Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries for Sustainable Forest Management [Энэтхэг ]

  • Шинийг нээх:
  • Шинэчлэх:
  • Эмхэтгэгч:
  • Хянан тохиолдуулагч:
  • Хянагч:

Trees: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora/glauca), Phalat (Quercus lanata), Fodder: Napier grasses, Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Khadik (Celtis australis)

technologies_5243 - Энэтхэг

Бүрэн байдал: 92%

1. Ерөнхий мэдээлэл

1.2 Технологийг үнэлэх, баримтжуулах ажилд хамаарах мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүс, байгууллагуудын холбоо барих мэдээлэл

Мэдээлэл өгсөн хүн (с)

Газар ашиглагч :

Joshi Jagdamba Prashad

Sarpanch (Head) of Nakina Community Forest (Van Panchayat)


Газар ашиглагч :

Pandey Basant Ballabh

Cucumber Farmer, Nakina Village


Технологи баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн төслийн нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
Onsite and Offsite Benefits of SLM
Технологи баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн байгууллага(ууд)-ын нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - Непал
Технологи баримтжуулах/үнэлэх ажилд дэмжлэг үзүүлсэн байгууллага(ууд)-ын нэр (шаардлагатай бол)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development (G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development) - Энэтхэг

1.3 ВОКАТ-аар баримтжуулсан өгөгдлийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцөл

Эмхэтгэгч болон гол мэдээлэгч хүн(хүмүүс) WOCAT аргачлалаар баримтжуулсан мэдээллийг ашиглахтай холбоотой нөхцлийг хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн:


1.4 Технологи тогтвортой гэдгийг баталгаажуулах

Энэ технологийг газрын доройтлыг бууруулж, газрын тогтвортой менежментийг хангахад тохиромжтой гэж үзэж болох уу?



The land is suitable for afforestation and fodder nurseries. There are currently no signs of over exploitation with regards to natural resource use in the plantation area of the Nakina Forest.

1.5 ГТМ Арга барилын Асуулга (ууд) руу хандах (ВОКАТ ашиглан баримтжуулсан)

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat [Энэтхэг ]

Van Panchayats or village forest councils are a impressive example of grassroots community management of natural resources, where a specific administrative unit is locally elected by community members who are responsible for the management of activities related to the forest.

  • Эмхэтгэгч: Jaclyn Bandy
Naula Management and Conservation

Naula Management and Conservation [Энэтхэг ]

Naulas are shallow, four-sided stepped wells designed to collect water from subterranean seepages or springs and are used to meet domestic water needs by the local communities. Naula management and conservation encompasses a range of activities that preserve their structure and function.

  • Эмхэтгэгч: Jaclyn Bandy

2. ГТМ Технологийн тодорхойлолт

2.1 Технологийн товч тодорхойлолт

Технологийн тодорхойлолт:

Natural assisted regeneration of broadleaved species, a small oak plantation and a fodder nursery have been established in the Nakina community forest (intervention area: 10 ha), supporting fodder tree species such as Banj Oak and Falyaat, as well as various subtropical temperate fodder grass species. This has improved the livelihood of the land-users by supporting the health and productivity of the forest, increasing the availability of fuel wood, fodder and groundwater for spring restoration.

2.2 Технологийн дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт


1. The technology is applied in a natural environment and is located about 1km away from the settlement and the agriculture land of Nakina Village. The village has access to its own forest, which covers a geographical area of 114 hectare. Of this, 94 hectares come under the Village Forest Council, locally referred to as the Van Panchayat.

2. Characteristics of Technology:

a. Broadleaf species have been established over 7 hectares through natural assisted tree regeneration methods. These include Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis).

b. Nakina Van Panchayat has made an oak plantation site of 2 hectares in collaboration with G.B. Pant Research Institute.

c. A fodder nursery covering 1 hectare hosts a variety of subtropical (Napier: Pennisetum purpureum, Aus, Ginni) and temperate grasses (Guchhi, Dolni, Italian rye: Lolium multiflorum). It was established with the assistance of the NGOs Swati Gramodyog Sansthan and the Himalayan Sewa Samiti. Extraction of fodder leaves and timber are restricted and regulations managed by the Van Panchayat (community forest council).

