有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）People in Need (PIN) (People in Need (PIN)) - 阿富汗
Technology for lifting water to uplands: hydraulic flange pump, reservoir and pipe scheme.
This technology is documented by the Sustainable Land Management Project, implemented by HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation and funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), with close support and cooperation of People in Need.
Samangan, Khuram wa Sarbagh district, Klor-e-Bala village is situated in a mountainous region where the greatest limiting factor to agricultural production is water. Arable lands are located far away from water sources. Lack of technology to exploit these lands prohibits villagers to cultivate their land to make a livelihood. Therefore, families are compelled to leave their village during summer.
Purpose of the Technology: To address this problem, People in Need (PIN), with financial support from GIZ and the Czech Embassy (CzDA) introduced irrigation through hydraulic flange pump. The hydraulic flange pump provides water to 30 orchards of Klor-e-Bala village, drinking water to the 43 village households, the mosque and the school of 500 students.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The main water source which starts and runs the hydraulic flange pump is the Khuwaja Hayat spring. The spring water arrives to the hydraulic flange pump from 1.8 meter height on a 12 percent slope in 200 meters distance from the water source. The water flow passes through the intake and moves towards the water wheel which starts/runs the hydraulic flange pump. The water is then pumped through three pipes of one inch to the reservoir. The hydraulic flange pump has the capacity of lifting water up to 250 meters.
The reservoir’s storage capacity is 25,600 liters of water with the dimensions as follows: 4.9 meter length; 2.9 m width; and 1.8 m height. It has two outlets: a spill way fitted with three pipes of one inch at the top of the reservoir and two outlets fitted with two pipes of three inches at the bottom. The lower outlet leads water to the orchards by diverting water after 40 meters into two pipes which are 1,000 meters long. Each orchard is connected to one of these two pipes by a T-connector and the water flows into a tin water tank with the capacity of 1,000 liters for each orchard. The two pipes are extended as far as the school which is located near the orchards and has been equipped with a 2000 liters tin water tank.
The hydraulic flange pump is made locally in Taloqan city, Takhar province of Afghanistan in the Baradaran-e- Kargar workshop. The pump costs 140,000 Afghani/ 2,200 US$, including installment. The estimated cost of the construction of the reservoir and the pump’s room including the hydraulic flange pump is 19,000 US$. The pipe scheme of the project was installed by the Community Development Council (CDC) with technical support from PIN’s engineering team. Community members contributed 10 percent of the costs as labor. As Klor-e-Bala village is situated in flood prone area and flooding is a common occurrence, PIN, with funding from the GIZ, constructed in 2015 two protection walls, 45 m and 55 m in length, on both sides of the river, to minimize erosion and protect the pump’s intake from floods. The protection walls were built through cash for work programme, but community members provided 10 percent contribution through labor and by providing stones for construction. The total estimated cost of the hydraulic flange pump, reservoir and pipe scheme technology amounted to 37,000 US$.
Furthermore, in order to maintain the technology, a caretaker, who lives close to the pump’s room has been appointed. The caretaker was trained by the technician who installed the hydraulic flange pump and has voluntarily taken the responsibility of maintenance activities; changing the oil and cleaning of the hydraulic flange pump's room and changing of the pipes in case of need. The owners of the orchards have to cover for all maintenance costs and the chairman of the Community Development Council (CDC) has the responsibility of managing the money for maintenance and other recurrent activities.
The flange pump technology contributed to the economic growth of the community members by increasing the orchards’ yields. Currently, the hydraulic flange pump irrigates 12 jireb/2.4 ha (30*800m2) orchards of apple, apricot, almond, pear and cherry trees. In addition to the orchards, alfalfa, potato, vegetables and other crops are as well cultivated on these lands. Furthermore, the pump supports the community members to settle year-round in their villages and prevents from their seasonal displacement. Moreover, the flange pump enables the provision of drinking water to the whole community and the school.
Natural / human environment: Samangan is one of the northern provinces of Afghanistan. Wheat, melons, pistachio,
almonds, potatoes, onions and caraway are important crops and Karakul sheep
and goats the main livestock for meat, dairy, and wool production. Rugs are the
main handicraft of this area. Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district in Samangan has two growing
seasons, the longest of which is 150 days from February to June and the second is 90
days from June to September. The average rainfall is below 500mm and the climate semi-arid.
The community members have limited access to off farm employment, market, energy,
financial services, roads and transportation and moderate access to health and education.
Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district, Klor_e_Bala village
- access to water
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Lack of safe drinking and irrigation water which makes agricultural activities difficult.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Lack of cultivation due to the scarcity of water. High workloads and small incomes.
Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Mf: Agroforestry
Other: Ow: Waterways, drainage lines, ponds, dams
Longest growing period in days: 150; Longest growing period from month to month: February - June; Second longest growing period in days: 90; Second longest growing period from month to month: June - September
- 1-10 平方千米
The technology area which is considered here is the distance from the water area where the machine exists to the reservoir and reservoir to the orchard and crop land.
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Bq: quantity / biomass decline
Main causes of degradation: disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff), droughts, education, access to knowledge and support services
A detailed technical drawing of the hydraulic flange pump and the reservoir, Klor-e-Bala village, Khuram-wa-Sarbagh district, Samangan province.
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), water harvesting / increase water supply, water spreading
|1.||Excavation of the foundation||结构性的|
|2.||Construction activities,Stone masonry foundation and wall:||结构性的|
|3.||a:P.C.C concrete foundationb:R.C.C concretec:Iron shattering for walls, roof and floord:External and internal pointing||结构性的|
|4.||a:Plasteringb:Steel barsc:Door and window||结构性的|
|5.||Pipe scheme:a:Pipesb:Water tanksc:other equipmentd:Skilled and unskilled labor||结构性的|
|6.||Procurement of the Hydraulic flange pump||结构性的|
|劳动力||Excavation of the foundation||square meters||50.0||2.88||144.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Excavation of the foundation||cubic meters||161.0||2.4037||387.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Skilled and unskilled labor||persons/day||343.0||9.47521||3250.0||10.0|
|设备||Procurement of the Hydraulic flange pump||pieces||1.0||2200.0||2200.0||10.0|
|施工材料||Concrete foundation||cubic meters||12.23||96.64758||1182.0||10.0|
|施工材料||Iron shattering for walls, roof and floor||cubic meters||110.0||4.86363||535.0||10.0|
|施工材料||External and internal pointing||square meters||226.0||2.85398||645.0||10.0|
|施工材料||Steel bars||square meters||364.4||1.21844||444.0||10.0|
|施工材料||Door and window||square meters||3.98||28.8944||115.0||10.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 7 month(s)
|1.||Changing of the pipes||结构性的||Once a year|
|2.||Cleaning of the flange pump room||结构性的||Six times a year|
|3.||Changing of the hydraulic flange pump oil||结构性的|
|劳动力||Changing of the pipes||persons/day||1.0||7.0||7.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Cleaning of the flange pump room||persons/day||1.0||7.0||7.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Changing of the hydraulic flange pump oil||persons/day||1.0||7.0||7.0||100.0|
Labor, stone and equipment are the main fundamental factors which need high initial investments.
After a couple of years pipes may need to be changed.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage / infiltration is medium
Soil water storage capacity is low
Land users applying the Technology are mainly disadvantaged land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Constructional activities which are done outside of the houses and compounds are mainly applied by men in Afghanistan.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
100% of the land users are poor.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
In case the owner of the first orchard do not obey the water use right
livelihood and human well-being
The pump improved households’ economy through increasing agricultural yieIds and by decreasing the need for a generator pump. It has as well reduced the workload of the community members
It has decreased the water flow only in the place where the hydraulic flange pump is installed.
|length of growing period||好|
98 households covering 50 percent of the stated area
98 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: Due to high expenses of the implementation of the technology, it has not been applied without any external support.
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: The technology is of a high cost and needs external support to be established.
Application of the technology has reduced the workload for the families.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Greater awareness on water management can be created by training/workshop for the water users.
The technology has supported the community members economically by increasing agricultural yields. Moreover, it contributes to reduce the costs of water during the summer season.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The land users should try to plant local and native trees and cultivate the crops which are adapted to the land.Community members should actively participate in maintenance activities.
Provides safe drinking water to the 43 households and the
school at low cost.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Pipe scheme and cover of the reservoir, should be cleaned regularly. If any leakages occurs in the pipes or reservoir, they should be sealed. Water taps and water tanks should be properly maintained.
This technology has been applied in a low slope/latitude where the water flows with a very low speed and the application of other technologies was difficult.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Protect from sedimentation.
The hydraulic flange pump is produced locally. Procurement and installment of the pump contributes therefore to local economic growth and private sector development.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Link the company to the other potential buyers.
|Social conflicts can occur during the distribution of water||The water in keeper/maintainer can be introduced by CDCs for the distribution of water.|
|Electricity cannot be produced by applying this technology. The slope and latitude of the location where the flange pump is installed is too small.|
It is difficult to apply the technology without any external and
|Locally available materials should be used to reduce costs.|
|High level of technical knowledge is required for the establishment of the technology.||The technical knowledge should be transferred to the extension workers or local people to provide technical support in the future.|
This technology needs regular maintenance and the reservoir
has to be properly cleaned after heavy rainfalls.
|The CDC should monitor maintenance activities by the caretaker as well as manage funds for maintenance costs.|