技术

Combined herding for planned grazing [纳米比亚]

Omarisiro wovinamuinjo motjimbumba

technologies_3326 - 纳米比亚

完整性: 92%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Southern African Science Service Centre for climate change and Adaptive Land management (SASSCAL)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Namibia University of Science and Technology ( NUST) - 纳米比亚
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Conservation Agriculture Namibia (Conservation Agriculture Namibia) - 纳米比亚

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

Community grazing management
approaches

Community grazing management [纳米比亚]

Agreement among community members to jointly manage their communal grazing area by combining their livestock into a single herd. The herd is managed and moved according to an agreed growing season plan that provides sufficient recovery for perennial grasses, and a non-growing season plan to graze in a way that ...

  • 编制者: Ibo Zimmermann

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Daily combining of livestock from all households into a single herd to be driven to different designated portions of the communal grazing area. Grass can then recover by replenishing its reserves before being re-grazed some months later.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

This technology is currently being applied in communal areas as well as commercial farms of Namibia. It is particularly effective in areas with no fences, and areas with high incidence of stock theft and predator losses. The technology aims to replace continuous, open grazing with a planned system. This gives grass a chance to recover in the growing season, and prepares the soil and grass for the forthcoming rainy season. In addition, fixed stocking rates based on carrying capacities are replaced by flexible stocking rates which track availability of forage. Two grazing plans are developed for one year; one when perennial grasses are growing and the other when they are dormant. Grazing plans may change, depending on the season and unanticipated events such as fire. A grazing plan is put in place for the growing season, that ensures plants are not re-grazed before they have recovered their root reserves. It is targeted at good animal performance . In the non-growing season, animal numbers are adjusted to ensure that there is sufficient grass to last until the next rains .
The grazing plans must take into account all factors that affect livestock performance as well as capacity of the livestock owner . These factors include occurrence of the first rains, presence of natural water pans, current and projected animal performance, availability of good quality forage for cows prior to bulling, avoiding poisonous plants, and timing of vaccinations, etc. Once the plan has been developed, the animals are moved by herders using low stress handling techniques to various parts of the farm or communal grazing area, according to the plan. Strategic moving of livestock by herding enables fire breaks to be created by deliberate over trampling. Each night the livestock are brought back to a kraal ( Afrikaans for corral) where they are kept overnight. Watering of livestock can take place in the kraal at night, in the morning, or alternatively in the field depending on water availability. This process is repeated day after day by the herders.
At the end of each growing season, the amount of forage available to the current herd is estimated. Animal numbers are adjusted to make sure that there is still sufficient forage to support them before the rains – and to leave enough ground cover to feed the soil organisms and protect the soil from erosion. Deciding when the forage produced will run out needs to be done using a method that livestock owners relate to. Livestock owners may decide to meet and reach consensus on this based on their knowledge and past experience of the effectiveness of rainfall. If it is decided that there is sufficient food to see the animals through until the next rains, then livestock owners will be satisfied; if there is excess forage they may be able to re-stock. If, however, a forage shortage is expected then de-stocking is required: the severity of the forage shortage determines how many livestock can be carried on the land during the off-season. Again, livestock owners can reach consensus on this. Deciding whose animals to sell and how many is always a thorny issue, so livestock owners will always move excess livestock to other areas if possible, or alternatively sell unproductive animals.

2.3 技术照片

2.4 技术视频

注释、简短说明:

Combined herding to manage communal grazing
www.youtube.com/watch?v=xNyFkDUH6MQ

日期:

2007

位置:

Erora

摄影师的名字:

Andrew Botelle

注释、简短说明:

Stress-free herding
www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ey5v40KtkI

日期:

2007

位置:

Erora

摄影师的名字:

Andrew Botelle

注释、简短说明:

Managing water flow to repair gully erosion
www.youtube.com/watch?v=6C4V_Cib8ts

日期:

23/04/2015

位置:

Erora

摄影师的名字:

Andrew Botelle

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

纳米比亚

区域/州/省:

Kunene Region

有关地点的进一步说明:

Communal grazing areas of Erora, Outokotorua and Nsindi

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果不知道精确的区域,请注明大致覆盖的区域:
  • 100-1,000 平方千米
注释:

Animals are herded over the entire area – except areas that are too steep for livestock to walk up.

2.6 实施日期

注明实施年份:

2004

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Community projects facilitated by NGO "Conservation Agriculture Namibia".

