Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries for Sustainable Forest Management [India]

Trees: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora/glauca), Phalat (Quercus lanata), Fodder: Napier grasses, Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Khadik (Celtis australis)

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

usuario de la tierra:

Joshi Jagdamba Prashad

Sarpanch (Head) of Nakina Community Forest (Van Panchayat)


usuario de la tierra:

Pandey Basant Ballabh

Cucumber Farmer, Nakina Village


Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Onsite and Offsite Benefits of SLM
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - Nepal
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development (G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development) - India

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

1.4 Declaración de la sostenibilidad de la Tecnología descrita

¿La Tecnología aquí descrita resulta problemática en relación a la degradación de la tierra, de tal forma que no puede considerársela una tecnología sostenible para el manejo de la tierra?



The land is suitable for afforestation and fodder nurseries. There are currently no signs of over exploitation with regards to natural resource use in the plantation area of the Nakina Forest.

1.5 Referencia al (los) Cuestionario(s) de Enfoques MST (documentados usando WOCAT)

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat [India]

Van Panchayats or village forest councils are a impressive example of grassroots community management of natural resources, where a specific administrative unit is locally elected by community members who are responsible for the management of activities related to the forest.

  • Compilador: Jaclyn Bandy
Naula Management and Conservation

Naula Management and Conservation [India]

Naulas are shallow, four-sided stepped wells designed to collect water from subterranean seepages or springs and are used to meet domestic water needs by the local communities. Naula management and conservation encompasses a range of activities that preserve their structure and function.

  • Compilador: Jaclyn Bandy

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Natural assisted regeneration of broadleaved species, a small oak plantation and a fodder nursery have been established in the Nakina community forest (intervention area: 10 ha), supporting fodder tree species such as Banj Oak and Falyaat, as well as various subtropical temperate fodder grass species. This has improved the livelihood of the land-users by supporting the health and productivity of the forest, increasing the availability of fuel wood, fodder and groundwater for spring restoration.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología


1. The technology is applied in a natural environment and is located about 1km away from the settlement and the agriculture land of Nakina Village. The village has access to its own forest, which covers a geographical area of 114 hectare. Of this, 94 hectares come under the Village Forest Council, locally referred to as the Van Panchayat.

2. Characteristics of Technology:

a. Broadleaf species have been established over 7 hectares through natural assisted tree regeneration methods. These include Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis).

b. Nakina Van Panchayat has made an oak plantation site of 2 hectares in collaboration with G.B. Pant Research Institute.

c. A fodder nursery covering 1 hectare hosts a variety of subtropical (Napier: Pennisetum purpureum, Aus, Ginni) and temperate grasses (Guchhi, Dolni, Italian rye: Lolium multiflorum). It was established with the assistance of the NGOs Swati Gramodyog Sansthan and the Himalayan Sewa Samiti. Extraction of fodder leaves and timber are restricted and regulations managed by the Van Panchayat (community forest council).

-Increase trees and grasses to improve availability of fuel and fodder for community, as well as enrich biodiversity.
-Plantation is on a mountain slope (+25% slope), so it will help in preventing soil erosion and landslides.
-Improve soil and water conservation, prevention of surface run-off, support groundwater recharge and spring rejuvenation.

Major activities/Inputs needed to establish and maintain technology:
1. Activities for Assisted Natural Regeneration: protect and facilitate the growth of parent trees inherently present in the area and their regenerations, rather than establishment of entire plantation

2.Activities for the oak plantation: Selection and seed provision of appropriate tree species, clearing of vegetation and preparation of forest top soil, leveling of soil, digging of plantation pits, sowing weeding, watering, occasional pruning, propagation of trees from cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing for protection from fire.

3. Activities for fodder nursery:- Selection and seed provision of appropriate grass species and polypot materials, preparation of seedbeds; clearing of vegetation, removal of stones/large roots, ploughing/hoeing, mixing sand and compost on areas with poor soil, sowing seeds pre-monsoon, weeding and watering seedlings, propagation from seed or root cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing protection from fire.

•Restores productivity and fodder/fuelwood availability
•Ecosystem stability
•Enhancement of biological diversity to degraded lands.
•Control landslide and soil erosion
•Control forest fire.
•Maintain wildlife habitat
•Increase livelihood of local people, decrease time spent collecting fodder
•Storage carbon on the forest help to reduce the CO2 in the atmosphere.

This technology is properly functioning in the implementation area and local people have received many benefits from sustainable managing their natural resources rather than receiving incentives for institutional support, local people of the Nakina village are strongly active to protect the forest with their own coordination.

