有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Integrated Biodiversity Management, South Caucasus (IBiS)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
Afforestation is a key technologies to protect soil against erosion and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. In this case, afforestation at high altitudes, which is particularly challenging, with the primary purpose of erosion control were planted in small patches with different methods. They form the basis for future community forests in Armenia.
Forests are - in terms of biomass accumulation and stability - the most successful ecosystems in the world. Natural forest ecosystems offer multiple ecosystem services, such as timber and fuel wood provision, water purification, carbon sequestration. In mountainous landscapes, forests have an additional protective function against erosion and natural hazards (e.g., avalanches, landslides, debris flows or rock falls). In the South Caucasus, two natural limits restrict forest expansion: at 2.300-2.600m a.s.l. the upper tree line is visible, whereas steppe and semi-desert ecosystems form the lower tree line.
Socio-economic and geo-physical living conditions:
The intervention area is located at the northern to eastern slopes of Mount Aragats (4013m). The villages are located at 1600 to 1800 m above sea level where the slope meets a plain with stepic soils and crop production while the slopes of the mountains are used for livestock grazing (sheep and cattle).
Purpose of afforestation:
By means of afforestation of degraded pastures, mountainous areas that suffer from erosion and overgrazing should be rehabilitated and erosion protection capacity enhanced. At the same time, the afforestation sites should form the basis for future community forests providing a wide range of ecosystem services, a concept that has not yet been established in Armenia.
Between 2014 and 2017 more than 200 hectares were fenced for afforestation, 145 ha were actively afforested in 10 different communities around Mount Aragats in Armenia. The average size of the 20 plots is 10 ha (35 ha being the largest site, 1 ha the smallest one).
The afforestation included different species combinations, planting schemes and methods to determine most cost-efficient afforestation methods for Armenian conditions. All afforestation took place at elevations between 1900 and 2300 m.a.s.l.. The afforestation included fencing of the area to protect the afforestation site against grazing, the preparation of the planting sites according to fixed planting schemes, the actual planting in lines with trenches, single plant holes and group plantings. For some sites, additional irrigation was established for the first years. Particular attention was paid to the species selection which explicitly included fruit trees and shrubs to ensure local economic returns.
A wide range species was tested. Within the given climate context, pine (Pinus sylvestris), the main non-native species as well as native maple (Acer trautvetteri), Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera) and birch (Betula litwinowii) showed the best results. Particular attention was paid to adapted species to create resilient forest-shrubland with a large number of tree species. In general, planting in trenches shows highest survival rates. Bare root system and containerized seedlings were used for planting. Containerized seedlings definitely provide better survival rate in comparison with bare root system seedlings. Additionally, mulch cover was provided to protect seedlings and keep soil humidity. The main maintenance measures are repeated mulching and weed control and irrigation during the first 3 years. Furthermore, some replanting is continuously taking place as the sites are facing tough environmental conditions (hot summers, drought, short vegetation period).
The plantation was organised and supervised by local NGO's (ATP Armenian Tree Project, ESAC Environmental Sustainability Assistance Center) in close cooperation with the local village population. In a Memorandum of Understandig between the Armenian Ministry of Territorial Administration and Development, the local village administration and GIZ the share of payed labour and own contribution was fixed beforehand.
Impacts and perception
After the first years already first successes are becoming visible contributing to increased vegetation cover, increased biomass and improved soil protection. The communities are proud to be amongst the first in Armenia with a community forest. However, slow growth will require continuous commitment and care on behalf of the community.
Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO, on afforestation background and techniques
Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes
ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)
Short video of ESAC, the implementing NGO on different fencing techniques used for protecting the afforestation sites
Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes
ESAC NGO (Khachatur Khachtryan)
Shirak and Aragatsotn Marzes
Lusagyugh, Saralanj, Harich, Arayi, Quchak, Hnaberd, Mets Manatash, Pokr Mantash, Nahapetavan
Differerent small afforestation plots between 1 and 30 ha with a total of approximately 200 ha
This project introduced community-managed forests for erosion control to different communities. Different planting techniques and species were piloted to identify most appropriate afforestation and management methods.
Cattle and sheep
The afforestation sites were previously used as (partly overgrazed) pastures for grazing of mainly cattle. Thus, this technology included a land-use change from grassland/pasture to forest/shrubland.
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Individual sites vary between 1 and 35 ha with a total area covered of 200 ha (2 km²) . However, it showed that communities only have the capacity to maintain a maximum size of 10 ha (maintenance). If managed by the community, it should not be larger.
