ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

Submerged drains [ເນເທີແລນ]

  • ​ການ​ສ້າງ:
  • ​ປັບ​ປູງ:
  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ
  • ບັນ​ນາ​ທິ​ການ
  • ຜູ້ທົບທວນຄືນ ,

Onderwaterdrains (NL)

technologies_1704 - ເນເທີແລນ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 80%

1. ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ

1.2 ຂໍ້ມູນ ການຕິດຕໍ່ພົວພັນ ຂອງບຸກຄົນທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ແລະ ສະຖາບັນ ທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນການປະເມີນເອກກະສານ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ບັນດາຜູ້ຕອບແບບສອບຖາມທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ()

ຜຸ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

Van de Akker Jan J.H.

Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra)

ເນເທີແລນ

ຜຸ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:
ຊື່ໂຄງການ ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ/ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra) - ເນເທີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Provincie Holland Zuid - ເນເທີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Provincie Utrecht - ເນເທີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
LTO NOORD - ເນເທີແລນ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Waterschap Amstel, Gooi en Vecht - ເນເທີແລນ

1.3 ເງື່ອນໄຂ ກ່ຽວກັບ ການນໍາໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນເອກະສານ ທີ່ສ້າງຂື້ນ ໂດຍຜ່ານ ອົງການພາບລວມຂອງໂລກ ທາງດ້ານແນວທາງ ແລະ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການອານຸລັກ ທໍາມະຊາດ (WOCAT)

ຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ແລະ ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ທີ່ໃຫ້ຂໍ້ມູນ (ຫຼາຍ) ຍິນຍອມ ຕາມເງື່ອນໄຂ ໃນການນຳໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນ ເພື່ອສ້າງເປັນເອກກະສານຂອງ WOCAT:

ແມ່ນ

2. ການອະທິບາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

2.1 ຄໍາອະທິບາຍສັ້ນຂອງ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການກຳໜົດຄວາມໝາຍ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:

Submerged drains are drains installed in grassland on peatsoils with the aims to decrease soil subsidence and emission of CO2 and N2O due to the oxidation of peat soil, and to maintain suitable groundwater levels in fields for grassland production and grazing.

2.2 ການອະທິບາຍ ລາຍລະອຽດ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການພັນລະນາ:

Contrary to usual drains, submerged drains are installed below ditchwater level. Submerged drains diminish the differences between ditch level and groundwater level in the fields by enabling the infiltration from ditch to field and the drainage from field to ditch.
In summer and dry periods the infiltration from ditch to field is much lower than the evapotranspiration of the grass, resulting in a lowering of the groundwater level some decimetres below ditch water level. With submerged drains the groundwater level is lowered less drastically because infiltration from ditch to field is improved. In winter and wet periods, fields are drained more quickly compared to conventional drainage.

Purpose of the Technology: Submerged drains diminish the differences between ditch level and groundwater level in the fields by enabling the infiltration from ditch to field and the drainage from field to ditch. Under peak rainfall events groundwater levels become less high and remain at high levels for shorter times than in fields without submerged drains.
Due to the increased groundwater level in summer the decomposition of the peat soil is reduced. As a result, the rate of soil subsidence is decreased and also the emission of greenhouse gases and of N and P released to the surface water.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The installation of submerged drains is done with common drainage installation machines. Submerged drains should be installed between 15 and 25 cm below the ditch water level, and between 45 and 75 cm below the soil surface. The drain pipes should have a diameter of at least 6 cm. The distance between drains is at most 6 m. Drain length is at most 300 m. Submerged drains can be installed in the length or width direction of a field. Drains must be installed level.

Natural / human environment: Submerged drains were designed for peat soils under permanent pasture for dairy farming. More than 70 % of Dutch peat soils are under this land use. Drainage of these peat soils results in subsidence, mainly by decomposition (oxidation) of the peat (partly by shrinkage and consolidation). This is an ongoing process, because every 10 to 15 year ditchwater levels are adapted to the lowered surface in order to enable dairy farming and to prevent the conversion to wetlands. Soil subsidence causes several problems: decreased suitability for grazing and grassland farming, increased flood risk, emission of greenhouse gases, damage to infrastructure (dikes, roads, foundations, sewerage networks) and increased cost of water management.

Submerged drains were tested with a network of practitioners and 10 dairy farmers in the Dutch peat soil area between 2011 and 2013 on an area of 20 ha.

