a daily fee.
  • équipement
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
machines entièrement financé Rent of sand extravation machine was funded by the project.
outils entièrement financé Tools for construction activities was provided to land users by the project.
  • intrants agricoles
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
semences entièrement financé Seeds and seedlings for the homestead garden was provided by the project.
fertilisants en partie financé The facility for composting organic fertilizer was provided by the project.
Plants entièrement financé Deep-rooted fruit trees and grass turfing was provided by the project.
  • matériaux de construction
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
bois en partie financé Wood for fencing for the homestead vegetable garden in front of all houses and a flood resilient cow sheds in the village was provided by the project.
Soil entièrement financé The purchase of soil for the raising of land was funded by the project.
  • infrastructures
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
routes en partie financé Construction material for barrier free connections to all houses in the village was funded by the project.
Ramp entièrement financé A ramp, connecting the cluster village with the road was funded by the project.
Si la main d'œuvre fournie par les exploitants des terres était un intrant substantiel, elle était:
  • payée en espèces
Commentaires:

A daily fee of 300 Taka was provided for labor inputs by the land users.

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?

Non

5.5 Autres incitations ou instruments

D'autres incitations ou instruments ont-ils été utilisés pour promouvoir la mise en œuvre des Technologies de GDT?

Non

6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les exploitants locaux des terres, amélioré la participation des parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The approach is based on the empowerment of land users, in particularly those who are persons with disabilites. It ensured participation of persons with disablities who would otherwise be isolated and excluded.

Est-ce que l'Approche a permis la prise de décisions fondées sur des données probantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup
Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The project supported land users with the implementation and use of the technology.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré la coordination et la mise en œuvre de la GDT selon un bon rapport coût-efficacité?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The coordination among land users has improved and actions of land management have become more cost effective.

Est-ce que l'Approche a mobilisé/ amélioré l'accès aux ressources financières pour la mise en œuvre de la GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup
Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les connaissances et les capacités des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Land users were provided with trainings and demonstrations about the implementation and use of the technology.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les connaissances et les capacités des autres parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The local goverment, other members of the community and other non-governmental organizations took note of the technology and sensitization about the rights and needs of persons with disabilties increased.

Est-ce que l'Approche a construit/ renforcé les institutions, la collaboration entre parties prenantes?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The approach strengthened the collaboration between the local government and self-help groups of persons with disabilities.

Est-ce que l'Approche a atténué les conflits?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Joint decision making and the resolution of conflicts among land users improved through the joint managment of the land.

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les groupes socialement et économiquement défavorisés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The approach empowered persons with disabilities and other land users, who all belonged to economically marginalized groups. Their social and economic status greatly improved.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré l'égalité entre hommes et femmes et autonomisé les femmes et les filles?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Land user participation in the implementation of the technology always included men and women. Self-help groups for persons with disabilities, which were formed and strengthened by the project, always included around 50% women. Meaningful participation by women in group meetings was promoted by the implementing NGOs.

Est-ce que l'Approche a encouragé les jeunes/ la prochaine génération d'exploitants des terres à s'engager dans la GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology was of of high interest for youth clubs, high school students and other young people in the community and many voiced the intention of replicating it in the future.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les questions foncières et des droits d'utilisation qui entravent la mise en œuvre des Technologies?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup
Est-ce que l'Approche a conduit à améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et/ou la nutrition?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology improved food security and nutrition through the introduction of fruit tree plantation and a homestead vegetable garden.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré l'accès aux marchés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The construction of a ramp for road access allows wheelchair users and other persons with limited mobility to better access local markets.

Est-ce que l'Approche a conduit à améliorer l'accès à l'eau et l'assainissement?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology improved water access through the drilling of a deep bore hole water source for common water access and the construction of barrier free household latrines.

Est-ce que l'Approche a conduit à l'utilisation/ sources d'énergie plus durables?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology lead to more sustainable energy use through the provision of household based mini solar systems.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré la capacité des exploitants des terres à s'adapter aux changements/ extrêmes climatiques et a atténué les catastrophes liées au climat?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology offers a safe and accessible space for housing, fruit and vegetable cultivation and livestock shelter. It greatly improved the capacity of land users to adapt to the increasing occurence and intensity of monsoon floods.

Est-ce que l'Approche a conduit à des emplois, des opportunités de revenus?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The technology improved income opportunities through the introduction of a flood resilient fruit tree plantation and homestead vegetable garden. Part of the harvest can be sold on the market.

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • augmenter la production

Vegetable production and fruit production increased and is more flood resilient.

  • réduire la dégradation des terres

Soil erosion and land degradation in the custer village reduced.

  • réduire les risques de catastrophe

Reduction of disaster risk was the main motivating factor for land users. The cluster village is a flood-resilient safe-place providing shelter for the whole community, including their livestock, during flood season.

  • réduire la charge de travail

Household works and household based income generating activities have become easier to organize because of the safety and reliable energy supply that the cluster village provides.

  • affiliation à un mouvement/ projet/ groupe/ réseaux

Joint ownership of the cluster village by land users, who all belonged to an economically marginalized part of the community (daily laborers and share-croppers) and the formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities, have greatly improved social cohesion among land users.

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • incertain
Si non ou incertain, spécifiez et commentez:

The maintenance of the cluster village (including grass turfing, tree plantation, vegetable garden, solar panels, water and sanitation facilities) is currently managed by land users themselves . Long-term sustainability cannot be evaluated yet.

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Land users greatly apprechiate the empowerment and social cohesion that the approach enabled. Decisions are taken together and conflicts in the village can be mitigated. The Cluster Village has become a safe space and meeting point for the whole community.
The Cluster Village is fully inclusive of persons with disabilities (inclusion in decision making processes and social activities and fully accessible infrastructure), which is something that land users are proud of because it is the first such set-up in the community and is apprechiated as a model by others.
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Meaningful participation and of persons with disabilities in project implementation has a signaling effect beyond the project and fosters sensitization of the local government and wider community for more inclusive community development and principles of universal design.
Formation of self-help groups of persons with disabilities and their active engagement with the wider community on community development issues, which go beyond the rights and needs of persons with disabilites, lead to empowerment and geater social inclusion of persons with disabilities.

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Technical knowledge gap when it comes to the maintenance of the technology and the continuous dependence on external support. Invest sufficient ressources in trainings and capacity building and emphasis and formalize the transfer of ownership of the technology to land users.
Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Formation and strenthening of self-help groups of persons with disabilties to the level where they are sustainable and able to make significant contributions to the projects and community development and demand their rights, takes significant ressources with regard to time and funds invested. Strong committment of the implementing organization to inclusive programming and sufficient internal capacity building.

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain

6

  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres

10

  • interviews/ entretiens avec les spécialistes/ experts de GDT

2

  • compilation à partir de rapports et d'autres documents existants

5

7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Disability inclusive disaster risk managment, CBM, 2013

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/54741/Disability_Inclusive_Disaster_Risk_Management.pdf

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