1.Improve wildlife habitat, which may increase human wildlife conflicts as it is near to agriculture land and settlements.
2.Require regular maintenance activities, which require organization within the community and can increase periodic workload depending on level of participation

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación



Región/ Estado/ Provincia:


Especifique más el lugar :

Nakina Village, Pithoragarh Bloc

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • aplicada en puntos específicos/ concentrada en un área pequeña
¿El/los sitio(s) de la Tecnología se ubica(n) en un área de protección permanente?

Si fuera el caso, especifique :

Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest)

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • 10-50 años atrás

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • mediante la innovación de usuarios de tierras
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

After the Nakina Van Panchyat was established in 1952 they already had experience working on plantations. During the British-era, timber extraction, pine plantations and prescribed fire exploded in the region. Much of the oak forests were reverted to pine, and many broadleaved species like were overexploited for construction, fuelwood, and fodder. Nakina's self-initiated plantation efforts were done in hopes to restore it to its original state.

Other supporting organizations and institutions have recognized the need for further support for the following reasons: demand for fuel and fodder is still insufficient during the dry season, water scarcity has become a prevalent issue, and biological interventions are necessary to improve and sustain ecosystem services. Due to the expressed interest and dedication of the community, these projects have been accomplished.

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.1 Propósito(s) principal(es) de la Tecnología MST

  • mejorar la producción
  • reducir, prevenir, restaurar la degradación del suelo
  • conservar el ecosistema
  • proteger una cuenca hidrográfica/ áreas corriente abajo – en combinación con otras Tecnologías
  • preservar/ mejorar biodiversidad
  • reducir el riesgo de desastres naturales
  • adaptarse al cambio climático/ extremos climáticos y sus impactos
  • crear impacto económico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Mezcla de tipos de uso de tierras dentro de la misma unidad de tierras: :

Tierra de pastoreo

Tierra de pastoreo

Pastoreo intensivo/ producción de forraje:
  • Cortar y llevar/ cero pastoreo
Tipo de animal:
  • ganado - lechero
  • cabras
¿Se practica el manejo integrado de cultivos - ganado?

Si fuera el caso, especifique :

Compost was made from manure of livestock for plantation and fodder nursery preparation.

Productos y servicios:
  • carne
  • leche


  • Bosques/ zonas boscosas (semi) naturales
  • Plantación de árboles, reforestación
Bosques/ zonas boscosas (semi-) naturales: Especifique tipo de manejo:
  • Tala selectiva
Tipo de bosque (semi)natural:
  • vegetación natural de bosque subtropical seco
Plantación de árboles, reforestación: Especifique el origen y la composición de las especies:
  • Variedades mixtas
tipo de plantación de árboles, reforestación:
  • plantación de bosque subtropical seco - de hoja ancha
  • Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia)
¿Los árboles especificados son deciduos o imperecederos?
  • deciduo
Productos y servicios:
  • Madera
  • Leña
  • Otros productos forestales
  • Pastoreo/ ramoneo
  • Conservación/ Protección de la naturaleza

3.3 ¿Cambió el uso de tierras debido a la implementación de la Tecnología?

¿Cambió el uso de tierras debido a la implementación de la Tecnología?
  • No (Continúe con la pregunta 3.4)

3.4 Provisión de agua

Provisión de agua para la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología:
  • de secano

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • manejo de bosques naturales y seminaturales:
  • manejo de plantación forestal
  • cobertura de suelo/ vegetal mejorada

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas vegetativas

medidas vegetativas

  • V1: Cubierta de árboles y arbustos
  • V2: Pastos y plantas herbáceas perennes
  • V3: Desbroce de vegetación
  • V4:reemplazo o eliminación de especies extrañas/ invasoras
  • V5: Otros
medidas de manejo

medidas de manejo

  • M1: Cambio de tipo de uso de la tierra
  • M2: Cambio de gestión/ nivel de intensidad
  • M3: disposición de acuerdo al entorno natural y humano
  • M5: Control/ cambio de composición de las especies

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

erosión de suelos por agua

erosión de suelos por agua

  • Wt: pérdida de capa arable/ erosión de la superficie
  • Wg: erosión en cárcavas
  • Wm: movimiento de masas / deslizamientos de tierra
  • Wo: efectos de degradación fuera del sitio
deterioro químico del suelo

deterioro químico del suelo

  • Cn: reducción de la fertilidad y contenido reducido de la materia orgánica del suelo (no ocasionados por la erosión)
  • Ca: acidificación
deterioro físico del suelo

deterioro físico del suelo

  • Pc: compactación
  • Pk: desmoronamiento y encostramiento
  • Pi: sellado de suelo
  • Pu: pérdida de la función bioproductiva a causa de otras actividades
degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo
  • Bh: pérdida de hábitats
  • Bq: reducción de la cantidad/ biomasa
  • Bf: efectos nocivos de los fuegos
  • Bs: reducción en la calidad y composición/ diversidad de las especies
  • Bl: pérdida de la vida del suelo
  • Bp: incremento de pestes/ enfermedades, pérdida de depredadores
degradación del agua

degradación del agua

  • Ha: aridificación
  • Hs: cambio en la cantidad de aguas superficiales
  • Hg: cambio en nivel de aguas subterráneas/ nivel de acuífero
  • Hq: reducción de la calidad de subterráneas
  • Hq: reducción de la calidad de aguas subterráneas

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • reducir la degradación del suelo
  • restaurar/ rehabilitar tierra severamente degradada

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is not less than 2x2 m, about 2,000 Quercus saplings were planted.

