方法

Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction [孟加拉国]

Protibondhita Bandhob Durjog Jhuki Rash

approaches_2001 - 孟加拉国

完整性: 94%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人员

DRR specialist:
DRR specialist:

Islam Shahidul

+8801733143435

shahidulpls@yahoo.com

Centre for Disability in Development (CDD)

Gaibandha

孟加拉国

DRR specialist:

Dey Ashutosh

880-2-9887251 / +8801787662993

ashutosh.dey@cbm.org

CBM

Country Coordination Office CBM International H # 12 (GF) R # 2/A, Block-F Banani, Dhaka-1213

孟加拉国

DRR Specialist:
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Christoffel Blindenmission (CBM) - 瑞士

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

09/11/2016

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 SLM技术问卷的参考

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village
technologies

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village [孟加拉国]

The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village provides safe housing, food security and income generation for multiple families, including persons with disabilities, in a highly flood prone area of Gaibandha District in northern Bangladesh. The land was raised above flood level and is protected by deep rooted fruit trees to prevent soil ...

  • 编制者: Subir Saha

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

The disability inclusive approach is centered around the meaningful contribution and leadership of persons with disabilties during the entire project management cycle, from the planning stage to the evaluation of the impact of a project. It contributes to empowering them to overcome social exclusion and recognizes their needs and priorities as persons who are disproportionally at risk of disaster.

2.2 该方法的详细说明

该方法的详细说明:

The main charactistic and central feature of the approach is that persons with disabilties can actively and meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from sustainable land management/disaster risk reduction activities. The implementing organization needs to invest sufficient time and financial ressources into the formation and strenthening of self-representation groups of persons with disabilities and support their active engagement with the local government and the wider community to address the physical and attitudinal barriers that hinder their full participation in the project and society in general.

The aim is twofold: On the one hand, the participation of persons with disabitities ensures that their needs and priorities are fully taken into account in the project design and implementation, to ensure that they can benefit equally from it. On the other hand, it contributes to reducing barriers beyond the project and empowers them to demand their rights in other areas of human development, like education, health or livelihood.

The main stages of disability inclusion in the implementation of a SLM/DRR technology are:

1) Formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities,
2) trainings and other capacity development activities for the groups, including rights awareness sessions and organizational management trainings,
3) set up the collaboration between the groups and the local government and with other members of the community,
4) participation of persons with disabilities/group members in the planning phase to decide on the technology and adapt the technology to universal design standards, which takes into account their needs and the needs of other groups with other specific accessiblity needs, like the elderly or pregnant women,
5) persons with disabilities (together with other land users) support the introduction of the technology (including the construction activities) by providing manual labor and supervision functions
6) full handover of the technology to land users, ensuring Joint ownership includes persons with disabilities, and provision of trainings for self-maintenance,
7) participation of persons with disabilties in the evaluation of the impact of the technology, sharing of lessons and good practices and continuous advocacy for community development and for the rights of persons with disabilties.

Experience from Bangladesh shows that what the land users, including persons with disabilties, like about the approach is: The strong community engagement, the empowerment and increased status of persons with disabilities, the collaboration between persons with disabilities and persons without disability, and the adaptation of existing technology to fit the needs of persons with disability.





2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点

国家:

孟加拉国

区域/州/省:

Gaibandha District

有关地点的进一步说明:

Horipur Union, Sundargonj Sub district

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期

注明开始年份:

2015

终止年份(若不再采用该方法):

2016

注释:

Project "Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village" implemented from December 2015 to September 2016.

2.7 方法的类型

  • 基于项目/方案

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

To empower persons with disabilities to meaningfully participate in, contribute to and benefit from the implementation of an SLM/DRR technology.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

社会/文化/宗教规范和价值观
  • 阻碍

The social stigma and exclusion, that persons with disabilities experience in rural Bangladesh, was a challenge for the project. Persons with disabilities are sometimes believed to be incapable of contributing anything meaningful to society and village life. Some community members did not want to associate with persons with disabilities. This required an extra effort to ensure the participation of the wider community in the project and it required sustained advocacy and awareness raising for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.

财务资源和服务的可用性/可得性
  • 启动

The financial resources for the implementation of the technology and the extra ressources needed to ensure disability inclusion, were readily available because the technology was widely and positively recognized by the community and by donors.

机构设置
  • 启动

The institutional environment was overwhelmingly supportive of the implementation of the project. The local Union Council government, schools, mosques and other civil society organizations were in favor of the technology and approach and supported the implementation.