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产
  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • 保护生态系统
  • 结合其他技术保护流域/下游区域
  • 保持/提高生物多样性
  • 降低灾害风险
  • 减缓气候变化及其影响
  • 创造有益的经济影响
  • 创造有益的社会影响
  • Reduce human-wildlife conflict

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧:
  • 半游牧畜牧业
注释:

Main animal species and products: Livestock, increased forage production, improved animal performance.

Number of growing seasons per year: 1
Livestock density: Livestock density is high as a result of herding, but stocking rate varies.

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 畜牧业和牧场管理

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

管理措施

管理措施

  • M4:活动时间安排的重大变化
注释:

The technology does not involve a change in land use. The grazing plan means that livestock will only be on a particular piece of land twice in any given year (once in the growing season and once in the non growing season). The animal density is however high, leading to increased impact for a very short period.

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
  • Wg:冲沟侵蚀/沟蚀
  • Wo:场外劣化效应
土壤风蚀

土壤风蚀

  • Et:表土流失
物理性土壤退化

物理性土壤退化

  • Pk:熟化和结壳
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
  • Bq:数量/生物量减少
  • Bs:质量和物种组成/多样性的下降
  • Bl:土壤寿命损失
水质恶化

水质恶化

  • Ha:干旱化
  • Hs:地表水良变化
  • Hg:地下水/含水层水位的变化
注释:

The control of over-trampling which otherwise leads to rill and gulley erosion.

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地
注释:

Land is severely degraded but can be restored by change in management.

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

Schematic of planned growing season grazing. In this diagram grazing started in the bottom left hand camp (plot), marked d1, and the livestock were grazed in this area for one day. The next day the herd of livestock were taken to the area marked d2 and grazed there. This continued until day 41 where the livestock are currently. If deviations from the plan occur then the grazing map is marked according to what actually happened. This is the map that helps inform next year's grazing plan - to avoid using certain camps at the same time of year. The degree of greenness in the diagram indicates the recovery of grass. It is lightest in the area just grazed, marked d40. By the time the herd reaches day 120, which has the darkest green indicating readiness to be re-grazed, then the grass in the area marked d1 was calculated to have recovered sufficiently to be re-grazed. This plan has a built-in recovery period of 120 days. It is possible that growth rates are slower than expected and it may be necessary to reduce numbers of cattle in the herd to slow down movement to ensure an adequate recovery period.

作者:

Colin Nott

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术区域
注明尺寸和面积单位:

5000 ha

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元
注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

USD 4

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Three meetings for mobilisation of communities Month 1
2. Exchange visit to local livestock owners using this practise Month 4
3. Assess water infrastructure, site and drill and install additional water point Month 6
4. Grazing planning meeting with stakeholders After adequate grass growth to enable planned grazing
5. Appoint, equip and train herders After 4
6. Planning meeting and determination of starting date After 5
7. Build overnight kraals at new water points When needed
8. Build temporary kraals for improved grass growth When needed

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Six herders (four on duty per day) for 400 cattle Month 6.0 77.0 462.0 100.0
劳动力 One manager Month 1.0 115.0 115.0 100.0
设备 Overalls, boots and hat that may need replacement after one year Set 7.0 100.0 700.0 100.0
施工材料 Housing for herders built from mud and dung Shelter 3.0 100.0 300.0 100.0
其它 Laminated grazing chart and map per year Document 2.0 10.0 20.0
技术建立所需总成本 1597.0
技术建立总成本,美元 1597.0
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

Grazing maps and charts prodcuded by CAN (support NGO), but will be taken over soon by farmers.

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. Daily herding, watering of livestock and health checks and treatment Daily
2. Maintenance of kraals and water points Quartery

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Six herders (four on duty per day) for 400 cattle Month 6.0 77.0 462.0 100.0
劳动力 One manager Month 1.0 115.0 115.0 100.0
设备 Overalls, boots and hat, replaced annually Set 7.0 100.0 700.0 100.0
施工材料 Maintenance of clay and dung housing for herders Shelters 3.0 100.0 300.0 100.0
其它 Diesel for pumping water per month Litres 100.0 1.0 100.0 100.0
其它 Laminated grazing chart and map per year Documents 2.0 10.0 20.0 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 1697.0
技术维护总成本,美元 1697.0

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Appreciation by land users that investment in herders will pay back, especially from the second year onwards.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

Summer rainfall December-March.