Nakina Broadleaf Plantation: 7 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is no less that 2x2 m, about 15,000 trees have been planted and the forest is being continually managed in the area.

Species: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis)

Fuelwood cutting (lopping), fodder collection, and selective clear cutting for Quercus leucotrichophora and other broadleaved species is done between Nov- April.

Fodder Nursery: 20 Quintals (20,000 kg) of various grassroot slips over 1 Hectare. This provides +175 tonnes/year. (Subtropicals species: napier, aus, ginni, Temperate species: guchhi, dolni, italian rye)

Planting: Grasses are planted during the months of June-July at the advent of rainy season, about 10 cm deep vertically and at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm apart.

Propagation: grasses forms clumps during its growth period. The clump when broken gives a number of small units known as slips, which are the units of propagation and on planting, they establish as individual plants. While preparing the slips for planting, fibrous roots and leaves are be trimmed off. Cuttings with 2 nodes from the middle portion of moderately matured stems (3 – 4 months old) were planted in a slanting position at one side of the ridges with one node buried in the soil. The underground node develops roots and shoots while the upper node shoots only. The soil around the stem is pressed tightly. Farm yard manure is applied after harvest (application rate varies; estimation is 5-8 tonnes). Annually about 6 to 8 cuts are possible.

Oak Nursery: 0.25 ha. The nursery bed is rectangular and measures about 100m x 25 m. The seedlings are uprooted by hand from a seedbed and transplanted (bare-root transplanting). The nursery is on a gently sloping land (23%). Seedlings with poor lateral root development are culled out.

Oak Plantation Alternative:
Acorns are collected and put in water for 24 hours. Acorns that sink are immediately sown in a well tilled seedbed 2-5 cm deep, 15 cm from each other and covered with a thin layer of firm soil. Beds are mulched with straw or leaves. However, not every acorn will germinate and animal predation of acorns can be an issue. In general, probability of success is lower than with seedlings.


Jaclyn Bandy



Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Google Map of Plantations and Fodder Nursery locations


Jaclyn Bandy



Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Project Budget with Nakina Village and NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti: Fodder Nursery, 1 hectare and Assisted Natural Regeneration 97 Hectares)

(Citation: Detailed Project Report: Natural Resource Based Livelihood Project in the Gorang Ghati Cluster, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti, Submitted to: Sir Ratan Tata Trust (SRTT) Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Project Budget for Afforestation of Nakina Community Forest and G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development: Broadleaf Plantation (2 hectares)

(Citation: Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

Especifique cómo se calcularon los costos e insumos:
  • por área de Tecnología
Indique tamaño y unidad de área:

Afforested Community Forest: 7 hectares, G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 hectares, Fodder Nursery: 1 hectare

otra / moneda nacional (especifique):


Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:


Indique el costo promedio del salario de trabajo contratado por día:

400 INR

4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Plantations: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
2. Earth work for leveling, Digging pits (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) along contour lines, spacing of pits no less that 2x2 m, filling of pits with soil/manure mixture Early June
3. Planting of saplings: roots of the plants kept straight and the plant put straight in vertical position; done by digging with the help of a stick or small crow bar Early July
4. Note: Species like Akhrot, Angu, Maple, Pangar, Poplar, Salix, Utis etc. are planted in winter months January/February
5. Dead, dying or dry plants are replaced within 15 days of completion of planting work Mid June
6. Thanwalas (semicircular pit) about 15 cm deep, 25-30 cm apart from the plant were dug for rainwater retention/infiltration Mid June
7. Weeding after first significant rains Monsoon
8. Fodder Nursery: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
9. Plowing/hoeing land, collection and soil, sand, manure preparation (4:2:1 ratio) and seedbed preparation Pre-monsoon
10. Planting of each cane/rootsplit in holes 15-30 cm deep, with a spacing of 0.5m x 0.5m Pre-monsoon
11. Cutting and Harvesting

Oak Plantation: Seeds are collected from dominant oak trees that exhibit superior phenotypic traits such as tall straight trunks, good diameter growth rates and well-developed crowns (branches/leaves)

