Technologies

High-altitude afforestation for erosion control [Armenia]

technologies_4101 - Armenia

Completeness: 96%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Integrated Biodiversity Management, South Caucasus (IBiS)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

04/10/2018

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

1.5 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre as abordagens da gestão sustentável da terra

Afforestation/Tree planting
approaches

Afforestation/Tree planting [Uganda]

Tree planting carried out by individual land users on hilly slopes to improve soil cover ,reduce wind strength , provide wood fuel & household income.

  • Compilador/a: Wilson Bamwerinde

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Afforestation is a key technologies to protect soil against erosion and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. In this case, afforestation at high altitudes, which is particularly challenging, with the primary purpose of erosion control were planted in small patches with different methods. They form the basis for future community forests in Armenia.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Forests are - in terms of biomass accumulation and stability - the most successful ecosystems in the world. Natural forest ecosystems offer multiple ecosystem services, such as timber and fuel wood provision, water purification, carbon sequestration. In mountainous landscapes, forests have an additional protective function against erosion and natural hazards (e.g., avalanches, landslides, debris flows or rock falls). In the South Caucasus, two natural limits restrict forest expansion: at 2.300-2.600m a.s.l. the upper tree line is visible, whereas steppe and semi-desert ecosystems form the lower tree line.

Socio-economic and geo-physical living conditions:
The intervention area is located at the northern to eastern slopes of Mount Aragats (4013m). The villages are located at 1600 to 1800 m above sea level where the slope meets a plain with stepic soils and crop production while the slopes of the mountains are used for livestock grazing (sheep and cattle).

Purpose of afforestation:
By means of afforestation of degraded pastures, mountainous areas that suffer from erosion and overgrazing should be rehabilitated and erosion protection capacity enhanced. At the same time, the afforestation sites should form the basis for future community forests providing a wide range of ecosystem services, a concept that has not yet been established in Armenia.

Implementation
Between 2014 and 2017 more than 200 hectares were fenced for afforestation, 145 ha were actively afforested in 10 different communities around Mount Aragats in Armenia. The average size of the 20 plots is 10 ha (35 ha being the largest site, 1 ha the smallest one).
The afforestation included different species combinations, planting schemes and methods to determine most cost-efficient afforestation methods for Armenian conditions. All afforestation took place at elevations between 1900 and 2300 m.a.s.l.. The afforestation included fencing of the area to protect the afforestation site against grazing, the preparation of the planting sites according to fixed planting schemes, the actual planting in lines with trenches, single plant holes and group plantings. For some sites, additional irrigation was established for the first years. Particular attention was paid to the species selection which explicitly included fruit trees and shrubs to ensure local economic returns.

Practical experiences
A wide range species was tested. Within the given climate context, pine (Pinus sylvestris), the main non-native species as well as native maple (Acer trautvetteri), Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera) and birch (Betula litwinowii) showed the best results. Particular attention was paid to adapted species to create resilient forest-shrubland with a large number of tree species. In general, planting in trenches shows highest survival rates. Bare root system and containerized seedlings were used for planting. Containerized seedlings definitely provide better survival rate in comparison with bare root system seedlings. Additionally, mulch cover was provided to protect seedlings and keep soil humidity. The main maintenance measures are repeated mulching and weed control and irrigation during the first 3 years. Furthermore, some replanting is continuously taking place as the sites are facing tough environmental conditions (hot summers, drought, short vegetation period).
The plantation was organised and supervised by local NGO's (ATP Armenian Tree Project, ESAC Environmental Sustainability Assistance Center) in close cooperation with the local village population. In a Memorandum of Understandig between the Armenian Ministry of Territorial Administration and Development, the local village administration and GIZ the share of payed labour and own contribution was fixed beforehand.

Impacts and perception
After the first years already first successes are becoming visible contributing to increased vegetation cover, increased biomass and improved soil protection. The communities are proud to be amongst the first in Armenia with a community forest. However, slow growth will require continuous commitment and care on behalf of the community.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.4 Vídeos da tecnologia

Comments, short description:

Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO, on afforestation background and techniques

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLZ5ucDDclI

Data:

28/10/2018

Location:

Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes

Name of videographer:

ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)

Comments, short description:

Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO on different fencing techniques used for protecting the afforestation sites

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INRnvnkYzCE

Data:

28/03/2018

Location:

Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes

Name of videographer:

ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Armenia

Region/ State/ Province:

Shirak and Aragatsotn Marzes

Further specification of location:

Lusagyugh, Saralanj, Harich, Arayi, Quchak, Hnaberd, Mets Manatash, Pokr Mantash, Nahapetavan

