有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Southern African Science Service Centre for climate change and Adaptive Land management (SASSCAL)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Namibia University of Science and Technology ( NUST) - 纳米比亚
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Conservation Agriculture Namibia (Conservation Agriculture Namibia) - 纳米比亚
Daily combining of livestock from all households into a single herd to be driven to different designated portions of the communal grazing area. Grass can then recover by replenishing its reserves before being re-grazed some months later.
This technology is currently being applied in communal areas as well as commercial farms of Namibia. It is particularly effective in areas with no fences, and areas with high incidence of stock theft and predator losses. The technology aims to replace continuous, open grazing with a planned system. This gives grass a chance to recover in the growing season, and prepares the soil and grass for the forthcoming rainy season. In addition, fixed stocking rates based on carrying capacities are replaced by flexible stocking rates which track availability of forage. Two grazing plans are developed for one year; one when perennial grasses are growing and the other when they are dormant. Grazing plans may change, depending on the season and unanticipated events such as fire. A grazing plan is put in place for the growing season, that ensures plants are not re-grazed before they have recovered their root reserves. It is targeted at good animal performance . In the non-growing season, animal numbers are adjusted to ensure that there is sufficient grass to last until the next rains .
The grazing plans must take into account all factors that affect livestock performance as well as capacity of the livestock owner . These factors include occurrence of the first rains, presence of natural water pans, current and projected animal performance, availability of good quality forage for cows prior to bulling, avoiding poisonous plants, and timing of vaccinations, etc. Once the plan has been developed, the animals are moved by herders using low stress handling techniques to various parts of the farm or communal grazing area, according to the plan. Strategic moving of livestock by herding enables fire breaks to be created by deliberate over trampling. Each night the livestock are brought back to a kraal ( Afrikaans for corral) where they are kept overnight. Watering of livestock can take place in the kraal at night, in the morning, or alternatively in the field depending on water availability. This process is repeated day after day by the herders.
At the end of each growing season, the amount of forage available to the current herd is estimated. Animal numbers are adjusted to make sure that there is still sufficient forage to support them before the rains – and to leave enough ground cover to feed the soil organisms and protect the soil from erosion. Deciding when the forage produced will run out needs to be done using a method that livestock owners relate to. Livestock owners may decide to meet and reach consensus on this based on their knowledge and past experience of the effectiveness of rainfall. If it is decided that there is sufficient food to see the animals through until the next rains, then livestock owners will be satisfied; if there is excess forage they may be able to re-stock. If, however, a forage shortage is expected then de-stocking is required: the severity of the forage shortage determines how many livestock can be carried on the land during the off-season. Again, livestock owners can reach consensus on this. Deciding whose animals to sell and how many is always a thorny issue, so livestock owners will always move excess livestock to other areas if possible, or alternatively sell unproductive animals.
Combined herding to manage communal grazing
Managing water flow to repair gully erosion
Communal grazing areas of Erora, Outokotorua and Nsindi
- 100-1,000 平方千米
Animals are herded over the entire area – except areas that are too steep for livestock to walk up.
Community projects facilitated by NGO "Conservation Agriculture Namibia".
- Reduce human-wildlife conflict
Main animal species and products: Livestock, increased forage production, improved animal performance.
Number of growing seasons per year: 1
Livestock density: Livestock density is high as a result of herding, but stocking rate varies.
The technology does not involve a change in land use. The grazing plan means that livestock will only be on a particular piece of land twice in any given year (once in the growing season and once in the non growing season). The animal density is however high, leading to increased impact for a very short period.
The control of over-trampling which otherwise leads to rill and gulley erosion.
Land is severely degraded but can be restored by change in management.
Schematic of planned growing season grazing. In this diagram grazing started in the bottom left hand camp (plot), marked d1, and the livestock were grazed in this area for one day. The next day the herd of livestock were taken to the area marked d2 and grazed there. This continued until day 41 where the livestock are currently. If deviations from the plan occur then the grazing map is marked according to what actually happened. This is the map that helps inform next year's grazing plan - to avoid using certain camps at the same time of year. The degree of greenness in the diagram indicates the recovery of grass. It is lightest in the area just grazed, marked d40. By the time the herd reaches day 120, which has the darkest green indicating readiness to be re-grazed, then the grass in the area marked d1 was calculated to have recovered sufficiently to be re-grazed. This plan has a built-in recovery period of 120 days. It is possible that growth rates are slower than expected and it may be necessary to reduce numbers of cattle in the herd to slow down movement to ensure an adequate recovery period.