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra Plantation Community Manual labour person-days 400,0 400,0 160000,0 50,0
Mano de obra Skilled labour (advisor, experts) person-days 7,0 2000,0 14000,0
Mano de obra Fodder Nursery Raising Total Cost 1,0 25000,0 25000,0 25,0
Equipo Axe, Crow bar, Wheel barrow pieces 10,0 1500,0 15000,0 100,0
Equipo Digging forks, Hammers, Hoes, Spade pieces 10,0 1500,0 15000,0 100,0
Equipo Scissors, Pruning knives/shears, Budding and Grafting Knives/Tape pieces 10,0 700,0 7000,0 50,0
Material para plantas Fodder Grass/20 Quintals of Grassroot slips Total Cost 1,0 45000,0 45000,0 50,0
Material para plantas Plantation Material, 3.88 INR per Sapling x 1000 Sapling per hectare x 7 hectare Total Cost 1,0 27160,0 27160,0 50,0
Fertilizantes y biocidas Soil/Water Conservation and Soil Fertility Measures: 5,500 INR per Hectare x 2 Total Cost 1,0 11000,0 11000,0 100,0
Fertilizantes y biocidas Nakina Forest: Assisted Natural Regeneration preparation and composting Total Cost 1,0 2000,0 2000,0 100,0
Fertilizantes y biocidas Fodder Nursery composting Total Cost 1,0 1000,0 1000,0 100,0
Otros Plantation Transportation, Pitting, Planting: 6.9 INR per plant X 1000 sapling x 2 hectare Total Cost 1,0 13800,0 13800,0 50,0
Otros Fodder Nursery (Rootstock Purchase, Transportation) Total Cost 1,0 5500,0 5500,0 50,0
Otros Nakina Village: Assisted Natural Regeneration Activities in Planted Plots, 10,000 INR per hectare X 7 hectares x 3 years Total Cost 1,0 30000,0 30000,0 100,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 371460,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 5306,57
Si el usuario de la tierra no cubrió el 100% de los costos, indique quién financió el resto del costo:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, G.B. Pant, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


For G.B. Pant Plantation and Nakina Forest Plantation:
On average we estimated a maximum of 10 people worked on establishing the technology/day = 400 x 10 = 4000 (labor cost/day): 4,000 X 40 days = 160,000 INR Total Cost

Some of the community laborers were compensated for the initial phase of establishing the plantation with G.B. Pant Plantation, but for the Nakina Plantation most of the work was voluntary by the community over many years. Nakina Van Panchayat has a joint bank account (Almora Urban Cooperative Bank) with officials from the Forest Department. Money from the Forest Department/ JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) gets deposited there. A portion of this is used to compensate the village workers (~400 INR/day) .

NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (HSS) was involved in supporting the fodder nursery and some plantation support.

For the original project budget outline for the Fodder Nursery, please see the attached document in the Technical Drawing section from the NGO HSS.

For further details on the plantation budget, please see the tables in the Technical Drawing section from the Forest Works Manual/Schedule of rates for forest work in Uttarakhand.

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Second weeding done in September, followed by a third weeding after the winter rains. Post-monsoon
2. A Chowkidar (forest watch guard) is deputed for five years in the plantation area to look after it Post-planting
3. Periodical weeding and removal of grasses suppressing the plants, maintenance and repair of inspection paths Year round
4. Fire Control: Keeping regular watch over the plantation area during the fire season, cleaning of the outer periphery of the plantation area in two meter width Dry season
5. Collective help and co-operation with the villagers in the protection of the plantation; checks on fodder extraction/allowance, prevention of trespassers (human/wildlife) Year round
6. During the second year, dead plants are replaced by planting fresh saplings (ca. 20%) Onset of monsoon
7. Fodder grasses: propagation from cuttings or from root slips
8. Fodder Grasses: Harvesting of grasses every 6-8 weeks, maintaining a stubble height of 5-10 cm from the ground level at each harvest to avoids weakening of root system

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra Maintenance of nursery Total Cost/Year 1,0 3000,0 3000,0 25,0
Mano de obra Maintenance of plantations Total Cost/Year 1,0 4000,0 4000,0 25,0
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 7000,0
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 100,0
Si el usuario de la tierra no cubrió el 100% de los costos, indique quién financió el resto del costo:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


Please see estimated maintenance costs attached in references.

In general, the land users bear the labor costs of maintenance, but they received inputs and other support to maintain the fodder nursery and plantations for a few years (2-3) after the projects were executed. Otherwise, remaining funds in the joint bank account with Nakina Van Panchayat and UTFD/JICA are accessed for necessary supplies and labor compensation.

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

-Length and amount of available funding, as plantation projects require substantial investment and long term care.

-Damage or survival rate of the saplings/trees/fodder species can be severely affected by climatic, anthropogenic, or wildlife disturbances. The success and cost of a plantation and nursery project can vary widely depending on size, topographic characteristics, access, labor availability and overall appropriateness of site selection.