-Increase trees and grasses to improve availability of fuel and fodder for community, as well as enrich biodiversity.
-Plantation is on a mountain slope (+25% slope), so it will help in preventing soil erosion and landslides.
-Improve soil and water conservation, prevention of surface run-off, support groundwater recharge and spring rejuvenation.

Major activities/Inputs needed to establish and maintain technology:
1. Activities for Assisted Natural Regeneration: protect and facilitate the growth of parent trees inherently present in the area and their regenerations, rather than establishment of entire plantation

2.Activities for the oak plantation: Selection and seed provision of appropriate tree species, clearing of vegetation and preparation of forest top soil, leveling of soil, digging of plantation pits, sowing weeding, watering, occasional pruning, propagation of trees from cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing for protection from fire.

3. Activities for fodder nursery:- Selection and seed provision of appropriate grass species and polypot materials, preparation of seedbeds; clearing of vegetation, removal of stones/large roots, ploughing/hoeing, mixing sand and compost on areas with poor soil, sowing seeds pre-monsoon, weeding and watering seedlings, propagation from seed or root cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing protection from fire.

•Restores productivity and fodder/fuelwood availability
•Ecosystem stability
•Enhancement of biological diversity to degraded lands.
•Control landslide and soil erosion
•Control forest fire.
•Maintain wildlife habitat
•Increase livelihood of local people, decrease time spent collecting fodder
•Storage carbon on the forest help to reduce the CO2 in the atmosphere.

This technology is properly functioning in the implementation area and local people have received many benefits from sustainable managing their natural resources rather than receiving incentives for institutional support, local people of the Nakina village are strongly active to protect the forest with their own coordination.

1.Improve wildlife habitat, which may increase human wildlife conflicts as it is near to agriculture land and settlements.
2.Require regular maintenance activities, which require organization within the community and can increase periodic workload depending on level of participation

2.3 Технологийн гэрэл зураг

2.5 Энэ үнэлгээнд хамрагдсан технологийг хэрэгжүүлсэн улс орон/ бүс нутаг/ байршил





Байршлын дэлгэрэнгүй тодорхойлолт:

Nakina Village, Pithoragarh Bloc

Технологи өргөн дэлгэрсэн эсхийг тодорхойл:
  • тодорхой газар хэрэгжсэн/ жижиг талбайд төвлөрсөн
Технологи(иуд) нэвтрүүлсэн талбай тусгай хамгаалалттай газар нутагт байрладаг уу?


Хэрэв тийм бол, тодруулна уу:

Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest)

2.6 Хэрэгжсэн хугацаа

Байгуулсан тодорхой оныг мэдэхгүй бол баримжаа хугацааг тодорхойл:
  • 10-50 жилийн өмнө

2.7 Технологийн танилцуулга

Технологийг хэрхэн нэвтрүүлснийг тодорхойл:
  • Газар ашиглагчдын санаачилгаар
  • Гадны төсөл/хөтөлбөрийн дэмжлэгтэйгээр
Тайлбар (төслийн төрөл г.м.):

After the Nakina Van Panchyat was established in 1952 they already had experience working on plantations. During the British-era, timber extraction, pine plantations and prescribed fire exploded in the region. Much of the oak forests were reverted to pine, and many broadleaved species like were overexploited for construction, fuelwood, and fodder. Nakina's self-initiated plantation efforts were done in hopes to restore it to its original state.

Other supporting organizations and institutions have recognized the need for further support for the following reasons: demand for fuel and fodder is still insufficient during the dry season, water scarcity has become a prevalent issue, and biological interventions are necessary to improve and sustain ecosystem services. Due to the expressed interest and dedication of the community, these projects have been accomplished.

3. ГТМ технологийн ангилал

3.1 Технологийн үндсэн зорилго (ууд)

  • үйлдвэрлэлийг сайжруулах
  • газрын доройтлыг бууруулах, сэргийлэх, нөхөн сэргээх
  • экосистемийг хамгаалах
  • сав газрыг хамгаалах (усны эх/ голын адаг) - бусад технологитой хослуулах
  • биологийн төрөл зүйлийг хамгаалах / сайжруулах
  • гамшгийн эрсдлийг бууруулах
  • уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлт/ экстрим байдал болон түүний нөлөөлөлд дасан зохицох
  • үр ашигтай эдийн засгийн нөлөөг бий болгох

3.2 Технологи нэвтрүүлсэн газрын одоогийн газар ашиглалтын хэлбэр(үүд)

Нэг газр нутгийн хэмжээнд хэрэгжих холимог газар ашиглалт:


Бэлчээрийн газар

Бэлчээрийн газар

Эрчимжсэн мал аж ахуй / тэжээл үйлдвэрлэл:
  • Хадлан буюу бэлчээрт ашиглагдахгүй талбай
Амьтдын төрөл зүйл:
  • үхрийн аж ахуй - цагаан идээ
  • ямаа
Тариалан-мал аж ахуйн нэгдсэн менежмент хэрэгждэг үү?


