技术

High-altitude afforestation for erosion control [亚美尼亚]

technologies_4101 - 亚美尼亚

完整性: 96%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Integrated Biodiversity Management, South Caucasus (IBiS)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

04/10/2018

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

1.5 请参阅有关SLM方法的问卷

Afforestation/Tree planting
approaches

Afforestation/Tree planting [乌干达]

Tree planting carried out by individual land users on hilly slopes to improve soil cover ,reduce wind strength , provide wood fuel & household income.

  • 编制者: Wilson Bamwerinde

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Afforestation is a key technologies to protect soil against erosion and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. In this case, afforestation at high altitudes, which is particularly challenging, with the primary purpose of erosion control were planted in small patches with different methods. They form the basis for future community forests in Armenia.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Forests are - in terms of biomass accumulation and stability - the most successful ecosystems in the world. Natural forest ecosystems offer multiple ecosystem services, such as timber and fuel wood provision, water purification, carbon sequestration. In mountainous landscapes, forests have an additional protective function against erosion and natural hazards (e.g., avalanches, landslides, debris flows or rock falls). In the South Caucasus, two natural limits restrict forest expansion: at 2.300-2.600m a.s.l. the upper tree line is visible, whereas steppe and semi-desert ecosystems form the lower tree line.

Socio-economic and geo-physical living conditions:
The intervention area is located at the northern to eastern slopes of Mount Aragats (4013m). The villages are located at 1600 to 1800 m above sea level where the slope meets a plain with stepic soils and crop production while the slopes of the mountains are used for livestock grazing (sheep and cattle).

Purpose of afforestation:
By means of afforestation of degraded pastures, mountainous areas that suffer from erosion and overgrazing should be rehabilitated and erosion protection capacity enhanced. At the same time, the afforestation sites should form the basis for future community forests providing a wide range of ecosystem services, a concept that has not yet been established in Armenia.

Implementation
Between 2014 and 2017 more than 200 hectares were fenced for afforestation, 145 ha were actively afforested in 10 different communities around Mount Aragats in Armenia. The average size of the 20 plots is 10 ha (35 ha being the largest site, 1 ha the smallest one).
The afforestation included different species combinations, planting schemes and methods to determine most cost-efficient afforestation methods for Armenian conditions. All afforestation took place at elevations between 1900 and 2300 m.a.s.l.. The afforestation included fencing of the area to protect the afforestation site against grazing, the preparation of the planting sites according to fixed planting schemes, the actual planting in lines with trenches, single plant holes and group plantings. For some sites, additional irrigation was established for the first years. Particular attention was paid to the species selection which explicitly included fruit trees and shrubs to ensure local economic returns.

Practical experiences
A wide range species was tested. Within the given climate context, pine (Pinus sylvestris), the main non-native species as well as native maple (Acer trautvetteri), Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera) and birch (Betula litwinowii) showed the best results. Particular attention was paid to adapted species to create resilient forest-shrubland with a large number of tree species. In general, planting in trenches shows highest survival rates. Bare root system and containerized seedlings were used for planting. Containerized seedlings definitely provide better survival rate in comparison with bare root system seedlings. Additionally, mulch cover was provided to protect seedlings and keep soil humidity. The main maintenance measures are repeated mulching and weed control and irrigation during the first 3 years. Furthermore, some replanting is continuously taking place as the sites are facing tough environmental conditions (hot summers, drought, short vegetation period).
The plantation was organised and supervised by local NGO's (ATP Armenian Tree Project, ESAC Environmental Sustainability Assistance Center) in close cooperation with the local village population. In a Memorandum of Understandig between the Armenian Ministry of Territorial Administration and Development, the local village administration and GIZ the share of payed labour and own contribution was fixed beforehand.

Impacts and perception
After the first years already first successes are becoming visible contributing to increased vegetation cover, increased biomass and improved soil protection. The communities are proud to be amongst the first in Armenia with a community forest. However, slow growth will require continuous commitment and care on behalf of the community.