参与者的的协作/协调
  • 启动

Beneficiaries/land users were selected in a participative process, involving the whole community. The process was transparent and inclusive. It was a foundation for the smooth collaboration with beneficiaries and other involved stakeholders later on.

法律框架(土地使用权、土地和水使用权)
  • 启动

To ensure joint ownership of beneficiaries of the land on which the SLM/DRR Technology was implemented, an exchange of land was needed. Due to the remoteness and scarce population of the implementation area in rural Bangladesh, a cooperative local government and a manageable legal framework this was easy to achieve.
A deep-rooted tube well was installed for water access of the land users. Water use rights were also easy to acquire.

政策
  • 启动

No specific policies existed, which significantly affected the implementation of the technology.

土地治理(决策、实施和执行)
  • 启动

Land ownership was recognized by the local government and land governance was controlled by land owners.

了解SLM,获得技术支持
  • 启动

Indigenous knowledge about SLM was enabling for the implementation of the technology. Technical expertise by the implementing organization (NGO) was available.

市场(购买投入,销售产品)和价格
  • 启动

Inputs for construction and planting were locally available at reasonable prices.

工作量、人力资源可用性
  • 启动

During the lean season manpower was abundant in the area, but it was scarce during the planting season. The workload for the implementation of the technology was manageable and could easily be provided by land users themselves.

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区

The land users include 10 families who jointly own and inhabit the land of the cluster village.

Land users were closely engaged in the implementation of the technology by participating in decision making processes, informing the design of the technology and contributing to the construction process.

  • 社区组织

Self-help (self-representation) groups of persons with disabilities are informal community based groups of 15 persons with different types of disabilities (physical-, sensory- and mental disabilities).

The group is closely engaged in the implementation of the technology. It participates in decision making processes, informs the design of the technology, contributes to the construction process, is engaged in the evaluation of the technology and the sharing of learnings about it to the wider community.
The group also provides benefits for its members by supporting them with everyday challenges, which can be of economic, legal or social nature, and promotes the rights of all persons with disabilities in the community.

  • NGO

The implementing NGOs included an international and a local organization in partnership (CBM and CDD).

CDD was responsible for the overall management of project implementation and the collaboration with other involved local stakeholders. CBM provided training and technical support.

  • 地方政府

The Union Parishad government is the lowest level of local government.

The Union Parishad government managed land ownership and approved construction projects.

3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 互动 Land users contributed to the initial situation analysis and joined self-help groups for persons with disabilities.
计划 互动 Land users, and in particular those who are persons with disabilities, participated in all planning and decision making processes related to the design and introduction of the technology, including the selection of the land.
实施 外部支持 Land users engaged in the construction of the technology by providing paid and unpaid labor.
监测/评估 互动 The land users monitored the implementation process and gave feedback to the implementing NGOs when changes were needed. Land users participated in the evaluation of the technology and the approach and contributed to the dissemination of good practices and learnings.

3.3 流程图(如可用)

具体说明:

Not available.

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

具体说明谁有权决定选择要实施的技术:
  • 所有相关参与者,作为参与式方法的一部分
解释:

The cluster village technology was known to the community before the implementation. The technology was suggested by the implementing NGOs to the community, which supported its implementation. The technology was adapted to fit the needs of persons with disabilities based on the decisions of land users with technical support of the implementing NGOs.

明确做出决策的依据:
  • 对充分记录的SLM知识进行评估(基于证据的决策)

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训

是否为土地使用者/其他利益相关者提供培训?:

明确受训人员:
  • 土地使用者
  • 现场工作人员/顾问
如果相关,请说明性别、年龄、地位、种族等。:

10 males and 15 females, aged between 18 to 55. Three were persons with disabilities. Most of them were daily laborers and share croppers.

培训形式:
  • 在职
  • 示范区域
  • 课程
涵盖的主题:

On the job training and demonstration on the construction and maintenance of the technology. Training to self-help groups for persons with disabilities on the rights of persons with disabilities, the use and benefits of the technology for persons with disabilities and the management of self-help groups.

注释:

Training Subjects were: 1) Group dynamics and Development, 2) Disability inclusive DRR 3) Tree plantation and Vegetable Gardening using organic fertilizer 4) Government safety nets and Rights of the persons with disabilities.