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Especifique el promedio anual de lluvia (si lo conoce), en mm:


Especificaciones/ comentarios sobre la cantidad de lluvia:

Monsoon- mid-June to mid-September; July and August are the rainiest months and the temperature is warm and moist; between 70-85% of the annual precipitation occurs in the monsoon season

a. Winter or Cold weather (mid Dec. - mid March)
b. Summer or hot weather (mid March - mid June)
c. Season of general rains (South - West monsoon season)
d. Season of retreating monsoon (mid September to mid November)

Indique el nombre de la estación metereológica de referencia considerada:

India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Centre Dehradun

Zona agroclimática
  • Sub-húmeda

The overall climatic condition in the Pithoragarh district is governed by the southwest monsoon. It has a sub-tropical to temperate climate, with three pronounced seasons; summer, winter, and monsoon. The hilly terrain of the Himalayan region has snow cover and is cold during winter with snowfall normally occurring during the months of December to March.

Temperature- The temperature ranges from 0°C to 10°C in winter and from 8°C to 33°C in summer season. However, there is no meteorological observatory in the district. The account of the climate is based mainly on the records of the observations in the neighboring districts where similar meteorological conditions prevail. Variations in temperature are considerable from place to place and depend upon elevation as well as aspect. As the insolation is intense at high altitudes, in summer temperatures are considerably higher in the open than in the shade.

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m
Indique si la Tecnología se aplica específicamente en:
  • situaciones cóncavas
Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre topografía :

Altitude of evaluated sites: 1850-1990m
Slope: 23-30%

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • áspera/ ligera (arenosa)
  • mediana (limosa)
Textura del suelo (> 20 cm debajo de la superficie):
  • mediana (limosa)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • media (1-3%)
  • baja (<1%)
Si se halla disponible, adjunte una descripción completa de los suelos o especifique la información disponible, por ej., tipo de suelo, pH/ acidez de suelo, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, nitrógeno, salinidad, etc. :

Mountain/hill soils are a collective name given to various types of soils found under the following conditions :
-under sub-tropical, temperate and sub-alpine conditions
-under various forest types

Characteristics: very thin, fertile, and may be less than a centimeter deep on steep slopes; they are mixed with pebbles, shingles (a mass of small rounded pebbles), and gravels; they have a low-medium water holding capacity. Angular and subangular fragments of parent rock may be found mixed with the lower layers of the mountain and hill soils.

Texture: varies from loamy to sandy loam.
Soil Reaction: ranges from acidic to neutral (pH 4.6 to 6.5)
Organic Matter content: 1-5%

Ferrugenous red roils are found in this district and are well developed over Himalayan rocks (quartzite, biotite schist, amphibolite schist). They are free of carbonates and deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, light textured, porous, and friable (brittle/crumbly). The soil depth ranges from about 10cm-75 cm. These soils may be grouped into two on basis of morphology

1. Red earths- loose, friable topsoil rich in secondary concretions (hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil)
2. Red loam- argillaceous soils having a blocky structure (argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components, e.g. argillaceous limestones are limestones consisting predominantly of calcium carbonate, but including 10-40% of clay minerals)

Brown soil: is found particularly under dense broadleaved temperate and sub-alpine forests. There occurs a thick layer of humus on the forest floor (made of decomposed leaves, branches, twigs) and the topsoil is extremely rich in humus

Podsolic Soil: soil that has developed in humid/temperate conditions usually under coniferous forests (e.g. deodar, blue pine, fir, spruce) over quartzite, granites, schists and gneiss.

(Citation: Kumaun: The Land and the People, Sharad Singh Negi (1993)

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

5-50 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:


Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de buena calidad

La calidad de agua se refiere a:

agua subterránea

¿La salinidad del agua es un problema?


¿Se está llevando a cabo la inundación del área? :


Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre calidad y cantidad de agua:

Quantity: Water crisis has been a perennial problem in both the rural and urban areas of the Pithoragarh district
There is scarcity of safe drinking water of the villages in the study area. Hand pumps are often not functioning, pipe-water schemes are unreliable and the spring discharges have reduced during the dry season. Hand-pumped water often has a high iron content and bitter taste. Poor quality of groundwater in some of the naulas is mainly due to misuse and/or disuse of the structures.

A block-district groundwater resource estimation could not be carried out as the area is hilly (with slope >20%) and in major part aquifers are small, isolated bodies, and groundwater abstraction is done mainly through hand pumps and springs with small discharges.