Comentários:

Differerent small afforestation plots between 1 and 30 ha with a total of approximately 200 ha

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

This project introduced community-managed forests for erosion control to different communities. Different planting techniques and species were piloted to identify most appropriate afforestation and management methods.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Preserva ecossistema
  • Preservar/melhorar a biodiversidade
  • Atenuar a mudanças climáticas e seus impactos

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Pastagem

Pastagem

Pastagem extensiva:
  • Seminomadismo/pastoralismo
Principais espécies animais e produtos:

Cattle and sheep

Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

Plantação de árvores, reflorestamento:
  • Variedades mistas
Produtos e serviços:
  • Lenha
  • Frutas e nozes
  • Pastagem/Alimentação de folhas e brotos
  • Proteção contra desastres naturais
Caso o uso da terra tenha mudado devido a implementação da tecnologia, indique seu uso anterior à implementação da tecnologia:

The afforestation sites were previously used as (partly overgrazed) pastures for grazing of mainly cattle. Thus, this technology included a land-use change from grassland/pasture to forest/shrubland.

3.3 Mais informações sobre o uso da terra

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Misto de precipitação natural-irrigado
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Densidade animal (se relevante):

1-2/ha

3.4 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão natural e seminatural de floresta
  • Reserva ( suspensão do uso, apoio à recuperação)
  • Redução de riscos de desastre baseada no ecossitema

3.5 Difusão da tecnologia

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
Caso a tecnologia seja uniformemente difundida numa área, indique a área coberta aproximada :
  • < 0,1 km2 (10 ha)
Comentários:

Individual sites vary between 1 and 35 ha with a total area covered of 200 ha (2 km²) . However, it showed that communities only have the capacity to maintain a maximum size of 10 ha (maintenance). If managed by the community, it should not be larger.

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Previnir degradação do solo
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Autor:

GIZ IBiS

Data:

20/11/2017

Autor:

GIZ IBiS

Data:

20/11/2017

Autor:

GIZ IBiS

Data:

20/11/2017

4.2 Especificações técnicas/ explicações do desenho técnico

Needed resources for 1 ha afforestation:
- 2.000-5.000 seedlings
- 10-50 t water (for initial irrigation)
- 40 – 100 working days
- Shuffles or soil driller
- Means of transport

Selection of species
It is recommended to use different local tree species for any afforestation activity, as they can cope best with the given environmental conditions and, therefore, are more resilient towards pests and climatic variations. Most suitable species for afforestation:
-Trautvetters maple (Acer trautvetteri)
-Birch (Betula letwinowii)
-Wild Oriental Apple (Malus orientalis)
-Scott’s Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata)
-Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera)
-Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
-Mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
For selecting suitable species, screening of the wider project area is essential in order to prepare a list of species, which would naturally grow under the given ecological conditions

Planting scheme
The technical drawings describe different potential planting schemes. A further figure describes the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme.

Planting season
The climate in the South Caucasus region shows low precipitation rates in the summer period. As seedlings have a small root system, young trees are more sensitive to drought. The best time for planting is either autumn or early spring as during autumn, winter and spring, more moisture is available that helps the seedlings to develop deeper root systems to survive during summer droughts.

Fencing
In many cases, afforestation sites are located on pasture land. To protect the planted seedlings from browsing by livestock or wild game, it is recommended to fence the afforestation site before starting the plantation of the seedlings.

Planting
The planting process is specified in one of the technical drawings. With a hole driller planting of one tree takes 2-4 minutes, planting by hand 8-10 min. Each seedling is waterered with an intial 5-10 l of water.

4.3 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • por área de tecnologia
Indique o tamanho e a unidade de área:

1 ha

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • Dólares norte-americanos

4.4 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Tipo de medida Calendarização
1. Selection of afforestation site, plantation scheme and species Gestão anytime
2. Fencing of the area (if area is being grazed or wild game is browsing seedlings Estrutural before planting
3. Prepare and transfer seedlings to the site Gestão before planting
4. Excavate whole for the seedling (30-40cm deep, 25 cm diameter, 1m spacing between wholes) Estrutural autumn, early spring
5. Place the seedling and fill hole with soil Vegetativo autumn, early spring
6. Apply 5-10 l of water immediately after planting Gestão after planting
7. Cover soil around seedling with mulch and organic material Vegetativo after planting