4.2 咨询服务

土地使用者有权使用咨询服务吗?:

指明是否提供了咨询服务:
  • 在土地使用者的土地上
  • construction/implementation of technology
说明/注释:

The implementing NGOs provided detailed technical support to land users on the adaptation of the technology to the needs of persons with disabilities, following the standards of universal design.

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

是否通过这种方法建立或加强了机构?:
  • 是,适度
具体说明机构的强化或建立程度:
  • 本地
说明机构、角色和职责、成员等。:

Local self-help groups and their APEX body (umbrella group) at Union level were strengthened. Their roles of the self-help groups were to establish a mutual support network, raise awareness among group members of disability rights and development issues, pool ressources and give individual persons with disabilities a greater political voice. The APEX body gave the groups contact points beyond their immediate community and gave further weight to their political voice.

具体说明支持类型:
  • 财务
  • 能力建设/培训
  • 设备
提供进一步细节:

To strengthen self-help groups, they were provided with, 1) awarness- and skill development trainings, 2) financial support for climate resilient income generation through agricultural and non-agricultural activities, and 3) assistive devices.

4.4 监测和评估

监测和评估是该方法的一部分吗?:

注释:

A participatory monitoring and evaluation system was implemented with support of the self-help groups for persons with disabilties.

若是,该文件是否用于监测和评估?:

4.5 研究

研究是该方法的一部分吗?

5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

说明该方法中SLM部分的年度预算,单位为美元:

218702.00

如果不知道准确的年度预算,请给出一个范围:
  • 100,000-1,000,000
注释(例如主要的资助来源/主要捐助者):

The annual budget includes the total funds used for the introduction of the technology. Funds were provided through the implementing NGOs CBM and CDD, with the support of a private donor from Germany.

5.2 为土地使用者提供财政/物质支援

土地使用者是否获得实施该技术的财政/物质支持?:

如果是,请具体说明支持的类型、条件和提供者:

Land users received a daily fee for the labor provided for the introduction of the technology. The NGOs also provided most material input for the technology, including soil, sand, seeds, seedlings, grass, trees, ramp, water and sanitation facilties.

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 劳动力
程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
部分融资 Labor provided by land users for certain construction actvities was compensated with a daily fee.
  • 设备
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
机械 充分融资 Rent of sand extravation machine was funded by the project.
工具 充分融资 Tools for construction activities was provided to land users by the project.
  • 农业
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
种子 充分融资 Seeds and seedlings for the homestead garden was provided by the project.
化肥 部分融资 The facility for composting organic fertilizer was provided by the project.
Plants 充分融资 Deep-rooted fruit trees and grass turfing was provided by the project.
  • 建筑
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
木材 部分融资 Wood for fencing for the homestead vegetable garden in front of all houses and a flood resilient cow sheds in the village was provided by the project.
Soil 充分融资 The purchase of soil for the raising of land was funded by the project.
  • 基建
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
道路 部分融资 Construction material for barrier free connections to all houses in the village was funded by the project.
Ramp 充分融资 A ramp, connecting the cluster village with the road was funded by the project.
如果土地使用者的劳动力是一项重要的投入,那么是不是:
  • 以现金支付
注释:

A daily fee of 300 Taka was provided for labor inputs by the land users.

5.4 信用

是否根据SLM活动的方法给予信用值?:

5.5 其它激励或手段

是否有其他激励措施或工具用于促进SLM技术的实施?:

6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

该方法是否有助于当地土地使用者,提高利益相关者的参与度?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach is based on the empowerment of land users, in particularly those who are persons with disabilites. It ensured participation of persons with disablities who would otherwise be isolated and excluded.

这种方法是否有助于基于证据的决策?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大
该方法是否帮助土地使用者实施和维护SLM技术?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The project supported land users with the implementation and use of the technology.

该方法是否提高了SLM的协调性和成本效益?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The coordination among land users has improved and actions of land management have become more cost effective.

该方法是否调动/改善了使用财务资源实施SLM的途径?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大
该方法是否提高了土地使用者实施土地管理的知识和能力?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Land users were provided with trainings and demonstrations about the implementation and use of the technology.

该方法是否提高了其他利益相关者的知识和能力?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The local goverment, other members of the community and other non-governmental organizations took note of the technology and sensitization about the rights and needs of persons with disabilties increased.

该方法是否建立/加强了机构、利益相关者之间的合作?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach strengthened the collaboration between the local government and self-help groups of persons with disabilities.