However, we collected some physicochemical parameters that indicate the water (sourced from springs) is of good quality:

Water Quality Parameters of Springs:
pH: 6.29-8.18
Temp: 19.0-23.5 ºC
Electrical Conductivity: 109-504 µmsiemens
Total Dissolved Solids: 75-385 ppm

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • mediana
Diversidad de hábitats:
  • mediana
Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre biodiversidad:

Uttarakhand has more than 7000 species of medicinal plants and 500 species of fauna. Floral diversity contributes 31% of total floral density of India. Fauna contributes just 1.58% of the total faunal density of the country. There are 119 endemic species of flowering plants in the state that exhibited 2.35% endemism and 35 faunal endemic species. Because it lies at the juncture of India, Nepal and the Tibeten Autononmous region, there often cases of poaching and smuggling of wildlife contrabands, including bear bile, musk pods and leopard skins through the borders. Yarsa Gumba Ophiocordyceps sinensis, commonly known as Caterpillar Fungus, is also illegally traded transboundary in the region, together with various plant species. Due to anthropogenic impacts, changes is soil quality, and climatic elements, the biodiversity of our study site is not as high as in other areas of the Pithoragarh district.

Citation: Sundriyal, M. & Sharma, B. (2016). Status of Biodiversity in Central Himalaya, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4( 2), 37-43.

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Sedentario o nómada:
  • Sedentario
Orientación del mercado del sistema de producción:
  • subsistencia (autoprovisionamiento)
  • mixta (subsistencia/ comercial)
Ingresos no agrarios:
  • 10-50% de todo el ingreso
  • > 50% de todo el ingreso
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • pobre
Individuos o grupos:
  • grupos/ comunal
Nivel de mecanización:
  • trabajo manual
  • mujeres
  • hombres
Edad de los usuarios de la tierra:
  • jóvenes
  • personas de mediana edad
  • ancianos
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

With recent development in Pithoragarh, an influx of funds coming from outside sources has caused a decline in the importance of agriculture production, which in now marginalized, based on female labour, and mainly conducted for subsistence with little surplus to sell. High caste men do not work in cultivation at all, and male tasks such as ploughing are performed by the Scheduled Caste.

Although most women are still cultivating, their work has lost economic importance. For most families, the produce does not cover the needs of the household and surplus must be bought from the market. Many of the terraces that were formerly fruit orchards (mainly citrus) have been completely abandoned. Farming is less intensive and landholdings are small and fragmented. The main crops are wheat, millet, and pulses, but yields are low as the land is not irrigated. Less livestock (cows, goats, buffalo) is kept because of the labor involved. Very little capital is returned to farming. Crops produced for the markets in the plains are replacing traditional crops to sustain the household.

With exposure to the“Modern” lifestyle, new values have also been accepted. Two children are the norm (the ideal being one son and one daughter, but at least one son in a must). Although access to education is quite good, it does not seem to result in working careers for women.

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • pequeña escala

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • comunitaria/ aldea
Derechos de uso de tierra:
  • comunitarios (organizado)
Derechos de uso de agua:
  • acceso abierto (no organizado)
  • comunitarios (organizado)
¿Los derechos del uso de la tierra se basan en un sistema legal tradicional?


Under the Kumaun Panchayat forest rules of 1931 (amended in 1976): A Van Panchayat, (community forest council), can be formed out of non-private land within the settlement boundaries of a village. Accordingly, all villagers are members of the VP upon their approval by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate under the state Revenue Department. The members are collectively referred to as the general body, which selects the management committee members through a democratic process.


5-9 elected members assume control of the forest and the extent of villager use. They additionally raise funds and mobilize the village to protect and support sustainable land use. Presently 12,089 Van Panchayats are entrusted with the management of over 5,449.64 km2 of forests.

5.9 Acceso a servicios e infraestructura

  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
asistencia técnica:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
empleo (ej. fuera de la granja):
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
caminos y transporte:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
agua potable y saneamiento:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
servicios financieros:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno

The situation of infrastructure is difficult and inconsistent in the hill regions because of the terrain. The major infrastructural issues are drinking water and irrigation facilities, electricity, transportation and communication facilities and social infrastructure (housing and education). As for financial services, only the State Bank of India (SBI) is active in the hill regions where it is trying to achieve the objective of 100% financial inclusion. Some villages mentioned buying into into agricultural insurance in the past, however this was a temporary enterprise and they were never compensated after extreme climatic events that occurred and damaged over 70% of their crop.

Though infrastructure and education has generally improved over the years, institutional and marketing networks in the region aimed at supporting hill-farmers are lacking.