Хэрэв тийм бол, тодруулна уу:

Compost was made from manure of livestock for plantation and fodder nursery preparation.

Бүтээгдэхүүн ба үйлчилгээ:
  • мах
  • сүү
Байгалийн ой / модтой газар

Байгалийн ой / модтой газар

  • (Таримал) байгалийн ой/мод бүхий газар
  • Мод тарьсан, шинээр ойжуулсан
(Сэргээсэн)байгалийн ой/тармаг ойд: Менежментийн төрлийг тодорхойлно уу:
  • Сонгомол огтлол
(Сайжруулсан)байгалийн ойн төрөл:
  • субтропикийн хуурай ойн ургамалжилт
Мод тарих, модгүй газрыг ойжуулах: төрөл зүйлийн гарал үүсэл болон бүтцийг тодорхойлох:
  • Холимог төрөл зүйл
Мод тарьсан, шинээр ойжуулсан газрын төрөл:
  • субтропикийн хуурайсаг ойн плантаци - өргөн навчит мод
  • Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia)
Дээр дурьдсан модны төрөл навч, шилмүүсээ гөвдөг үү эсвэл мөнх ногоон уу?
  • навч, шилмүүсээ гөвдөг
Бүтээгдэхүүн ба үйлчилгээ:
  • Мод бэлтгэл
  • Түлшний мод
  • Ойн бусад дагалт бүтээгдэхүүн
  • Бэлчээрийн талбай/Хариулгатай бэлчээрлэлт
  • Байгалийн нөөцийг хамгаалах

3.3 Технологи хэрэгжүүлснээр газар ашиглалтад өөрчлөлт гарсан уу?

Технологи хэрэгжүүлснээр газар ашиглалтад өөрчлөлт гарсан уу?
  • Үгүй (3.4 руу шилжинэ үү)

3.4 Усан хангамж

Технологи хэрэгжүүлсэн газрын усан хангамж:
  • Байгалийн усалгаатай

3.5 Технологи ГТМ-ийн аль бүлэгт хамаарах вэ

  • Байгалийн ба сайжруулсан ойн менежмент
  • таримал ойн менежмент
  • хөрс/ ургамлын бүрхэвч сайжруулах

3.6 Технологийг бүрдүүлэх ГТМ арга хэмжээ

Ургамлын арга хэмжээ

Ургамлын арга хэмжээ

  • V1: Мод ба бут, сөөг
  • V2: Өвс ба олон наст өвслөг ургамал
  • V3: Ургамлан нөмрөгийг хөндөх
  • V4: Харийн/ түрэмгий зүйлийг солих, зайлуулах
  • V5: Бусад
Менежментийн арга хэмжээ

Менежментийн арга хэмжээ

  • М1: Газар ашиглалтын хэлбэрийг өөрчлөх
  • М2: Ашиглалтын менежмент/эрчимийг өөрчлөх
  • M3: Байгаль ба нийгмийн орчинд тохируулан зохион байгуулах
  • M5: Төрөл зүйлийн бүтцийн өөрчлөлт/хяналт

3.7 Технологид харгалзах газрын доройтлын төрөл

хөрс усаар эвдрэх

хөрс усаар эвдрэх

  • Wt: Хөрсний гадаргын угаагдал
  • Wg: Гуу жалгын элэгдэл
  • Wm: Хөрсний нуралт, шилжилт
  • Wo: Усны элэгдлийн дам нөлөө
хөрсний химийн доройтол

хөрсний химийн доройтол

  • Cn: Үржил шим ба ялзмаг буурах (элэгдлийн шалтгаангүй)
  • Ca: Хүчилжих
хөрсний физик доройтол