Needed resources for 1 ha afforestation:
- 2.000-5.000 seedlings
- 10-50 t water (for initial irrigation)
- 40 – 100 working days
- Shuffles or soil driller
- Means of transport
Selection of species
It is recommended to use different local tree species for any afforestation activity, as they can cope best with the given environmental conditions and, therefore, are more resilient towards pests and climatic variations. Most suitable species for afforestation:
-Trautvetters maple (Acer trautvetteri)
-Birch (Betula letwinowii)
-Wild Oriental Apple (Malus orientalis)
-Scott’s Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. hamata)
-Persian Oak (Quercus macranthera)
-Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
-Mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
For selecting suitable species, screening of the wider project area is essential in order to prepare a list of species, which would naturally grow under the given ecological conditions
The technical drawings describe different potential planting schemes. A further figure describes the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme.
The climate in the South Caucasus region shows low precipitation rates in the summer period. As seedlings have a small root system, young trees are more sensitive to drought. The best time for planting is either autumn or early spring as during autumn, winter and spring, more moisture is available that helps the seedlings to develop deeper root systems to survive during summer droughts.
In many cases, afforestation sites are located on pasture land. To protect the planted seedlings from browsing by livestock or wild game, it is recommended to fence the afforestation site before starting the plantation of the seedlings.
The planting process is specified in one of the technical drawings. With a hole driller planting of one tree takes 2-4 minutes, planting by hand 8-10 min. Each seedling is waterered with an intial 5-10 l of water.
|1.||Selection of afforestation site, plantation scheme and species||管理||anytime|
|2.||Fencing of the area (if area is being grazed or wild game is browsing seedlings||结构性的||before planting|
|3.||Prepare and transfer seedlings to the site||管理||before planting|
|4.||Excavate whole for the seedling (30-40cm deep, 25 cm diameter, 1m spacing between wholes)||结构性的||autumn, early spring|
|5.||Place the seedling and fill hole with soil||植物性的||autumn, early spring|
|6.||Apply 5-10 l of water immediately after planting||管理||after planting|
|7.||Cover soil around seedling with mulch and organic material||植物性的||after planting|
|劳动力||Local workers for plantation of trees||seedlings||2500.0||0.27||675.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Installation of fence and posts||person day||191.0||12.3||2349.3|
|设备||Equipment (hummer, driller, etc.)||set||1.0||141.8||141.8||30.0|
|施工材料||Fencing (permanent mesh wire fence)||meter||317.0||1.35||427.95||10.0|
|施工材料||Metal posts for fence (1.8m)||pieces||106.0||2.97||314.82|
|施工材料||Other material(electrode, wire armature, metal disc)||set||1.0||386.9||386.9||20.0|
|其它||Transporation of mulch||time||1.0||102.8||102.8|
|其它||Transporation of construction materials||time||5.0||92.5||462.5|
|其它||Transporation of workers to the field||time||15.0||30.2||453.0|
|其它||Transporation of seedlings||time||1.0||51.4||51.4|
The above calculation is not made on purely 1 ha, since the project did not implement afforestation on 1 ha. This calculation was done on 2.6 ha, then the costs are proportionally distributed for 1 ha.
|1.||Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l||管理||2-4 times per year for the first two years|
|2.||Preparation of fire protection trenches||结构性的||if needed|
|3.||Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings||植物性的||1-2 times per year|
|4.||Renew mulch layer||管理||annually after hay harvest in summer|
|5.||Replanting of seedlings (10% each year)||管理||annually to be done for the first 5 years|
|劳动力||Irrigation of young seedlings with 5-10 l||Man/day||1.0||10.0||10.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Preparation of fire protection trenches||rm||150.0||0.34||51.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Mowing to prevent overgrowth of seedlings||Man/day||4.0||10.0||40.0||50.0|
|劳动力||Renew mulch layer (including mulch value)||Man/day||5.0||10.0||50.0||50.0|
|植物材料||Seedlings for replantation (including labour)||seedlings||1200.0||0.51||612.0||50.0|
|其它||Petrol for irrigation||liter||7.0||0.8||5.6|
The rather high costs are mostly linked to the permanent fence to protect seedlings against grazing and to high number of seedlings per hectare. In some parts initial irrigation was necessary due to dry summer conditions. Maintenance activities such as irrigation of seedlings in summer, anti-fire measures, replantation of seedlings (10 % each year for 5 years), mowing of grass and renewing of mulch layer are needed.
With costs of approximately 5,700 USD/ha including fencing (30%), planting (30%) and seedlings (40%) afforestation is very intensive in financial resources. It is very likely that these high costs will limit the upscaling of the afforestation process. There are some options to reduce costs:
•Fence large areas and try to have sites in square or circle shape
•Increase number of seedlings planted by person by using soil-drillers
•Use cheaper fencing material (e.g. game protection fence, poles without concrete)
•Reduce seedling number to 2000-3000 seedlings/ha
•Using seeds (e.g. oak) instead of seedlings
•Regrow seeds in local low-cost nurseries (e.g. Lusagyugh)
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Precipitation peak between May and June.