4.5 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Local workers for plantation of trees seedlings 2500,0 0,27 675,0 10,0
Mão-de-obra Installation of fence and posts person day 191,0 12,3 2349,3
Equipamento Equipment (hummer, driller, etc.) set 1,0 141,8 141,8 30,0
Material vegetal Tree seedlings pieces 2500,0 0,31 775,0
Material vegetal Mulching kg 1250,0 0,03 37,5
Material de construção Fencing (permanent mesh wire fence) meter 317,0 1,35 427,95 10,0
Material de construção Irrigation system set 1,0 889,0 889,0 15,0
Material de construção Metal posts for fence (1.8m) pieces 106,0 2,97 314,82
Material de construção sand kg 3444,0 0,012 41,33
Material de construção Other material(electrode, wire armature, metal disc) set 1,0 386,9 386,9 20,0
Material de construção Cement kg 1148,0 0,12 137,76
Outros Transporation of mulch time 1,0 102,8 102,8
Outros Transporation of construction materials time 5,0 92,5 462,5
Outros Transporation of workers to the field time 15,0 30,2 453,0
Outros Transporation of seedlings time 1,0 51,4 51,4
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 7246,06
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

GIZ Project

Comentários:

The above calculation is not made on purely 1 ha, since the project did not implement afforestation on 1 ha. This calculation was done on 2.6 ha, then the costs are proportionally distributed for 1 ha.

4.6 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Tipo de medida Calendarização/frequência
1. Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l Gestão 2-4 times per year for the first two years
2. Preparation of fire protection trenches Estrutural if needed
3. Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings Vegetativo 1-2 times per year
4. Renew mulch layer Gestão annually after hay harvest in summer
5. Replanting of seedlings (10% each year) Gestão annually to be done for the first 5 years

4.7 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l Man/day 1,0 10,0 10,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Preparation of fire protection trenches rm 150,0 0,34 51,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings Man/day 4,0 10,0 40,0 50,0
Mão-de-obra Renew mulch layer (including mulch value) Man/day 5,0 10,0 50,0 50,0
Material vegetal Seedlings for replantation (including labour) seedlings 1200,0 0,51 612,0 50,0
Outros Petrol for irrigation liter 7,0 0,8 5,6
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 768,6
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

GIZ project

Comentários:

The rather high costs are mostly linked to the permanent fence to protect seedlings against grazing and to high number of seedlings per hectare. In some parts initial irrigation was necessary due to dry summer conditions. Maintenance activities such as irrigation of seedlings in summer, anti-fire measures, replantation of seedlings (10 % each year for 5 years), mowing of grass and renewing of mulch layer are needed.

4.8 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

With costs of approximately 5,700 USD/ha including fencing (30%), planting (30%) and seedlings (40%) afforestation is very intensive in financial resources. It is very likely that these high costs will limit the upscaling of the afforestation process. There are some options to reduce costs:
•Fence large areas and try to have sites in square or circle shape
•Increase number of seedlings planted by person by using soil-drillers
•Use cheaper fencing material (e.g. game protection fence, poles without concrete)
•Reduce seedling number to 2000-3000 seedlings/ha
•Using seeds (e.g. oak) instead of seedlings
•Regrow seeds in local low-cost nurseries (e.g. Lusagyugh)

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):

521,00

Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Precipitation peak between May and June.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

Aparan, Aragatsotn Marz, Armenia

Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

According to Köppen and Geiger, the climate is classified as Dfb (Cold/continental, no dry season, warm summers). Annual mean temperature is 5.2. °C. The warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year with -6.9 °C.
based on data from the following source: https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?layers=3ac478a468c245ef9bfd5533f7edbf93

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Não

Ocorre inundação da área?

Não

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • low

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Misto (subsistência/comercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Pobre
  • Média
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Grupos/comunidade
  • Cooperativa
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Mecanizado/motorizado
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • meia-idade
  • idosos

5.7 Média da área de terra própria ou arrendada por usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Comunitário (organizado)
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Comunitário (organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Within the fenced afforestation site, the grass could be cut and used as hay. The protection from grazing helps biomass development which leads to better protection from Surface water Erosion and this lead to soil-regeneration and increase of productivity.

Qualidade da floresta/do bosque

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The natural forest was removed for the purpose of grazing and the forest cover will be now re-established on the afforestation sites.

Produção florestal não madeireira

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

We mixed shrub species like raspberries and fruit-trees (wilde plumb) between the main tree species to create short time Benefit for the village people.

Diversidade de produtos

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

In addition to the wide spread grazing land use now the hay production in the fenced afforestation site is increased for the first 1-2 decades (until the canopy is too dense) and the collection of berries and fruits give additional income opportunities. In the Long terme fuel wood production can be expected from the forested land.