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos


producción de forraje

Cantidad antes de MST:

2 ton/ha

Cantidad luego de MST:

30 ton/hectare

calidad de forraje


producción animal


producción de madera


calidad de bosques

Comentarios/ especifique:

Tree lopping for fodder was decreased by 15%

área de producción


manejo de tierras

Ingreso y costos

gastos en insumos agrícolas

Comentarios/ especifique:

Decreased the amount of supplementary fodder required for livestock. The amount of grasses, fodder, and fuelwood has increased significantly.

carga de trabajo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Less time spent collecting forest resources, as the area where the technology is near the village and supports fodder/fuelwood growth (broadleaf forest/oak nursery area)

Impactos socioculturales

seguridad alimentaria/ autosuficiencia

Comentarios/ especifique:

Improved self sufficiency of village, as the technology has helped increase animal productivity (more fodder, better quality) and increased water availability.

situación de salud

Comentarios/ especifique:

Water condition has improved and people spend less time spent collecting fodder in the forest.

derechos de uso de la tierra/ agua

Comentarios/ especifique:

There is less friction between the villages of Bhurimuni and Nakina. Nakina did not have to go ask for permission to access the Bhurimuni Naula for water during the dry season.

oportunidades culturales

Comentarios/ especifique:

The improvements of forest resource security and resilience to disasters/climatic extremes have allowed the villagers have more free time to build up a communal gathering area for ceremonial events and festivals around the Vaishnavi Temple.

oportunidades recreativas

Comentarios/ especifique:

Recreation opportunities for villagers have increased. Particularly women, (some of whom are involved in a self help group and active Van Panchayat members), expressed that they saved approximately 1-2 hours/day in fodder collection time.

instituciones comunitarias

se debilitaron
se fortalecieron
Comentarios/ especifique:

The partnerships formed between land-users, the Nakina Van Panchayat, the Forest Department and external institutions are leading examples of necessary cooperation between all levels of governance for project harmonization.

MST/ conocimiento de la degradación del suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

People are taking forest management seriously and making innovative plans for further SLM interventions, whether it be community-initiated or with the help of external institutions/agencies.

mitigación de conflicto

Comentarios/ especifique:

Conflict has decreased in the village do to increased availability of resources. The overall morale of the village is better and less frantic due to an improvement in dodder, fuel and water provision. This has further enhanced cooperation for interventions that require participation and effort in the community forest.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

cantidad de agua

Comentarios/ especifique:

The technologies improve water holding capacity of the soil by decreasing runoff velocity and improve overall water storage.

cosecha/ recolección de agua


escurrimiento superficial


nivel freático/ acuífero




humedad del suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Soil moisture of common land was increased by about 15%

cubierta del suelo


pérdida de suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Trees and other vegetation has helped mitigate displacement of soil from upstream areas to the lowlands

acumulación de suelo


encostramiento/ sellado de suelo


compactación de suelo


ciclo/ recarga de nutrientes


materia orgánica debajo del suelo C



Biodiversidad: vegetación, animales

Cubierta vegetal

Comentarios/ especifique:

Vegetation growth and cover has improved due to more shade and water availability

biomasa/ sobre suelo C


diversidad vegetal

Comentarios/ especifique:

Increased species diversity due to improved moisture availability, soil conditions and microclimate.

especies invasoras extrañas


diversidad animal

Comentarios/ especifique:

Provide more water and habitat for small animals/birds.

especies benéficas

Comentarios/ especifique:

Healthy afforested areas provide more water, habitat, and protection for microorganisms and insect species. They support native grasses and vegetation.

diversidad de hábitats

Reducción de riesgos de desastres y riesgos climáticos

deslizamientos/ fluyos de escombros

Comentarios/ especifique:

Incidents of landslides decreased due to less surface flow velocity and soil destabilisation. Villagers also noted that there were that less displaced soil and sediment accumulation in the ravine that normally incurs damage from upstream debris flow in the monsoon season.

impactos de sequías

Comentarios/ especifique:

Drought impacts decreased due improved surface and subsurface hydrological functioning in the upper watershed catchment areas. This increased microwatershed/ springshed groundwater stores and enhanced stream and spring flows in the dry season.

impactos de ciclones, tormentas de lluvia

Comentarios/ especifique:

Erosion impacts from extreme rain storms is reduced by decreasing flow velocity

emisión de carbono y gases de invernadero

Comentarios/ especifique:

Carbon storage is increased by the plantation. It has been previously studied that Uttarakhand Van Panchayat forests sequester carbon at the average rate of 3.5 t ha -1 yr-1. This varies depending on forest distribution, species and land management.

riesgo de incendio

Comentarios/ especifique:

The forest intervention area is protected by the villagers from anthropogenic and wild fires, therefore the forest has rehabilitated more quickly and has a lower risk of burning due to improved green vegetation cover and less flammable pine needle accumulation. In the case of pine forests, pine needles are a major source of fuel for fire and the removal of buildup remains a major challenge for the land users.


Comentarios/ especifique:

Because of the interventions, vegetation/biomass, soil cover and water availability has improved and created a more suitable microclimate for microorganisms, plants, animals and people. The microclimate has improved due to decreased surface temperatures from exposed, bare soil or ground that is covered with pine needles. This improved microclimate is visible, as it has additionally allowed a wider range of species (grasses, shrubs, wildflowers, insects, birds) to inhabit the intervention site.