хөрсний физик доройтол

  • Pc: Хөрс дагтарших
  • Pk: Гадарга дээр хагсах, хагарах
  • Pi: хөрс хагсах
  • Pu: Бусад үйл ажиллагааны улмаас био-бүтээмжит функц алдагдах
биологийн доройтол

биологийн доройтол

  • Bc: Ургамлан нөмрөг багасах
  • Bh: Амьдрах орчин доройтох
  • Bq: биомасс буурах
  • Bf: түймрийн хорт үр дагавар
  • Bs: Ургамлын чанар, төрөл зүйл, олон янз байдал буурах
  • Bl: Хөрсөн дэхь амьдрал алдагдах
  • Bp: Хортон шавьж/өвчлөл ихсэх, махчид цөөрөх
усны доройтол

усны доройтол

  • Ha: Хуурайшилт
  • Hs: Гадаргын усны хэмжээ багасах
  • Hg: Гүний ус / уст үеийн усны түвшин өөрчлөгдөх
  • Hp: Гадаргын усны чанар муудах
  • Hq: Гүний усны чанар муудах

3.8 Газрын доройтлоос урьдчилан сэргийлэх, сааруулах ба нөхөн сэргээх

Газрын доройтолтой холбоотойгоор Технологи ямар зорилго тавьсан болохыг тодорхойл:
  • Газрын доройтлыг бууруулах
  • Хүчтэй доройтсон газрыг нөхөн сэргээх/ сайжруулах

4. Техникийн нөхцөл, хэрэгжүүлсэн үйл ажиллагаа, материал ба зардал

4.1 Технологийн техник зураг

Техник тодорхойлолт (техник зургийн тайлбар):

G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is not less than 2x2 m, about 2,000 Quercus saplings were planted.

Nakina Broadleaf Plantation: 7 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is no less that 2x2 m, about 15,000 trees have been planted and the forest is being continually managed in the area.

Species: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis)

Fuelwood cutting (lopping), fodder collection, and selective clear cutting for Quercus leucotrichophora and other broadleaved species is done between Nov- April.

Fodder Nursery: 20 Quintals (20,000 kg) of various grassroot slips over 1 Hectare. This provides +175 tonnes/year. (Subtropicals species: napier, aus, ginni, Temperate species: guchhi, dolni, italian rye)

Planting: Grasses are planted during the months of June-July at the advent of rainy season, about 10 cm deep vertically and at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm apart.

Propagation: grasses forms clumps during its growth period. The clump when broken gives a number of small units known as slips, which are the units of propagation and on planting, they establish as individual plants. While preparing the slips for planting, fibrous roots and leaves are be trimmed off. Cuttings with 2 nodes from the middle portion of moderately matured stems (3 – 4 months old) were planted in a slanting position at one side of the ridges with one node buried in the soil. The underground node develops roots and shoots while the upper node shoots only. The soil around the stem is pressed tightly. Farm yard manure is applied after harvest (application rate varies; estimation is 5-8 tonnes). Annually about 6 to 8 cuts are possible.

Oak Nursery: 0.25 ha. The nursery bed is rectangular and measures about 100m x 25 m. The seedlings are uprooted by hand from a seedbed and transplanted (bare-root transplanting). The nursery is on a gently sloping land (23%). Seedlings with poor lateral root development are culled out.

Oak Plantation Alternative:
Acorns are collected and put in water for 24 hours. Acorns that sink are immediately sown in a well tilled seedbed 2-5 cm deep, 15 cm from each other and covered with a thin layer of firm soil. Beds are mulched with straw or leaves. However, not every acorn will germinate and animal predation of acorns can be an issue. In general, probability of success is lower than with seedlings.


Jaclyn Bandy

Он, сар, өдөр:


Техник тодорхойлолт (техник зургийн тайлбар):

Google Map of Plantations and Fodder Nursery locations


Jaclyn Bandy

Он, сар, өдөр:


Техник тодорхойлолт (техник зургийн тайлбар):

Project Budget with Nakina Village and NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti: Fodder Nursery, 1 hectare and Assisted Natural Regeneration 97 Hectares)

(Citation: Detailed Project Report: Natural Resource Based Livelihood Project in the Gorang Ghati Cluster, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti, Submitted to: Sir Ratan Tata Trust (SRTT) Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

Техник тодорхойлолт (техник зургийн тайлбар):