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The grazing range is limited by the fenced afforestation site. This is relevant in the first couple of years before hay or fruit/berry productivity is able to fully compensate the loss of grazing range.

Renda e custos

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The maintenance of the afforestation site lead to increase of workload especially in the first 2-4 years when hay cutting and Irrigation is needed until the tree seedlings are well established.

Impactos socioculturais

Oportunidades de lazer

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

As there is almost no forest near to the villages every woodland is very attractive for recreational purpose, but it will Need 2-3 decades until this function will be fulfilled by the afforestation site.

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The fencing of the afforestation site immediately stops the heavy grazing Impact which leads to fast recovery of the Vegetation. The improved Vegetation cover and better development of the root System reduce Surface water run of Speed and increase water Infiltration.

Evaporação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

An increase of vegetation and the leaf area index will lead to an increase of evaporation.

Solo

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Increase of vegetation cover and reduction of water runoff will lead to decrease of soil loss.

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The increase of vegetation leads to an increase of root development. Additionally, the increase of vegetation produces more litter, as no grazing is applied. The increase in litter leads to an increase of an humus layer and therefore to more below ground carbon.

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Cobertura vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Especially the fencing leads to fast increase of vegetation cover.

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The stop of grazing and the new micro-habitats created by the shadow of the tree seedlings have let to an increase in plant diversity. This process might be reverse when the tree canopy is closed and less light is available for the herb-layer, but this will take several decades.

Diversidade de habitat

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The plain grasslands habitats are diversified by patches of forest.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Capacidade de tamponamento/filtragem

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The decrease of water run off increase the water capacity of the habitat and the afforested area will provide increase buffer capacity in the case of intensive rainfalls.

Sedimentos transportados pelo vento

Elevado
Reduzido
Comentários/especificar:

The high grass and trees reduce wind speed at ground level.

Comentários relativos à avaliação de impacto:

Most of the afforestation sites are locate uphill of villages. Village people are expecting protection from cold down-hill winds from the mountain and an increase of air-moisture by the evapo-transpiration of the forest.

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Trovoada local moderadamente
Tempestade de granizo local moderadamente
Tempestade de neve local bem
Desastres biológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Infestação de insetos/vermes moderadamente

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento alogado bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Comentários:

In the first decade the efforts on maintenance are high and it can be expected that the return of natural resources (hay, berries, fruits) is significantly lower the the maintenance efforts. As soon the trees are established and larger than 1.3 the root system is well establish and the trees are resistant to droughts, no vegetation cutting is needed and even game or cattle browsing will not necessarily lead to lethal damage.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • casos isolados/experimental
Entre todos aqueles que adotaram a tecnologia, quantos adotaram espontaneamente, ou seja, sem receber nenhum incentivo material/pagamentos?
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, indique as condições variáveis as quais ela foi adaptada:
  • Mudança climática/extremo
Especifique a adaptação da tecnologia (desenho, material/espécie, etc):

drought-adapted species, adaptation of planting schemes

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Extension of forest cover of communities, new habitat for wild creators, forest will be a fire wood and non timber products source for local inhabitants, attraction of tourists into the communities, increased water regulating function, improved soil quality, increased vegetation, microclimate formation function, wind velocity reduction, reduced land degradation, nice view of the area due to afforestation,increased fodder for cattle
empowerment of the local capacities on sustainable land management
successful demonstration of erosion control measures
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Diversification of land use options for local stakeholders. Future options for sustainable firewood supply, non-timber forests products (berries) and recreation
Option to use grass from cutting in between as fodder/hay production
side-effect of fencing is increase in biodiversity of grassland species due to exclusion from grazing.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Reduces pasture land of community, which was converted into a forest Villagers/farmers need to increase the amount of hay from their homestead gardens using irrigation
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
strong need for care taking in the first years community commitment, strong ownership
Expensive due to high costs for fencing Consider alternative, cheaper fencing methods (e.g. wildlife protection fence)
Complicated decision making processes by the project More mandate given to the implementing NGOs

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

2 international (Huber, Kirchmeir)
national?

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

Information extracted from different project reports and submitted financial statements from implementation

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Handbook on Integrated Erosion Control A Practical Guide for Planning and Implementing Integrated Erosion Control Measures in Armenia, GIZ (ed.), 2018, ISBN 978-9939-1-0721-9

Available from where? Costs?

GIZ Armenia

7.3 Links para informação relevante que está disponível online

Title/ description:

Project website of the GIZ program

URL:

http://biodivers-southcaucasus.org/

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