注明所考虑的参考气象站名称:

Opuwo

农业气候带
  • 干旱

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 不相关

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
土壤质地(地表以下> 20厘米):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

> 50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

规律性:

偶然

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等
栖息地多样性:
  • 中等

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 定栖的
  • 半游牧的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业)
非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 中年人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

In dry years all livestock may move to another cattle post. But they return to the sedentary site as their main grazing area. A significant number of land users take up employment in the nearest town.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的
注释:

Communal land is not owned or leased, but the community has rights to use it for agricultural purposes.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)
用水权:
  • 社区(有组织)
注释:

Land is communal and organised but no rights to enforce management are yet in place through formal structures.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料生产

降低
增加

畜牧生产

降低
增加

生产故障风险

增加
降低

土地管理

妨碍
简化
注释/具体说明:

Improved, not simplified

水资源可用性和质量

家畜用水的可用性

降低
增加
收入和成本

农业投入费用

增加
降低

农业收入

降低
增加

经济差异

增加
降低

工作量

增加
降低

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良

土地使用权/用水权

恶化
改良

社区机构

削弱
加强

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良

冲突缓解

恶化
改良

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低

蒸发

增加
降低
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良

土壤流失

增加
降低

土壤结壳/密封

增加
减少

养分循环/补给

降低
增加
生物多样性:植被、动物

植被覆盖

降低
增加

植物多样性

降低
增加

动物多样性

降低
增加
减少气候和灾害风险

干旱影响

增加
降低

火灾风险

增加
降低

微气候

恶化
改良

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

Community's cattle no longer graze on land of neighbouring communities.

improved

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加 适度
年降雨量 减少 适度

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地雷暴
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 适度
陆地火灾

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

积极

长期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

注释:

The ability to bring back perennial grasses into the system allows higher stocking rates, less drought risk and better quality animals, therefore higher income over time and consequently a better cost-benefit analysis.

6.5 技术采用

  • 1-10%
如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

20,000 ha

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 0-10%
注释:

This is a key issue undergoing lobbying of government and the communal farmers union to establish through a consultative process legislation that enables grazing plans to be enforced from within and from outside. This is lacking at the moment.

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

其它(具体说明):

Adaptive management

具体说明技术的适应性(设计、材料/品种等):

Addition of erosion control and overnight kraaling to assist with gully control. Refining re-planning in response to monitored results that deviate from aims.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
It is cost-effective; genuine improvement is seen in grass production, while livestock losses to predators are significantly reduced.
For absentee owners they can leave a manager and herders in place to get on with the work and this can be easily evaluated after time since animals wondering around leave evidence.
Livestock are better cared for than they used to be, and a sense of community has been restored.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
This is a viable and upscaleable technology for both communal and commercial farmland in Namibia and beyond.
It addresses the root cause of livestock related degradation and on a larger scale could have a significant impact on mitigating climate change if all the degraded rangelands of the dry climates of the world were restored by using the principles embodied in this approach – one which has been adopted in the National Rangeland Management Policy and Strategy. Moreover it can improve the quality of lives of millions of people who live in areas where livestock is the only viable land use.
This is a true “triple bottom line” technology that improves the resource base whilst increasing profits and enables improved quality of life for residents.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Herders are difficult to find, train and keep. National level vocational training of herders is required.
Water infrastructure tends to result in overtrampling of the same routes. The Directorate of Rural Water Supply should change its water specifications to include the provision of water for livestock – which can be cheap and effective.
Grass poaching takes place by neighbours and the majority will of people in an area is sometimes overrun by a small minority. Farmers Unions must address these issues and get enforceable mechanisms in place for improved rangeland management.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
There is insufficient national buy-in from line ministries in terms of implementation to address many of the issues that have been raised. Line ministries should support implementation to address these problems. Joint implementation, joint review and adaptation by government, unions, livestock owners and support providers will assist in solving many issues for resource-base improvement.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈
(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

20/06/2017

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Holistic mangement, Savory, A. & Butterfield, J., 1991

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

Island Press

7.3 链接到网络上的相关信息

标题/说明:

Volkmann, W. (2011). Community based rangeland and livestock management. Windhoek: GOPA-CBRLM.

URL:

https://rmportal.net/groups/cbrlm/cbrlm-for-review/namibia-community-based-rangeland-livestock-management-cbrlm-2nd-edition/view

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