2.3 ຮູບພາບຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

2.5 ປະເທດ / ເຂດ / ສະຖານທີ່ບ່ອນທີ່ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຮັບການນໍາໃຊ້ ແລະ ທີ່ຖືກປົກຄຸມດ້ວຍການປະເມີນຜົນ

ປະເທດ:

ເນເທີແລນ

ພາກພື້ນ / ລັດ / ແຂວງ:

The Netherlands/Province of Zuid-Holland

ຂໍ້ມູນເພີ່ມເຕີມຂອງສະຖານທີ່:

Krimpenerwaard

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ການແຜ່ຂະຫຍາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ແຜ່ຂະຫຍາຍຢ່າງໄວວາໃນພື້ນທີ່
ຖ້າຫາກວ່າເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ກະຈາຍໄປທົ່ວພື້ນທີ່, ໃຫ້ລະບຸເນື້ອທີ່ ທີ່ຖືກປົກຄຸມ (ເປັນ ກິໂລຕາແມັດ):

0.054

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.054 m2.

The measure was tested in three pilots in the areas Krimpenerwaard, Keulevaart and Demmerkiksekade. Each pilot covered two fields: one with submerged drains and one without. The area given refers to the pilot in the Krimpenerwaard.

2.6 ວັນທີໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າ ບໍ່ຮູ້ຈັກ ປີທີ່ຊັດເຈນ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ປະມານ ວັນທີເອົາ:
  • ຕໍ່າກວ່າ 10 ປີ ຜ່ານມາ (ມາເຖິງປະຈຸບັນ)

2.7 ການນໍາສະເໜີ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດຄືແນວໃດ?
  • ໃນໄລຍະການທົດລອງ / ການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ
  • ໂດຍຜ່ານໂຄງການ / ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອຈາກພາຍນອກ
  • stimulated by regional authorities
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ (ປະເພດ ໂຄງການ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ):

Since 2003 submerged drains have been applied on several experimental farms in The Netherlands. Implementations over larger areas (i.e. a water management unit, 'peilval' in Dutch) will be done in 2016.

2007: research on soil subsidence in the Western peat area following the large scale groundweter level lowering in the 1960s and 1970s signalled the high rate of soil subsidence (5-12 mm/y) (Van den Akker et al., 2007a)

2008: concerns about soil subsidence in the western peat area from the provincial autorities of Noord-Holland, Utrecht and Zuid-Holland in the policy document 'Voorloper Groene Hart' (2008)

2008-2012: various research projects to test the effectiveness of submerged drains to reduce soil subsidence and to improve conditions for dairy farming, and on the effects for water quality: www.waarheenmethetveen.nl, Hoving et al. (2008), Woestenburg (2009), EU project EUROPEAT, Woestenburg et al. 2009; Jansen et al., 2010; Hendriks and Van den Akker, 2012; Hoving et al. (2008, 2009, 2013)

2011-2012: research on the Peat Area Innovation Centre (VIC) to test effects of submerged drainage in combination with dynamic groundwater level management (Hoving et al., 2013)

2012- testing by research instsiutes of economic viability of submerged drains with regard to water level management and agricultural productivity, on assignment of the province Noord-Holland, waterboard Hollands Noorderkwartier.

2009-2011: various modelling studies assigned by the provinces and water boards of the western peat meadow area on the effects of submerged drains for the demand for inlet and discharge of water and effects on the decomposition of peat and the water quality.

2011: model research on effects of submerged drains on the water demand of the western peat area until 2050 under climate change (Van den Akker et al., 2011)

2010-2013 experimental research in 3 pilots initiated by the province of Utrecht and Zuid-Holland, four water boards and the farmers' organisation LTO Noord. Aim: to test if the application of submerged drains results in larger amounts of water to supply and to discharge from the peat meadow area, and to test if the submerged drains result in a larger load of nutrients to ditches,

3. ການໃຈ້ແຍກ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

3.2 ປະເພດການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃນປະຈຸບັນ() ທີ່ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກນໍາໃຊ້

ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດ

ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດ

ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດແບບສຸມ / ການຜະລິດອາຫານສັດ:
  • ປັບປຸງ ທົ່ງຫຍ້າ
  • cows
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The major land use problems in the Western Dutch peat soil area is soil subsidence due to the lowering of the groundwater level in the 1960s and 1970s. The soil subsidence amounts to 0-2.5 cm per year. It is mainly caused by the oxidation of peat soil, which releases nutrients to soil and surface water, and CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere. The soil subsidence causes several problems:
- damage to buildings and infrastructure
- increasing costs of water management: high groundwater levels require pumping of water to enable agricultural use, and storage of rainfall excess water during peak rainfall events
- drainage of nature reserves to lowered agricultural land
- water pollution: the lowering of the groundwater level causes upward seepage of nutrient-rich water to polders
- greenhouse gas emissions (2-3% of total CO2 emissions in The Netherlands)
- loss of peat soils (2% per year in the NL)
- increased flood risk (due to combination with sealevel rise)

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Grassland and arable farming are hampered by high groundwater levels due to a lowered bearing capacity and too wet conditions for crops. Maintaining the groundwater level at a level high enough to prevent the decomposition of peat soil would imply a conversion to wetlands and forest swamps. This is not acceptable to various kinds of land users (nature managers, farmers, users of built-up area). This would also mean the loss of the cultural historic open landscape and habitat for meadow birds, strongly reduced economic possibilities and an increased demand of water from the rivers (view of water managers and governments).