Project Budget for Afforestation of Nakina Community Forest and G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development: Broadleaf Plantation (2 hectares)

(Citation: Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

4.2 Материал болон зардалд хамаарах ерөнхий мэдээлэл

Үнэ өртөг, оруулсан хувь нэмрийг хэрхэн тооцсоныг тодорхойл:
  • Технологийн нэгж тус бүр
Талбайн хэмжээ ба нэгжийг тодорхойл:

Afforested Community Forest: 7 hectares, G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 hectares, Fodder Nursery: 1 hectare

бусад/үндэсний мөнгөн нэгж (тодорхойл):


Хэрэв боломжтой бол үндэсний валютын Америк доллартай харьцах харьцааг бичнэ үү (тухайлбал, 1 ам.дол. = 79,9 Бразил реал): 1 ам.дол. =:


Хөлсний ажилчны нэг өдрийн цалингийн хэмжээг тодорхойлно уу:

400 INR

4.3 Бий болгох үйл ажиллагаа

Үйл ажиллагаа Хугацаа (улирал)
1. Plantations: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
2. Earth work for leveling, Digging pits (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) along contour lines, spacing of pits no less that 2x2 m, filling of pits with soil/manure mixture Early June
3. Planting of saplings: roots of the plants kept straight and the plant put straight in vertical position; done by digging with the help of a stick or small crow bar Early July
4. Note: Species like Akhrot, Angu, Maple, Pangar, Poplar, Salix, Utis etc. are planted in winter months January/February
5. Dead, dying or dry plants are replaced within 15 days of completion of planting work Mid June
6. Thanwalas (semicircular pit) about 15 cm deep, 25-30 cm apart from the plant were dug for rainwater retention/infiltration Mid June
7. Weeding after first significant rains Monsoon
8. Fodder Nursery: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
9. Plowing/hoeing land, collection and soil, sand, manure preparation (4:2:1 ratio) and seedbed preparation Pre-monsoon
10. Planting of each cane/rootsplit in holes 15-30 cm deep, with a spacing of 0.5m x 0.5m Pre-monsoon
11. Cutting and Harvesting

Oak Plantation: Seeds are collected from dominant oak trees that exhibit superior phenotypic traits such as tall straight trunks, good diameter growth rates and well-developed crowns (branches/leaves)

4.4 Бий болгоход шаардагдсан зардал, хөрөнгийн өртөг

Зардлын нэр, төрөл Хэмжих нэгж Тоо хэмжээ Нэгжийн үнэ Зардал бүрийн нийт өртөг Нийт дүнгээс газар ашиглагчийн төлсөн %
Хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт Plantation Community Manual labour person-days 400.0 400.0 160000.0 50.0
Хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт Skilled labour (advisor, experts) person-days 7.0 2000.0 14000.0
Хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт Fodder Nursery Raising Total Cost 1.0 25000.0 25000.0 25.0
Тоног төхөөрөмж Axe, Crow bar, Wheel barrow pieces 10.0 1500.0 15000.0 100.0
Тоног төхөөрөмж Digging forks, Hammers, Hoes, Spade pieces 10.0 1500.0 15000.0 100.0
Тоног төхөөрөмж Scissors, Pruning knives/shears, Budding and Grafting Knives/Tape pieces 10.0 700.0 7000.0 50.0
таримал материал Fodder Grass/20 Quintals of Grassroot slips Total Cost 1.0 45000.0 45000.0 50.0
таримал материал Plantation Material, 3.88 INR per Sapling x 1000 Sapling per hectare x 7 hectare Total Cost 1.0 27160.0 27160.0 50.0
Бордоо ба биоцид Soil/Water Conservation and Soil Fertility Measures: 5,500 INR per Hectare x 2 Total Cost 1.0 11000.0 11000.0 100.0
Бордоо ба биоцид Nakina Forest: Assisted Natural Regeneration preparation and composting Total Cost 1.0 2000.0 2000.0 100.0
Бордоо ба биоцид Fodder Nursery composting Total Cost 1.0 1000.0 1000.0 100.0
Бусад Plantation Transportation, Pitting, Planting: 6.9 INR per plant X 1000 sapling x 2 hectare Total Cost 1.0 13800.0 13800.0 50.0
Бусад Fodder Nursery (Rootstock Purchase, Transportation) Total Cost 1.0 5500.0 5500.0 50.0
Бусад Nakina Village: Assisted Natural Regeneration Activities in Planted Plots, 10,000 INR per hectare X 7 hectares x 3 years Total Cost 1.0 30000.0 30000.0 100.0
Технологи бий болгох нийт үнэ өртөг 371460.0
Технологи бий болгох нийт үнэ өртөг, ам.доллар 5306.57
Хэрэв газар ашиглагч нийт зардлын 100% -иас бага хэсгийг төлсөн бол хэн голлох зардлыг гаргасан бэ:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, G.B. Pant, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