6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

disponibilidad de agua

Comentarios/ especifique:

Improved spring discharge in the peak dry season

corriente confiable y estable fluye en estación seca

Comentarios/ especifique:

Bhind and Vaishnavi Naulas (springs) have improved discharge in the peak dry season. According to villagers, there was little to no water available in May/June, and since 10 years the flow has returned due to the plantation efforts combination with structural technologies.

inundaciones río abajo

Comentarios/ especifique:

impact of flash flood is minimized

colmatación río abajo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Helped slow down sediment and runoff

capacidad de amortiguación/ filtrado

Comentarios/ especifique:

No direct evidence, but statements from the locals indicate that there are less sediments in the spring water ( due to improved soil infiltration and buffering capacity)

daño a campos de vecinos

Comentarios/ especifique:

Less damage from runoff

daños a infraestructura pública / privada

Comentarios/ especifique:

Decreased intensity of runoff on the roadside and settlement below

6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Cambio climático gradual

Cambio climático gradual
Estación Incremento o reducción ¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
temperatura anual incrementó moderadamente
lluvia estacional estación seca disminuyó bien
Otro cambio climático gradual Irregular rainfall patterns/ delayed monsoon incrementó moderadamente

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de lluvia local bien
tormenta local bien
granizada local moderadamente
Desastres climatológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
sequía moderadamente
incendio forestal bien
Desastres hidrológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
deslizamiento moderadamente

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de establecimiento (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:


Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

ligeramente positivo

Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología

  • 11-50%
De todos quienes adoptaron la Tecnología, ¿cuántos lo hicieron espontáneamente, por ej. sin recibir nada de incentivos/ materiales:
  • 0-10%

Establishing plantations is often a substantial investment and external monetary and technical support is required by the land-users.

6.6 Adaptación

¿La tecnología fue modificada recientemente para adaptarse a las condiciones cambiantes?


6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Improves livelihood of villagers by addressing and significantly improving the fodder, fuel, water nexus. Increased fodder availability and decreased time spent collecting fodder/fuel in the forest has greatly benefited the village, and women in particular. Animal health and productivity has also increased.
Reduces erosion, improves catchment of runoff, increases groundwater availability and aids in spring recharge.
Supports soil quality and existing broadleaf forest; increased filtration, improved soil moisture and water availability.
Reduces impact of landslides and further downstream damage to settlements (water erosion, siltation)
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Aligned with landuser
Improved microclimate, overall ecosystem health, and increased carbon sequestration.

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Risk of damage to plantation and nursery from fires Maintain protective barrier (wall and fire lane); more prominent live-fencing could be established around the fodder nursery, as it is under greater susceptibility to fire damage due to its location near the stone wall border and pine-dominant forest.
Moisture stress from weed competition reduces the growth of broadleaves Consistent monitoring of weed and invasive species control (lantana) and eupatorium (Ageratina adenophora).
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
There can be poor survival and slow growth of newly planted trees from damage while handling; e.g. the oak nursery has the potential to support many more plants, but it seems there is a need for more care when handling young broadleaved species. Careful attention to plant handling, avoiding root damage, and appropriate timing of transplanting (e.g. avoid heat exposure)
Young oaks appeared somewhat nutrient deficient and are exposed in the forest; there were signs of animal intrusion or possibly damage by human crossing as the oak nursery is next to a small dirt trail. The survivability of the young oaks could be improved through mulching and establishing an enclosure or live fencing around the nursery.

In the future, contour trenching and ponding can be also done before the plantations to improve the soil moisture.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo

4: various villagers, Van panchayat community meeting

  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

2: Mr. Joshi and woman who is an active member in the Van Panchayat

  • entrevistas con especialistas/ expertos en MST

3, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti,
2 G.B. Pant, Dr. Ranbeer Rawal, Dr. Subodh Airy

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?


7.2 Vínculos a las publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Plant Nursery Management: Principles and Practices, P. Ratha Krishnan Rajwant K. Kalia J.C. Tewari M.M. Roy, 2014, ISO 9001 : 2008

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?


Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Forest Works Manual and schedule of rates for Forestry Related Works, Uttarakhand, 2005, Forestry Research Institute, Dehradun

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?


7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Nursery Manual for Native Plants: A guide for tribal nurseries



Título/ descripción:

Fodder and Forage Production



Título/ descripción:

Nursery Technology



Título/ descripción:

Policy Brief: Spring Revival through Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in the Himalayan Foothills: Uttarakhand, North India. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



Título/ descripción:

Video: SLM for Himalayan Spring Revival. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



Vínculos y módulos

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