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Grazing land: Gi: Intensive grazing/ fodder production

Longest growing period in days: 270Longest growing period from month to month: April-October
Livestock density: > 100 LU /km2

3.3 ການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີການປ່ຽນແປງຍ້ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງທົດລອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແມ່ນບໍ່?

ການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີການປ່ຽນແປງຍ້ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງທົດລອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແມ່ນບໍ່?
  • ແມ່ນ (ກະລຸນາຕື່ມໃສ່ ຄຳຖາມຂ້າງລຸ່ມນີ້ກ່ຽວກັບການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ກ່ອນການທົດລອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ)
ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດ

ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດ

  • Intensive grazing/ fodder production

3.4 ການສະໜອງນ້ຳ

ການສະໜອງນໍ້າ ໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ນໍ້າຝົນ

3.5 ການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ຢູ່ໃນກຸ່ມການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

  • ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍຂອງນໍ້າ ແລະ ການລະບາຍ
  • ການຈັດການນໍ້າໄຕ້ດິນ

3.6 ມາດຕະການ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ ປະກອບດ້ວຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ມາດຕະການໂຄງສ້າງ

ມາດຕະການໂຄງສ້າງ

  • S4: ລະດັບຮ່ອງ, ຂຸມ
ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ

  • M7: ອື່ນໆ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Main measures: management measures

Specification of other management measures: maintaining high groundwater level

3.7 ປະເພດດິນເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຫຼັກທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງເຄມີ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງເຄມີ

  • Cn: ຄວາມອຸດົມສົມບູນ ລົດໜ້ອຍຖອຍລົງ ແລະ ສານອິນຊີວັດຖຸລົດລົງ (ບໍ່ແມ່ນສາເຫດມາຈາກການເຊາະເຈື່ອນ)
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

  • ນ້ຳຂັງ
  • Ps: ຊຸດຂອງດິນອົງຄະທາດ, ການຕັ້ງຖິ່ນຖານຂອງດິນ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

  • Hg: ການປ່ຽນແປງ ລະດັບນ້ຳໃຕ້ດິນ ຫຼື ນ້ຳບາດານ
  • Hp: ຄຸນນະພາບ ຂອງນ້ຳຊັ້ນໜ້າດິນຫຼຸດລົງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ps: subsidence of organic soils, settling of soil

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pw: waterlogging, Hg: change in groundwater / aquifer level, Hp: decline of surface water quality

Main causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (lowering of the groundwater level to enable agricultural use of the peat soils results in soil subsidence and detioration of ground- and surface water quality due to capillary rise)

Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature (higher temperatures under climate change increase the decomposition rate of peat soil; subsidence and CO2 emissions will increase by 75%), change of seasonal rainfall (decrease in summer rainfall (23% in warm and dry CC scenario for NL)), inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …) (maintenance of high water levels in built-up and natural areas increases the difference in groundwater level with agricultural land onb peat soils)

3.8 ການປ້ອງກັນ, ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ, ຫຼືການຟື້ນຟູຂອງການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເປົ້າໝາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ພົວພັນ ກັບຄວາມເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ:
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

4. ຂໍ້ກໍາໜົດ, ກິດຈະກໍາການປະຕິບັດ, ວັດຖຸດິບ, ແລະຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

4.1 ເຕັກນິກ ໃນການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

The picture shows a cross section through an agricultural field, bounded by two ditches. A submerged drain (yellow bar in the picture) is installed at 80 cm below the soil surface. It ends in the ditch on the left side at 20 cm below the water level in the ditch. The dotted line indicates the position of the groundwater table in the situation without the submerged drain; the continuous blue line indicates the position in the situation where the submerged drain is installed. The lines show that in summer the groundwater level is raised to nearly the level of the ditch water by the submerged drain, whereas the level would be approximately 30 cm lower without the drain.
In winter, in the situation with the submerged drain, the groundwater level is around 40 cm below the soil surface. This enables the farmer to use the field for grazing or to traffic the field. However, in the situation without the drain, the groundwater level nearly reaches the soil surface in the centre of the field, impeding traffic or grazing on the field.

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (Estimates of economic benefits due to increased grass production and grazing periods vary between years with meteorological conditions.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Specific conditions apply to the dimensions and positioning of submerged drains in the fields. Level position and lebgth are critical.)