For G.B. Pant Plantation and Nakina Forest Plantation:
On average we estimated a maximum of 10 people worked on establishing the technology/day = 400 x 10 = 4000 (labor cost/day): 4,000 X 40 days = 160,000 INR Total Cost

Some of the community laborers were compensated for the initial phase of establishing the plantation with G.B. Pant Plantation, but for the Nakina Plantation most of the work was voluntary by the community over many years. Nakina Van Panchayat has a joint bank account (Almora Urban Cooperative Bank) with officials from the Forest Department. Money from the Forest Department/ JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) gets deposited there. A portion of this is used to compensate the village workers (~400 INR/day) .

NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (HSS) was involved in supporting the fodder nursery and some plantation support.

For the original project budget outline for the Fodder Nursery, please see the attached document in the Technical Drawing section from the NGO HSS.

For further details on the plantation budget, please see the tables in the Technical Drawing section from the Forest Works Manual/Schedule of rates for forest work in Uttarakhand.

4.5 Арчилгаа/ урсгал үйл ажиллагаа

Үйл ажиллагаа Хугацаа/ давтамж
1. Second weeding done in September, followed by a third weeding after the winter rains. Post-monsoon
2. A Chowkidar (forest watch guard) is deputed for five years in the plantation area to look after it Post-planting
3. Periodical weeding and removal of grasses suppressing the plants, maintenance and repair of inspection paths Year round
4. Fire Control: Keeping regular watch over the plantation area during the fire season, cleaning of the outer periphery of the plantation area in two meter width Dry season
5. Collective help and co-operation with the villagers in the protection of the plantation; checks on fodder extraction/allowance, prevention of trespassers (human/wildlife) Year round
6. During the second year, dead plants are replaced by planting fresh saplings (ca. 20%) Onset of monsoon
7. Fodder grasses: propagation from cuttings or from root slips
8. Fodder Grasses: Harvesting of grasses every 6-8 weeks, maintaining a stubble height of 5-10 cm from the ground level at each harvest to avoids weakening of root system

4.6 Арчилгаа/урсгал ажилд шаардагдсан зардал, хөрөнгийн өртөг (нэг жилд)

Зардлын нэр, төрөл Хэмжих нэгж Тоо хэмжээ Нэгжийн үнэ Зардал бүрийн нийт өртөг Нийт дүнгээс газар ашиглагчийн төлсөн %
Хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт Maintenance of nursery Total Cost/Year 1.0 3000.0 3000.0 25.0
Хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт Maintenance of plantations Total Cost/Year 1.0 4000.0 4000.0 25.0
Технологийн арчилгаа/урсгал үйл ажиллагаанд шаардагдах нийт үнэ өртөг 7000.0
Технологи арчилах ба урсгал ажлын нийт үнэ өртөг, ам.доллар 100.0
Хэрэв газар ашиглагч нийт зардлын 100% -иас бага хэсгийг төлсөн бол хэн голлох зардлыг гаргасан бэ:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


Please see estimated maintenance costs attached in references.

In general, the land users bear the labor costs of maintenance, but they received inputs and other support to maintain the fodder nursery and plantations for a few years (2-3) after the projects were executed. Otherwise, remaining funds in the joint bank account with Nakina Van Panchayat and UTFD/JICA are accessed for necessary supplies and labor compensation.

4.7 Зардалд нөлөөлж байгаа хамгийн чухал хүчин зүйл

Өртөг, зардалд нөлөөлөх гол хүчин зүйл:

-Length and amount of available funding, as plantation projects require substantial investment and long term care.

-Damage or survival rate of the saplings/trees/fodder species can be severely affected by climatic, anthropogenic, or wildlife disturbances. The success and cost of a plantation and nursery project can vary widely depending on size, topographic characteristics, access, labor availability and overall appropriateness of site selection.