该方法是否缓解了冲突?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Joint decision making and the resolution of conflicts among land users improved through the joint managment of the land.

该方法是否有助于社会和经济弱势群体?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach empowered persons with disabilities and other land users, who all belonged to economically marginalized groups. Their social and economic status greatly improved.

该方法是否改善了性别平等并赋予女性权力?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Land user participation in the implementation of the technology always included men and women. Self-help groups for persons with disabilities, which were formed and strengthened by the project, always included around 50% women. Meaningful participation by women in group meetings was promoted by the implementing NGOs.

该方法是否鼓励年轻人/下一代土地使用者参与SLM?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology was of of high interest for youth clubs, high school students and other young people in the community and many voiced the intention of replicating it in the future.

该方法是否改善了阻碍SLM技术实施的土地使用权/用户权问题?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大
该方法是否改善了粮食安全/改善了营养?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology improved food security and nutrition through the introduction of fruit tree plantation and a homestead vegetable garden.

该方法是否改善了市场准入?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The construction of a ramp for road access allows wheelchair users and other persons with limited mobility to better access local markets.

该方法是否改善了供水和卫生条件?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology improved water access through the drilling of a deep bore hole water source for common water access and the construction of barrier free household latrines.

该方法是否带来了更可持续的能源使用?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology lead to more sustainable energy use through the provision of household based mini solar systems.

该方法是否提高了土地使用者适应气候变化/极端情况和减轻气候相关灾害的能力?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology offers a safe and accessible space for housing, fruit and vegetable cultivation and livestock shelter. It greatly improved the capacity of land users to adapt to the increasing occurence and intensity of monsoon floods.

该方法是否会带来就业、收入机会?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The technology improved income opportunities through the introduction of a flood resilient fruit tree plantation and homestead vegetable garden. Part of the harvest can be sold on the market.

6.2 土地使用者实施SLM的主要动机

  • 增加生产

Vegetable production and fruit production increased and is more flood resilient.

  • 减少土地退化

Soil erosion and land degradation in the custer village reduced.

  • 降低灾害风险

Reduction of disaster risk was the main motivating factor for land users. The cluster village is a flood-resilient safe-place providing shelter for the whole community, including their livestock, during flood season.

  • 减少工作量

Household works and household based income generating activities have become easier to organize because of the safety and reliable energy supply that the cluster village provides.

  • 加入运动/项目/团体/网络

Joint ownership of the cluster village by land users, who all belonged to an economically marginalized part of the community (daily laborers and share-croppers) and the formation of self-help groups for persons with disabilities, have greatly improved social cohesion among land users.

6.3 方法活动的可持续性

土地使用者能否维持通过该方法实施的措施(无外部支持的情况下)?:
  • 不确定
若否或不确定,请具体说明并予以注释:

The maintenance of the cluster village (including grass turfing, tree plantation, vegetable garden, solar panels, water and sanitation facilities) is currently managed by land users themselves . Long-term sustainability cannot be evaluated yet.

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Land users greatly apprechiate the empowerment and social cohesion that the approach enabled. Decisions are taken together and conflicts in the village can be mitigated. The Cluster Village has become a safe space and meeting point for the whole community.
The Cluster Village is fully inclusive of persons with disabilities (inclusion in decision making processes and social activities and fully accessible infrastructure), which is something that land users are proud of because it is the first such set-up in the community and is apprechiated as a model by others.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Meaningful participation and of persons with disabilities in project implementation has a signaling effect beyond the project and fosters sensitization of the local government and wider community for more inclusive community development and principles of universal design.
Formation of self-help groups of persons with disabilities and their active engagement with the wider community on community development issues, which go beyond the rights and needs of persons with disabilites, lead to empowerment and geater social inclusion of persons with disabilities.

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Technical knowledge gap when it comes to the maintenance of the technology and the continuous dependence on external support. Invest sufficient ressources in trainings and capacity building and emphasis and formalize the transfer of ownership of the technology to land users.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Formation and strenthening of self-help groups of persons with disabilties to the level where they are sustainable and able to make significant contributions to the projects and community development and demand their rights, takes significant ressources with regard to time and funds invested. Strong committment of the implementing organization to inclusive programming and sufficient internal capacity building.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查

6

  • 与土地使用者的访谈

10

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

2

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

5

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Disability inclusive disaster risk managment, CBM, 2013

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

http://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/54741/Disability_Inclusive_Disaster_Risk_Management.pdf

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