2.3 技术照片

2.4 技术视频

注释、简短说明:

Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO, on afforestation background and techniques

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLZ5ucDDclI

日期:

28/10/2018

位置:

Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes

摄影师的名字:

ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)

注释、简短说明:

Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO on different fencing techniques used for protecting the afforestation sites

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INRnvnkYzCE

日期:

28/03/2018

位置:

Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes

摄影师的名字:

ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

亚美尼亚

区域/州/省:

Shirak and Aragatsotn Marzes

有关地点的进一步说明:

Lusagyugh, Saralanj, Harich, Arayi, Quchak, Hnaberd, Mets Manatash, Pokr Mantash, Nahapetavan

注释:

Differerent small afforestation plots between 1 and 30 ha with a total of approximately 200 ha

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

This project introduced community-managed forests for erosion control to different communities. Different planting techniques and species were piloted to identify most appropriate afforestation and management methods.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • 保护生态系统
  • 保持/提高生物多样性
  • 减缓气候变化及其影响

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧场:
  • 半游牧/游牧
主要动物种类及产品:

Cattle and sheep

森林/林地

森林/林地

植树造林:
  • 混交品种
产品和服务:
  • 薪材
  • 水果和坚果
  • 放牧/啃牧
  • 自然灾害防护
如果由于技术的实施而导致土地用途发生变化,则在技术实施前说明土地利的用途。:

The afforestation sites were previously used as (partly overgrazed) pastures for grazing of mainly cattle. Thus, this technology included a land-use change from grassland/pasture to forest/shrubland.

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 混合雨水灌溉
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
牲畜密度(如相关):

1-2/ha

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 天然和半天然森林管理
  • 区域封闭(停止使用,支持恢复)
  • 减少基于生态系统的灾害风险

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • < 0.1 平方千米(10 公顷)
注释:

Individual sites vary between 1 and 35 ha with a total area covered of 200 ha (2 km²) . However, it showed that communities only have the capacity to maintain a maximum size of 10 ha (maintenance). If managed by the community, it should not be larger.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

植物措施

植物措施

  • V1:乔木和灌木覆盖层
管理措施

管理措施

  • M1:改变土地使用类型

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
  • Wg:冲沟侵蚀/沟蚀
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
  • Bs:质量和物种组成/多样性的下降

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化
  • 减少土地退化

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

GIZ IBiS

日期:

20/11/2017

作者:

GIZ IBiS

日期:

20/11/2017

作者:

GIZ IBiS

日期:

20/11/2017

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

Needed resources for 1 ha afforestation:
- 2.000-5.000 seedlings
- 10-50 t water (for initial irrigation)
- 40 – 100 working days
- Shuffles or soil driller
- Means of transport

Selection of species
It is recommended to use different local tree species for any afforestation activity, as they can cope best with the given environmental conditions and, therefore, are more resilient towards pests and climatic variations. Most suitable species for afforestation:
-Trautvetters maple (Acer trautvetteri)
-Birch (Betula letwinowii)
-Wild Oriental Apple (Malus orientalis)
-Scott’s Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata)
-Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera)
-Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
-Mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
For selecting suitable species, screening of the wider project area is essential in order to prepare a list of species, which would naturally grow under the given ecological conditions

Planting scheme
The technical drawings describe different potential planting schemes. A further figure describes the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme.

Planting season
The climate in the South Caucasus region shows low precipitation rates in the summer period. As seedlings have a small root system, young trees are more sensitive to drought. The best time for planting is either autumn or early spring as during autumn, winter and spring, more moisture is available that helps the seedlings to develop deeper root systems to survive during summer droughts.

Fencing
In many cases, afforestation sites are located on pasture land. To protect the planted seedlings from browsing by livestock or wild game, it is recommended to fence the afforestation site before starting the plantation of the seedlings.

Planting
The planting process is specified in one of the technical drawings. With a hole driller planting of one tree takes 2-4 minutes, planting by hand 8-10 min. Each seedling is waterered with an intial 5-10 l of water.

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术区域
注明尺寸和面积单位:

1 ha

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Selection of afforestation site, plantation scheme and species 管理 anytime
2. Fencing of the area (if area is being grazed or wild game is browsing seedlings 结构性的 before planting
3. Prepare and transfer seedlings to the site 管理 before planting
4. Excavate whole for the seedling (30-40cm deep, 25 cm diameter, 1m spacing between wholes) 结构性的 autumn, early spring
5. Place the seedling and fill hole with soil 植物性的 autumn, early spring
6. Apply 5-10 l of water immediately after planting 管理 after planting
7. Cover soil around seedling with mulch and organic material 植物性的 after planting