5. Байгаль ба нийгмийн нөхцөл

5.1 Уур амьсгал

Жилийн нийлбэр хур тундас
  • < 250 мм
  • 251-500 мм
  • 501-750 мм
  • 751-1,000 мм
  • 1,001-1,500 мм
  • 1,501-2,000 мм
  • 2,001-3,000 мм
  • 3,001-4,000 мм
  • > 4,000 мм
Жилийн дундаж хур тунадас (хэрэв мэдэгдэж байвал), мм:


Хур тунадасны талаархи тодорхойлолт/ тайлбар:

Monsoon- mid-June to mid-September; July and August are the rainiest months and the temperature is warm and moist; between 70-85% of the annual precipitation occurs in the monsoon season

a. Winter or Cold weather (mid Dec. - mid March)
b. Summer or hot weather (mid March - mid June)
c. Season of general rains (South - West monsoon season)
d. Season of retreating monsoon (mid September to mid November)

Холбогдох цаг уурын станцын нэр:

India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Centre Dehradun

Агро-уур амьсгалын бүс
  • чийглэг

The overall climatic condition in the Pithoragarh district is governed by the southwest monsoon. It has a sub-tropical to temperate climate, with three pronounced seasons; summer, winter, and monsoon. The hilly terrain of the Himalayan region has snow cover and is cold during winter with snowfall normally occurring during the months of December to March.

Temperature- The temperature ranges from 0°C to 10°C in winter and from 8°C to 33°C in summer season. However, there is no meteorological observatory in the district. The account of the climate is based mainly on the records of the observations in the neighboring districts where similar meteorological conditions prevail. Variations in temperature are considerable from place to place and depend upon elevation as well as aspect. As the insolation is intense at high altitudes, in summer temperatures are considerably higher in the open than in the shade.

5.2 Гадаргын хэлбэр

Дундаж налуу:
  • хавтгай (0-2 %)
  • бага зэрэг налуу (3-5 %)
  • дунд зэрэг налуу (6-10 % )
  • хэвгий (11-15 %)
  • налуу (16-30 %)
  • их налуу (31-60 % )
  • эгц налуу (>60 %)
Гадаргын хэлбэр:
  • тэгш өндөрлөг / тал
  • нуруу
  • уулын энгэр
  • дов толгод
  • бэл
  • хөндий
Өндрийн бүслүүр:
  • 0-100 д.т.д. м.
  • 101-500 д.т.д. м.
  • 501-1,000 д.т.д м.
  • 1,001-1,500 д.т.д м.
  • 1,501-2,000 д.т.д м.
  • 2,001-2,500 д.т.д. м.
  • 2,501-3,000 д.т.д. м.
  • 3,001-4,000 д.т.д м.
  • > 4,000 д.т.д. м.
Технологи дараах асуудалд хандсан эсэхийг тодорхойл:
  • хотгор нөхцөл
Гадаргын талаархи тодорхойлолт ба бусад тайлбар:

Altitude of evaluated sites: 1850-1990m
Slope: 23-30%

5.3 Хөрс

Хөрсний дундаж зузаан:
  • маш нимгэн (0-20 см)
  • нимгэн (21-50 см)
  • дунд зэрэг зузаан (51-80 см)
  • зузаан (81-120 cм)
  • маш зузаан (>120 cм)
Хөрсний бүтэц (өнгөн хөрс):
  • бүдүүн/ хөнгөн (элсэрхэг)
  • дундаж (элсэнцэр, шавранцар)
Хөрсний бүтэц (>20 см-ээс доош):
  • дундаж (элсэнцэр, шавранцар)
Өнгөн хөрсөнд агуулагдах ялзмаг:
  • дунд (1-3 % )
  • бага (<1 % )
Боломжтой бол хөрсний бүрэн тодорхойлолт, боломжит мэдээллийг өгнө үү, жишээ нь хөрсний төрөл, хөрсний урвалын орчин/хүчиллэг байдал, катион солилцох чадавхи, азотын хэмжээ, давсжилт г.м.