|1.||Three meetings for mobilisation of communities||Month 1|
|2.||Exchange visit to local livestock owners using this practise||Month 4|
|3.||Assess water infrastructure, site and drill and install additional water point||Month 6|
|4.||Grazing planning meeting with stakeholders||After adequate grass growth to enable planned grazing|
|5.||Appoint, equip and train herders||After 4|
|6.||Planning meeting and determination of starting date||After 5|
|7.||Build overnight kraals at new water points||When needed|
|8.||Build temporary kraals for improved grass growth||When needed|
|劳动力||Six herders (four on duty per day) for 400 cattle||Month||6.0||77.0||462.0||100.0|
|设备||Overalls, boots and hat that may need replacement after one year||Set||7.0||100.0||700.0||100.0|
|施工材料||Housing for herders built from mud and dung||Shelter||3.0||100.0||300.0||100.0|
|其它||Laminated grazing chart and map per year||Document||2.0||10.0||20.0|
Grazing maps and charts prodcuded by CAN (support NGO), but will be taken over soon by farmers.
|1.||Daily herding, watering of livestock and health checks and treatment||Daily|
|2.||Maintenance of kraals and water points||Quartery|
|劳动力||Six herders (four on duty per day) for 400 cattle||Month||6.0||77.0||462.0||100.0|
|设备||Overalls, boots and hat, replaced annually||Set||7.0||100.0||700.0||100.0|
|施工材料||Maintenance of clay and dung housing for herders||Shelters||3.0||100.0||300.0||100.0|
|其它||Diesel for pumping water per month||Litres||100.0||1.0||100.0||100.0|
|其它||Laminated grazing chart and map per year||Documents||2.0||10.0||20.0||100.0|
Appreciation by land users that investment in herders will pay back, especially from the second year onwards.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Summer rainfall December-March.
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
In dry years all livestock may move to another cattle post. But they return to the sedentary site as their main grazing area. A significant number of land users take up employment in the nearest town.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Communal land is not owned or leased, but the community has rights to use it for agricultural purposes.
Land is communal and organised but no rights to enforce management are yet in place through formal structures.
Improved, not simplified
Community's cattle no longer graze on land of neighbouring communities.
The ability to bring back perennial grasses into the system allows higher stocking rates, less drought risk and better quality animals, therefore higher income over time and consequently a better cost-benefit analysis.
This is a key issue undergoing lobbying of government and the communal farmers union to establish through a consultative process legislation that enables grazing plans to be enforced from within and from outside. This is lacking at the moment.
Addition of erosion control and overnight kraaling to assist with gully control. Refining re-planning in response to monitored results that deviate from aims.
|It is cost-effective; genuine improvement is seen in grass production, while livestock losses to predators are significantly reduced.|
|For absentee owners they can leave a manager and herders in place to get on with the work and this can be easily evaluated after time since animals wondering around leave evidence.|
|Livestock are better cared for than they used to be, and a sense of community has been restored.|
|This is a viable and upscaleable technology for both communal and commercial farmland in Namibia and beyond.|
|It addresses the root cause of livestock related degradation and on a larger scale could have a significant impact on mitigating climate change if all the degraded rangelands of the dry climates of the world were restored by using the principles embodied in this approach – one which has been adopted in the National Rangeland Management Policy and Strategy. Moreover it can improve the quality of lives of millions of people who live in areas where livestock is the only viable land use.|
|This is a true “triple bottom line” technology that improves the resource base whilst increasing profits and enables improved quality of life for residents.|
|Herders are difficult to find, train and keep.||National level vocational training of herders is required.|
|Water infrastructure tends to result in overtrampling of the same routes.||The Directorate of Rural Water Supply should change its water specifications to include the provision of water for livestock – which can be cheap and effective.|
|Grass poaching takes place by neighbours and the majority will of people in an area is sometimes overrun by a small minority.||Farmers Unions must address these issues and get enforceable mechanisms in place for improved rangeland management.|
|There is insufficient national buy-in from line ministries in terms of implementation to address many of the issues that have been raised.||Line ministries should support implementation to address these problems. Joint implementation, joint review and adaptation by government, unions, livestock owners and support providers will assist in solving many issues for resource-base improvement.|
Holistic mangement, Savory, A. & Butterfield, J., 1991
Volkmann, W. (2011). Community based rangeland and livestock management. Windhoek: GOPA-CBRLM.