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Local workers for plantation of trees seedlings 2500.0 0.27 675.0 10.0
劳动力 Installation of fence and posts person day 191.0 12.3 2349.3
设备 Equipment (hummer, driller, etc.) set 1.0 141.8 141.8 30.0
植物材料 Tree seedlings pieces 2500.0 0.31 775.0
植物材料 Mulching kg 1250.0 0.03 37.5
施工材料 Fencing (permanent mesh wire fence) meter 317.0 1.35 427.95 10.0
施工材料 Irrigation system set 1.0 889.0 889.0 15.0
施工材料 Metal posts for fence (1.8m) pieces 106.0 2.97 314.82
施工材料 sand kg 3444.0 0.012 41.33
施工材料 Other material(electrode, wire armature, metal disc) set 1.0 386.9 386.9 20.0
施工材料 Cement kg 1148.0 0.12 137.76
其它 Transporation of mulch time 1.0 102.8 102.8
其它 Transporation of construction materials time 5.0 92.5 462.5
其它 Transporation of workers to the field time 15.0 30.2 453.0
其它 Transporation of seedlings time 1.0 51.4 51.4
技术建立所需总成本 7246.06
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

GIZ Project

注释:

The above calculation is not made on purely 1 ha, since the project did not implement afforestation on 1 ha. This calculation was done on 2.6 ha, then the costs are proportionally distributed for 1 ha.

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l 管理 2-4 times per year for the first two years
2. Preparation of fire protection trenches 结构性的 if needed
3. Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings 植物性的 1-2 times per year
4. Renew mulch layer 管理 annually after hay harvest in summer
5. Replanting of seedlings (10% each year) 管理 annually to be done for the first 5 years

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l Man/day 1.0 10.0 10.0 100.0
劳动力 Preparation of fire protection trenches rm 150.0 0.34 51.0 100.0
劳动力 Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings Man/day 4.0 10.0 40.0 50.0
劳动力 Renew mulch layer (including mulch value) Man/day 5.0 10.0 50.0 50.0
植物材料 Seedlings for replantation (including labour) seedlings 1200.0 0.51 612.0 50.0
其它 Petrol for irrigation liter 7.0 0.8 5.6
技术维护所需总成本 768.6
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

GIZ project

注释:

The rather high costs are mostly linked to the permanent fence to protect seedlings against grazing and to high number of seedlings per hectare. In some parts initial irrigation was necessary due to dry summer conditions. Maintenance activities such as irrigation of seedlings in summer, anti-fire measures, replantation of seedlings (10 % each year for 5 years), mowing of grass and renewing of mulch layer are needed.

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

With costs of approximately 5,700 USD/ha including fencing (30%), planting (30%) and seedlings (40%) afforestation is very intensive in financial resources. It is very likely that these high costs will limit the upscaling of the afforestation process. There are some options to reduce costs:
•Fence large areas and try to have sites in square or circle shape
•Increase number of seedlings planted by person by using soil-drillers
•Use cheaper fencing material (e.g. game protection fence, poles without concrete)
•Reduce seedling number to 2000-3000 seedlings/ha
•Using seeds (e.g. oak) instead of seedlings
•Regrow seeds in local low-cost nurseries (e.g. Lusagyugh)

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
指定年平均降雨量(若已知),单位为mm:

521.00

有关降雨的规范/注释:

Precipitation peak between May and June.

注明所考虑的参考气象站名称:

Aparan, Aragatsotn Marz, Armenia

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

According to Köppen and Geiger, the climate is classified as Dfb (Cold/continental, no dry season, warm summers). Annual mean temperature is 5.2. °C. The warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year with -6.9 °C.
based on data from the following source: https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?layers=3ac478a468c245ef9bfd5533f7edbf93

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 不相关

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
土壤质地(地表以下> 20厘米):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等
栖息地多样性:

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 定栖的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业
非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
  • 合作社
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
  • 机械化/电动
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 中年人
  • 老年人

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 社区/村庄
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)
用水权:
  • 社区(有组织)

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Within the fenced afforestation site, the grass could be cut and used as hay. The protection from grazing helps biomass development which leads to better protection from Surface water Erosion and this lead to soil-regeneration and increase of productivity.

森林/林地质量

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The natural forest was removed for the purpose of grazing and the forest cover will be now re-established on the afforestation sites.

非木材林业生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

We mixed shrub species like raspberries and fruit-trees (wilde plumb) between the main tree species to create short time Benefit for the village people.

产品多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

In addition to the wide spread grazing land use now the hay production in the fenced afforestation site is increased for the first 1-2 decades (until the canopy is too dense) and the collection of berries and fruits give additional income opportunities. In the Long terme fuel wood production can be expected from the forested land.