Technical knowledge required for companies installing the drains: moderate (Specific conditions apply to the dimensions and positioning of submerged drains in the fields. Level position and lebgth are critical. Soil must have sufficient bearing capacity during installation.)

Technical knowledge required for water board: moderate (submerged drains increase the water supply and discharge from groundwater level management units. Additional pumping effort can be prevented by informed water level management.)

Technical knowledge required for researchers: (the implications of submerged drains on the water management in an entire management unit should be explored using coupled hydraulic and rainfall-runoff models.)

Main technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), maintaining soil organic matter

Secondary technical functions: increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, drainage of excess rainfall

Other type of management: Maintaining high groundwater levels.

ຜູ້ຂຽນ:

Jan van den Akker, Alterra, Droevendaalsesteeeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands

4.2 ຂໍ້ມູນທົ່ວໄປກ່ຽວກັບການຄິດໄລ່ປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າໃນການຜະລິດ ແລະ ມູນຄ່າອື່ນໆ

ສະກຸນເງິນອື່ນໆ / ປະເທດອື່ນໆ (ລະບຸ):

euro

ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸອັດຕາແລກປ່ຽນຈາກ USD ເປັນສະກຸນເງິນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ (ເຊັ່ນ: 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

1.09

4.3 ການສ້າງຕັ້ງກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ Timing (season)
1. maintenance of drains and outlet in ditch
2. installation of submerged drains in dry periods

4.4 ຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ປັດໄຈຂາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນໃນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ແຮງງານ maintenance of drains and outlet in ditch ha 1.0 30.14 30.14 100.0
ແຮງງານ installation of submerged drains ha 1.0 1980.0 1980.0 100.0
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 2010.14
ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍທັງໝົດ ສຳລັບການສ້າງຕັ້ງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເປັນສະກຸນເງີນໂດລາ 1844.17
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Lifespan of the drains: 30 years

4.5 ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ / ແຜນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ ໄລຍະເວລາ / ຄວາມຖີ່
1. maintenance of submerged drains several times in lifetime of drains (30 y)

4.6 ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ແລະ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນສໍາລັບການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາກິດຈະກໍາ / ແຜນປະຕິບັດ (ຕໍ່ປີ)

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ອື່ນໆ Annual cost incl maintenance ha 1.0 127.0 127.0 100.0
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ໃຊ້ໃນການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 127.0
ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍທັງໝົດ ສຳລັບການບົວລະບັດຮກສາເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເປັນສະກຸນເງີນໂດລາ 116.51
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Machinery/ tools: establishment and installation require specific skills and machinery; hired, not done by the farmer himself

Investment costs of 1500-1800 €/ha are based on submerged drains at 6 m distance. Costs per m of drain establishment based on drains of 6 cm diameter. Costs based on practical experience from farmers. Drains may have a lifetime of 30 years and require little maintenance.

Specific skills and machinery are required for installation and maintenance, hired from a drainage company. The farmer must only ensure that the outlets of the drains in the ditches remain open and undamaged.

4.7 ປັດໄຈ ທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

ໃຫ້ອະທິບາຍ ປັດໃຈ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຕົ້ນທຶນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ:

We do not have information on specific cost items, only on establishment costs ad between 1500 and 1800 euro/ha, and annual cost of 117 €/ha incl maintenance, assuming a 20-year life time. Establishment costs can also be expressed per m of drain, i.e. 1.10 EURO per m including materials (drain of 6 cm diameter).

Determinate factors include size and geometry of fields; installation in the length direction is cheaper, and results in fewer outlets in the receiving ditch.

5. ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມທໍາມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ

5.1 ອາກາດ

ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນປະຈໍາປີ
  • < 250 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 251-500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 501-750 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 751-1,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,001-1,500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,501-2,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 2,001-3,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 3,001-4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • > 4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ / ຄວາມເຫັນກ່ຽວກັບ ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນ:

Distribution of rainfall over the year: 23% (winter), 19% (spring), 27% (summer) and 31% (autumn)

ເຂດສະພາບອາກາດກະສິກໍາ
  • ຄວາມຊຸ່ມ
  • ເຄີ່ງຄວາມຊຸ່ມ

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 ພູມິປະເທດ

ຄ່າສະເລ່ຍ ຄວາມຄ້ອຍຊັນ:
  • ພື້ນທີ່ຮາບພຽງ (0-2%)
  • ອ່ອນ (3-5 %)
  • ປານກາງ (6-10 %)
  • ມ້ວນ (11-15 %)
  • ເນີນ(16-30%)
  • ໍຊັນ (31-60%)
  • ຊັນຫຼາຍ (>60%)
ຮູບແບບຂອງດິນ:
  • ພູພຽງ / ທົ່ງພຽງ
  • ສັນພູ
  • ເປີ້ນພູ
  • ເນີນພູ
  • ຕີນພູ
  • ຮ່ອມພູ
ເຂດລະດັບສູງ:
  • 0-100 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 101-500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
ຄຳເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ພູມີປະເທດ:

Altitudinal zone: 0-100 m a.s.l. (Submerged drains are designed for polders in lowland areas on peat soils)
Landforms: Plateau/plains (submerged drains are designed to drain level fields)
Slopes on average: Flat (submerged drains are designed to drain flat terrain, based on hydraulic prressure head differences between field and ditch)

5.3 ດິນ

ຄວາມເລິກ ຂອງດິນສະເລ່ຍ:
  • ຕື້ນຫຼາຍ (0-20 ຊັງຕີແມັດ)
  • ຕື້ນ (21-50 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລີກປານກາງ (51-80 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລິກ (81-120 ຊມ)
  • ເລິກຫຼາຍ (> 120 cm)
ເນື້ອດິນ (ໜ້າດິນ):
  • ບາງລະອຽດ / ໜັກ (ໜຽວ)
ຊັ້ນອິນຊີວັດຖຸ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:
  • ສູງ (> 3 %)
ຖ້າເປັນໄປໄດ້ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ຕິດຄັດ ການພັນລະນາດິນ ຫຼື ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະຂອງດິນ, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ປະເພດຂອງດິນ, ຄ່າຄວາມເປັນກົດ / ເປັນດ່າງຂອງດິນ, ສານອາຫານ,​ ດິນເຄັມ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ.

Soil depth on average: Very deep (if the peat substrate is considered as part of the soil profile, soils are deeper than 120 cm, with peat packages up to 13 m in some parts of the western Dutch peatland area) and shallow (If the top of the C-horizon is considered as the bottom of the soil profile. C-horizons typically start at 15-30 cm below the soil surface)
Soil texture is fine/heavy (for peat soils with a clayey top layer. In peat soils without such a top layer, a soil texture indication is not applicable. Peat soils are defined as having at least 40 cm of peat in the top 80 cm)
Soil fertility is very high (peat soils are able to supply ample nutrients to plants provided that they are well drained)
Topsoil organic matter is high (Organic matter contents in the topsoil are above 20%. Peat soils are defined as having at least 40 cm of peat in the top 80 cm according to the Dutch soil classification system)
Soil drainage/infiltration is poor/none (peat soils inherently have poor drainage due to their low position with reference to the groundwater level in the regional water system. Values of Ksat reported 2.9-5.0 cm/d)
Soil water storage capacity is very high (the soil water storage capacity is very high due to the large pore space (0.70-0.90 m3/m3))

5.4 ມີນໍ້າ ແລະ ຄຸນນະພາບ

ລະດັບ ນໍ້າໃຕ້ດິນ:

< 5 ແມັດ

ການມີນໍ້າ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:

ດີ

ຄຸນນະພາບນໍ້າ (ບໍ່ມີການບໍາບັດ):

ນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຜະລິດກະສິກໍາພຽງຢ່າງດຽງ (ຊົນລະປະທານ)

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ກໍານົດ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ຄຸນນະພາບ ແລະ ປະລິມານ ຂອງນ້ຳ:

Ground water table: <5m (Average lowest grondwater level in the pilot region is 5-10 cm below the soil surface; average highest level 55-65 cm)
Availability of surface water is good (surface water is amply available due to the low position of the peat soil area compared to the mean sea level, and due to the dense network of ditches and other surface water conveyors and bodies) and excess (surface water levels are under continuous control by the water boards. Therefore flood situations do not occur, but under high-intensity rainfall events fields may submerge)
Water quality (untreated) is for agriculutral use only (Irrigation, surface and groundwater can be used for agriculture without treatment. Nutrient rich water emerging by capillary rise in polders may not be suitable for nature.)
Biodiversity is medium (the grasslands in the western peatsoil area are suitable habtitats for meadow birds)

5.5 ຊີວະນາໆພັນ

ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງສາຍພັນ:
  • ປານກາງ

5.6 ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ລະບົບ ການຕະຫຼາດ ແລະ ຜົນຜະລິດ:
  • ການຄ້າ / ຕະຫຼາດ
ລາຍຮັບ ທີ່ບໍ່ໄດ້ມາຈາກ ການຜະລິດ ກະສິກໍາ:
  • ໜ້ອຍກ່ວາ 10 % ຂອງລາຍຮັບທັງໝົດ
ລະດັບຄວາມຮັ່ງມີ:
  • ສະເລ່ຍ
ບຸກຄົນ ຫຼື ກຸ່ມ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ / ຄົວເຮືອນ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:

Difference in the involvement of women and men: Executives of agricultural enterprises in The Netherlands are usually men.
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
100% of the land users are average wealthy and own 100% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Dairy farmers in this part of The Netherlands spend 100% of their time on the farm. Sometimes their wives have jobs earning off-farm income.
Market orientation is commercial/market (intensive dairy farming in the NL produces for the market)

5.7 ເນື້ອທີ່ສະເລ່ຍຂອງດິນ ທີ່ຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ເຮັດເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • <0.5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 0.5-1 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1-2 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 2-5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 5-15 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 15-50 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 50-100 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 100-500 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 500-1,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1,000-10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • > 10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

On average, Dutch dairy farms have 50 ha grazing land for 90 dairy cows (2013).

5.8 ເຈົ້າຂອງທີ່ດິນ, ສິດໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ, ແລະ ສິດທິການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ

ເຈົ້າຂອງດິນ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ, ທີ່ມີຕໍາແໜ່ງ
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:
  • ບຸກຄົນ
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ:
  • ເຊົ່າ

5.9 ການເຂົ້າເຖິງການບໍລິການ ແລະ ພື້ນຖານໂຄງລ່າງ

ສຸຂະພາບ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການສຶກສາ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ດ້ານວິຊາການ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການຈ້າງງານ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ການເຮັດກິດຈະກໍາອື່ນ ທີ່ບໍ່ແມ່ນ ການຜະລິດກະສິກໍາ):
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ຕະຫຼາດ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ພະລັງງານ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ຖະໜົນຫົນທາງ ແລະ ການຂົນສົ່ງ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການດື່ມນໍ້າ ແລະ ສຸຂາພິບານ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການ​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ​ ທາງ​ດ້ານ​ການ​ເງິນ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ

6. ຜົນກະທົບ ແລະ ລາຍງານສະຫຼຸບ

6.1 ການສະແດງຜົນກະທົບ ພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຜົນກະທົບທາງເສດຖະກິດສັງຄົມ

ການຜະລິດ

ການຜະລິດອາຫານສັດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ປະລິມານ ກ່ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

10.7-12.4 tons DM/ha11575

ປະລີມານ ຫຼັງການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

9.8-12.4 ton DM/ha10975

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Net grass yields (DM) measured on experimental plots. May slightly decrease due to SMD, but less loss due to trampling, increased length of grazing season. This delivers 500 kg DM/ha extra fodder produced and 30 extra grazing days.
But also loss possible: From 11575 kg DM/ha to 10975 kg DM/ha Decrease in grass yield is possible between 3 and 9%. This does not take into account losses due to tramping in situation without drains and longer grazing season under SMD.

ຄຸນນະພາບຂອງອາຫານສັດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ປະລິມານ ກ່ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

275-417 kg N/ha

ປະລີມານ ຫຼັງການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

235-389 kg N/ha

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Slight decrease in N and P content of grass, but quality of grass is expected to improve due to better drained soil and improved bearing capacity

ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຕໍ່ຜົນຜະລິດ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

SMD enable a longer grazing season, increased bearing capacity and reduced risk of flooding of fields

ລາຍໄດ້ ແລະ ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດກະສິກໍາ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

reduced additional feedstock; benefits of extra grass yields and grazing days amount to 171 euro/ha

ລາຍຮັບ ຈາກການຜະລີດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

net benefits of installing SMD are approx. 54 euro per ha per year

ມີວຽກໜັກ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

trafficability and workability of fielfds improved due to drier topsoil conditions and increased bearing capacity

ຜົນກະທົບທາງດ້ານເສດຖະກິດສັງຄົມອື່ນໆ

inlet and drainage of water

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

SMD require an increased inlet and drainage of water in the ditches by the water board, increased pumping hours: 10-22% in dry years; 7-12% in wet years.
Inlet: extra 36-86 mm/y in dry years, 19-45 mm in wet years
Drainage: 17-59 mm in dry years; 33-60 in wet year

ຜົນກະທົບດ້ານວັດທະນາທໍາສັງຄົມ

ສະຖາບັນ ການຈັດຕັ້ງຊຸມຊົນ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ
ຈຸດແຂງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Community of Practice on SMD in peat soils enabled knowledge transfer between land users, research insttitutes, farmer's association and authorities

ສະຖາບັນແຫ່ງຊາດ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ
ຈຸດແຂງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The CoP has informed water boards and provinces in the part of The Netherlands with problems due to soil subsidence

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The long-term experiments in The Netherlands, pilots and activities of the farmers organisation LO Nederland, the Veenweide Informatie Centrum and the Community of Practice Submerged Drainage on Peat soils have increased the understanding of participating farmers of submerged drainage, the water accounting of their land, soil and soil quality. Tjey acquired practical knowledge on the implementation of the technology. Participating farmers continue to exchange knowledge and intend to extend the area under SMD. As a result of the pilots and the activities of the Community of Practice, interest for submerged drainage was raised among other dairy farmers, policy makers and authorities.

ຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ

ວົງຈອນນໍ້າ / ນໍ້າ

ຄຸນນະພາບນໍ້າ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

slight decrease of export of N, P and SO4 to the surface water

ການລະບາຍນໍ້າ

ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ປັບປຸງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

SMD increased drainage by 20-65 mm per year in 2011 and 2012

ດິນ

ຄວາມຊຸ່ມຂອງດິນ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

SMD increased infiltration by 8-93 mm per year in 2011 and 2012

ການອັດແໜ້ນຂອງດິນ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

decreased soil subsidence to 50% (reductions of 3-6 and 5-8 mm/year)

ຊີວະນານາພັນ: ສັດ, ພືດ

ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍຂອງສັດ

ຫຼຸດລົງ
ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

no direct impact on breeding conditions for meadow birds

ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກໄພພິບັດ ແລະ ອາກາດປ່ຽນແປງ

ການລະເຫີຍອາຍກາກບອນ ແລະ ອາຍຜິດເຮືອນແກ້ວ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດລົງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

decreased GHG emissions in CO2 eq: 6.8-13.5 t/ha per year (pilot Keulevaart) and 11.3-18.1 (pilot Demmeriksekade)

ຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດອື່ນໆ

Hazard towards adverse events

improved
reduced
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

quicker lowering of groundwater table after extreme rainfall events (1-5 days)

Water management

harder
easier
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

More easy water management in polders: Fewer sub-polders with fixed ditch water level; possibility to create areas with high and low surface levels

6.2 ຜົນກະທົບທາງອ້ອມ ຈາກການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຄວາມເສຍຫາຍ ກ່ຽວກັບພື້ນຖານໂຄງລ່າງ ສາທາລະນະ / ເອກກະຊົນ

ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

reduced costs of infrastructure protection (30% or 3.5 M€/year until 2100 in the Frisian peat meadow area)

Cost of regional water management

increased
decreased
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

due to smaller differences in water levels between water management units

6.3 ການປ້ອງກັນ ແລະ ຄວາມບອບບາງ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢິ ໃນການປ່ຽນແປງສະພາບດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ແລະ ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບອາກາດທີ່ມີການປ່ຽນແປງທີ່ຮຸນແຮງ / ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ (ຮັບຮູ້ໄດ້ໂດຍຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ)

ການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ເທື່ອລະກ້າວ

ການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ເທື່ອລະກ້າວ
ລະດູການ ເພີ່ມຂື້ນ ຫຼື ຫຼຸດລົງ ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ອຸນຫະພູມປະຈໍາປີ ເພີ່ມຂື້ນ ດີ

ອາກາດ ທີ່ກ່ຽວພັນກັບຄວາມຮຸນແຮງ (ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ)

ໄພພິບັດທາງອຸຕຸນິຍົມ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ພະຍຸຝົນ ດີ
ພາຍຸລົມທ້ອງຖິ່ນ ດີ
ໄພພິບັດທາງພູມອາກາດ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ແຫ້ງແລ້ງ ບໍ່ຮູ້
ໄພພິບັດທາງອຸທົກກະສາກ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ໂດຍທົ່ວໄປ (ແມ່ນໍ້າ) ນໍ້າຖ້ວມ ດີ

ຜົນສະທ້ອນສະພາບອາກາດອື່ນໆທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ

ຜົນສະທ້ອນສະພາບອາກາດອື່ນໆທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ໄລຍະເວລາການຂະຫຍາຍຕົວຫຼຸດລົງ ດີ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Under extreme rainfall events, submerged drains cannot prevent that the groundwater level rises to above the soil surface. However, the groundwater level will fall more quickly with submerged drainas than without, on average to 10 cm lower levels.

Effects of dry summers have not yet been measured in experiments.