Aparan, Aragatsotn Marz, Armenia
According to Köppen and Geiger, the climate is classified as Dfb (Cold/continental, no dry season, warm summers). Annual mean temperature is 5.2. °C. The warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year with -6.9 °C.
based on data from the following source: https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?layers=3ac478a468c245ef9bfd5533f7edbf93
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Within the fenced afforestation site, the grass could be cut and used as hay. The protection from grazing helps biomass development which leads to better protection from Surface water Erosion and this lead to soil-regeneration and increase of productivity.
The natural forest was removed for the purpose of grazing and the forest cover will be now re-established on the afforestation sites.
We mixed shrub species like raspberries and fruit-trees (wilde plumb) between the main tree species to create short time Benefit for the village people.
In addition to the wide spread grazing land use now the hay production in the fenced afforestation site is increased for the first 1-2 decades (until the canopy is too dense) and the collection of berries and fruits give additional income opportunities. In the Long terme fuel wood production can be expected from the forested land.
The grazing range is limited by the fenced afforestation site. This is relevant in the first couple of years before hay or fruit/berry productivity is able to fully compensate the loss of grazing range.
The maintenance of the afforestation site lead to increase of workload especially in the first 2-4 years when hay cutting and Irrigation is needed until the tree seedlings are well established.
As there is almost no forest near to the villages every woodland is very attractive for recreational purpose, but it will Need 2-3 decades until this function will be fulfilled by the afforestation site.
The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.
The fencing of the afforestation site immediately stops the heavy grazing Impact which leads to fast recovery of the Vegetation. The improved Vegetation cover and better development of the root System reduce Surface water run of Speed and increase water Infiltration.
An increase of vegetation and the leaf area index will lead to an increase of evaporation.
Increase of vegetation cover and reduction of water runoff will lead to decrease of soil loss.
The increase of vegetation leads to an increase of root development. Additionally, the increase of vegetation produces more litter, as no grazing is applied. The increase in litter leads to an increase of an humus layer and therefore to more below ground carbon.
Especially the fencing leads to fast increase of vegetation cover.
The local stakeholders got hands on training on fencing, afforestation and maintenance of afforestation sites.
The stop of grazing and the new micro-habitats created by the shadow of the tree seedlings have let to an increase in plant diversity. This process might be reverse when the tree canopy is closed and less light is available for the herb-layer, but this will take several decades.
The plain grasslands habitats are diversified by patches of forest.
The decrease of water run off increase the water capacity of the habitat and the afforested area will provide increase buffer capacity in the case of intensive rainfalls.
The high grass and trees reduce wind speed at ground level.
Most of the afforestation sites are locate uphill of villages. Village people are expecting protection from cold down-hill winds from the mountain and an increase of air-moisture by the evapo-transpiration of the forest.
In the first decade the efforts on maintenance are high and it can be expected that the return of natural resources (hay, berries, fruits) is significantly lower the the maintenance efforts. As soon the trees are established and larger than 1.3 the root system is well establish and the trees are resistant to droughts, no vegetation cutting is needed and even game or cattle browsing will not necessarily lead to lethal damage.
drought-adapted species, adaptation of planting schemes
|Extension of forest cover of communities, new habitat for wild creators, forest will be a fire wood and non timber products source for local inhabitants, attraction of tourists into the communities, increased water regulating function, improved soil quality, increased vegetation, microclimate formation function, wind velocity reduction, reduced land degradation, nice view of the area due to afforestation,increased fodder for cattle|
|empowerment of the local capacities on sustainable land management|
|successful demonstration of erosion control measures|
|Diversification of land use options for local stakeholders. Future options for sustainable firewood supply, non-timber forests products (berries) and recreation|
|Option to use grass from cutting in between as fodder/hay production|
|side-effect of fencing is increase in biodiversity of grassland species due to exclusion from grazing.|
|Reduces pasture land of community, which was converted into a forest||Villagers/farmers need to increase the amount of hay from their homestead gardens using irrigation|
|strong need for care taking in the first years||community commitment, strong ownership|
|Expensive due to high costs for fencing||Consider alternative, cheaper fencing methods (e.g. wildlife protection fence)|
|Complicated decision making processes by the project||More mandate given to the implementing NGOs|
2 international (Huber, Kirchmeir)
Information extracted from different project reports and submitted financial statements from implementation
Handbook on Integrated Erosion Control A Practical Guide for Planning and Implementing Integrated Erosion Control Measures in Armenia, GIZ (ed.), 2018, ISBN 978-9939-1-0721-9
Project website of the GIZ program