生产区域

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The grazing range is limited by the fenced afforestation site. This is relevant in the first couple of years before hay or fruit/berry productivity is able to fully compensate the loss of grazing range.

收入和成本

工作量

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

The maintenance of the afforestation site lead to increase of workload especially in the first 2-4 years when hay cutting and Irrigation is needed until the tree seedlings are well established.

社会文化影响

娱乐机会

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

As there is almost no forest near to the villages every woodland is very attractive for recreational purpose, but it will Need 2-3 decades until this function will be fulfilled by the afforestation site.

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

The fencing of the afforestation site immediately stops the heavy grazing Impact which leads to fast recovery of the Vegetation. The improved Vegetation cover and better development of the root System reduce Surface water run of Speed and increase water Infiltration.

蒸发

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

An increase of vegetation and the leaf area index will lead to an increase of evaporation.

土壤

土壤流失

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

Increase of vegetation cover and reduction of water runoff will lead to decrease of soil loss.

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The increase of vegetation leads to an increase of root development. Additionally, the increase of vegetation produces more litter, as no grazing is applied. The increase in litter leads to an increase of an humus layer and therefore to more below ground carbon.

生物多样性:植被、动物

植被覆盖

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Especially the fencing leads to fast increase of vegetation cover.

生物量/地上C

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.

植物多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The stop of grazing and the new micro-habitats created by the shadow of the tree seedlings have let to an increase in plant diversity. This process might be reverse when the tree canopy is closed and less light is available for the herb-layer, but this will take several decades.

栖息地多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The plain grasslands habitats are diversified by patches of forest.

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

缓冲/过滤能力

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

The decrease of water run off increase the water capacity of the habitat and the afforested area will provide increase buffer capacity in the case of intensive rainfalls.

风力搬运沉积物

增加
减少
注释/具体说明:

The high grass and trees reduce wind speed at ground level.

有关影响评估的意见:

Most of the afforestation sites are locate uphill of villages. Village people are expecting protection from cold down-hill winds from the mountain and an increase of air-moisture by the evapo-transpiration of the forest.

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地雷暴 适度
局地雹灾 适度
局地雪暴
生物灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
昆虫/蠕虫侵扰 适度

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
延长生长期

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

消极

长期回报:

稍微积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

轻度消极

长期回报:

积极

注释:

In the first decade the efforts on maintenance are high and it can be expected that the return of natural resources (hay, berries, fruits) is significantly lower the the maintenance efforts. As soon the trees are established and larger than 1.3 the root system is well establish and the trees are resistant to droughts, no vegetation cutting is needed and even game or cattle browsing will not necessarily lead to lethal damage.

6.5 技术采用

  • 单例/实验
在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发地采用该技术,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 0-10%

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

若是,说明它适应了哪些变化的条件:
  • 气候变化/极端气候
具体说明技术的适应性(设计、材料/品种等):

drought-adapted species, adaptation of planting schemes

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Extension of forest cover of communities, new habitat for wild creators, forest will be a fire wood and non timber products source for local inhabitants, attraction of tourists into the communities, increased water regulating function, improved soil quality, increased vegetation, microclimate formation function, wind velocity reduction, reduced land degradation, nice view of the area due to afforestation,increased fodder for cattle
empowerment of the local capacities on sustainable land management
successful demonstration of erosion control measures
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Diversification of land use options for local stakeholders. Future options for sustainable firewood supply, non-timber forests products (berries) and recreation
Option to use grass from cutting in between as fodder/hay production
side-effect of fencing is increase in biodiversity of grassland species due to exclusion from grazing.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Reduces pasture land of community, which was converted into a forest Villagers/farmers need to increase the amount of hay from their homestead gardens using irrigation
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
strong need for care taking in the first years community commitment, strong ownership
Expensive due to high costs for fencing Consider alternative, cheaper fencing methods (e.g. wildlife protection fence)
Complicated decision making processes by the project More mandate given to the implementing NGOs

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈
  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

2 international (Huber, Kirchmeir)
national?

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

Information extracted from different project reports and submitted financial statements from implementation

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Handbook on Integrated Erosion Control A Practical Guide for Planning and Implementing Integrated Erosion Control Measures in Armenia, GIZ (ed.), 2018, ISBN 978-9939-1-0721-9

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

GIZ Armenia

7.3 链接到网络上可用的相关信息

标题/说明:

Project website of the GIZ program

URL:

http://biodivers-southcaucasus.org/

模块