6.4 ການວິເຄາະຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ຜົນປະໂຫຍດ

ຈະເຮັດປະໂຫຍດເພື່ອປຽບທຽບກັບຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍກັບສິ່ງກໍ່ສ້າງ (ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ) ໄດ້ແນວໃດ?
ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະສັ້ນ:

ຜົນກະທົບທາງບວກເລັກນ້ອຍ

ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະຍາວ:

ຜົນກະທົບທາງບວກ

ຈະໄດ້ຮັບຜົນປະໂຫຍດເມື່ອປຽບທຽບກັບ / ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍໃນການບຳລຸງຮັກສາທີເ່ກີດຂື້ນອິກ (ຈາກທັດສະນະຄະຕິຂອງຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ) ໄດ້ແນວໃດ?
ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະສັ້ນ:

ຜົນກະທົບທາງບວກເລັກນ້ອຍ

ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະຍາວ:

ຜົນກະທົບທາງບວກ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

A longer grazing season and the extra yield of fodder are the basis for a viable implementation of submerged drainage for land users. The CBA considers establishment and maintenance costs together: establishment costs of € 1800,-/ha, discounted over 20 years, including maintenance, result in annual cost of € 117,-/ha (6.5% of the investment). Benefits include 500 kg DM/ha extra grass use and 30 extra grazing days. This would yield € 171/ha, resulting in a net saldo of € 54,-. In addition SMD are an investment in sustainable soil management, resulting in an increased economic value of the land in the long term.

6.5 ການປັບຕົວຮັບເອົາເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າມີ, ປະລິມານ (ຈໍານວນຂອງຄົວເຮືອນ / ເນື້ອທີ່ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ):

13

ທັງໝົດນັ້ນ ແມ່ນໃຜ ໄດ້ປັບຕົວເຂົ້າ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ, ມີຈັກຄົນ ທີ່ສາມາດເຮັດເອງໄດ້, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ປາດສະຈາກ ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ທາງດ້ານອຸປະກອນ / ການຈ່າຍເປັນເງິນ?
  • 91-100%
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

13 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: The area under submerged drainage implemented by the 10 dairy farmers from the Community of Practice is 20 ha. The area under SMD in the three pilots described in this questionnaire is roughly an additional 0.05 km2 per farm.

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Due to the growing interest in the peat soil area because of the relevance for climate mitigation and the economic risks of soil subsidence there is growing interest in SMD in combination iwth dynamic groundwater level management to reduce the rate of soil subsidence. Subsidy arrangements are in preparation, which will stimulate adoption of the technology by more dairy farmers.

6.7 ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ
Submerged drains increase the number of days with a good bearing capacity of grassland, and therefore enable a longer grazing season and less trampling of grass.
Higher effective yield in total.
Short term: slightly cost effective. Long term: good cost effective.
ຈຸດແຂງ / ຈຸດດີ / ໂອກາດ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ
Submerged drains allow a strong reduction of soil subsidence and GHG emissions (at least 50%, even >50% if combined with higher ditch water levels).

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Further implementation by dairy farmers in the peat-meadow area. For this purpose the Community of Practice is recommended, as well as the arrangement of subsidies and the active involvement of regional government and water board. This applies to all mentioned advantages.
The quality of surface water in ditches will slightly improve.
Less problems with difference between subsiding soil surfaces and constant water levels in lakes and high water ditches (along houses).
Less sub-polders with a certain fixed ditch water level, and possibility to create areas with a high surface level (with submerged drains) and a low surface level (without SD).

6.8 ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແລະ ວິທີການແກ້ໄຂບັນຫາ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງໃນມຸມມອງຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
Grass yield is lower due to reduced mineralization of nitrogen. Yield could be increased due to better usage of manure (better NUE). On the other hand yield is increased due to increased number of days with a good bearing capacity of grassland, and a longer grazing season and less trampling of grass.
ຈຸດອ່ອນ/ຂໍ້ບົກຜ່ອງ/ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
Submerged drains require more inlet water to polders. Reduction of inlet requirement is possible by smart water management. This implies water level margins of +/- 10 cm and the use of weather forecasting.
Submerged drains require a bit more pumping to drain water under extreme rain events.

7. ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ ແລະ ການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່

7.1 ວິທີການ / ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນ

7.2 ເອກກະສານອ້າງອີງທີ່ເປັນບົດລາຍງານ

ຫົວຂໍ້, ຜູ້ຂຽນ, ປີ, ISBN:

Several reports on submerged drainage are available from Alterra, Wageningen UR (in Dutch). The report used for this WOCAT QT is:Effecten van onderwaterdrains in peilvak 9 van polder Groot-Wilnis Vinkeveen : modelstudie naar de effecten van onderwaterdrains op maaivelddaling, waterbeheer, wateroverlast en waterkwaliteit in peilvak 9 Author(s)Hendriks, R.F.A.; Akker, J.J.H. van den; Jansen, P.C.; Massop, H.Th.L. SourceWageningen : Alterra Wageningen UR, 2014 (Alterra-rapport 2480) - p. 124Other literature (in Dutch): Waarheen met het veen. Woestenberg, M. 2009. Uitegeverij Landwerk and Alterra, Wageningen URhttp://www.levenmetwater.nl/static/media/files/Boek_wmhv_def.pdf

ມີຢູ່ໃສ?ມູນຄ່າເທົ່າໃດ?

Alterra Reports are available atlibrary.wur.nl

ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

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