Mountain/hill soils are a collective name given to various types of soils found under the following conditions :
-under sub-tropical, temperate and sub-alpine conditions
-under various forest types

Characteristics: very thin, fertile, and may be less than a centimeter deep on steep slopes; they are mixed with pebbles, shingles (a mass of small rounded pebbles), and gravels; they have a low-medium water holding capacity. Angular and subangular fragments of parent rock may be found mixed with the lower layers of the mountain and hill soils.

Texture: varies from loamy to sandy loam.
Soil Reaction: ranges from acidic to neutral (pH 4.6 to 6.5)
Organic Matter content: 1-5%

Ferrugenous red roils are found in this district and are well developed over Himalayan rocks (quartzite, biotite schist, amphibolite schist). They are free of carbonates and deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, light textured, porous, and friable (brittle/crumbly). The soil depth ranges from about 10cm-75 cm. These soils may be grouped into two on basis of morphology

1. Red earths- loose, friable topsoil rich in secondary concretions (hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil)
2. Red loam- argillaceous soils having a blocky structure (argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components, e.g. argillaceous limestones are limestones consisting predominantly of calcium carbonate, but including 10-40% of clay minerals)

Brown soil: is found particularly under dense broadleaved temperate and sub-alpine forests. There occurs a thick layer of humus on the forest floor (made of decomposed leaves, branches, twigs) and the topsoil is extremely rich in humus

Podsolic Soil: soil that has developed in humid/temperate conditions usually under coniferous forests (e.g. deodar, blue pine, fir, spruce) over quartzite, granites, schists and gneiss.

(Citation: Kumaun: The Land and the People, Sharad Singh Negi (1993)

5.4 Усны хүртээмж ба чанар

Гүний усны түвшин:

5-50 м

Гадаргын усны хүртээмж:

дунд зэрэг

Усны чанар (цэвэршүүлээгүй):

сайн чанарын ундны ус

Усны чанар гэж:

газрын доорхи ус

Усны давсжилтын асуудал бий юу?


Энэ газар үерт автдаг уу?


Усны чанар, нөөцийн талаархи тайлбар ба бусад тодорхойлолт:

Quantity: Water crisis has been a perennial problem in both the rural and urban areas of the Pithoragarh district
There is scarcity of safe drinking water of the villages in the study area. Hand pumps are often not functioning, pipe-water schemes are unreliable and the spring discharges have reduced during the dry season. Hand-pumped water often has a high iron content and bitter taste. Poor quality of groundwater in some of the naulas is mainly due to misuse and/or disuse of the structures.

A block-district groundwater resource estimation could not be carried out as the area is hilly (with slope >20%) and in major part aquifers are small, isolated bodies, and groundwater abstraction is done mainly through hand pumps and springs with small discharges.

However, we collected some physicochemical parameters that indicate the water (sourced from springs) is of good quality:

Water Quality Parameters of Springs:
pH: 6.29-8.18
Temp: 19.0-23.5 ºC
Electrical Conductivity: 109-504 µmsiemens
Total Dissolved Solids: 75-385 ppm

5.5 Биологийн олон янз байдал

Зүйлийн олон янз байдал:
  • дунд зэрэг
Амьдрах орчны олон янз байдал:
  • дунд зэрэг
Биологийн олон янз байдлын талаархи тайлбар ба бусад тодорхойлолт:

Uttarakhand has more than 7000 species of medicinal plants and 500 species of fauna. Floral diversity contributes 31% of total floral density of India. Fauna contributes just 1.58% of the total faunal density of the country. There are 119 endemic species of flowering plants in the state that exhibited 2.35% endemism and 35 faunal endemic species. Because it lies at the juncture of India, Nepal and the Tibeten Autononmous region, there often cases of poaching and smuggling of wildlife contrabands, including bear bile, musk pods and leopard skins through the borders. Yarsa Gumba Ophiocordyceps sinensis, commonly known as Caterpillar Fungus, is also illegally traded transboundary in the region, together with various plant species. Due to anthropogenic impacts, changes is soil quality, and climatic elements, the biodiversity of our study site is not as high as in other areas of the Pithoragarh district.

Citation: Sundriyal, M. & Sharma, B. (2016). Status of Biodiversity in Central Himalaya, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4( 2), 37-43.

5.6 Технологи нэвтрүүлсэн газар ашиглагчдын тухай мэдээлэл

Суурьшмал эсвэл нүүдлийн:
  • Суурьшмал
Үйлдвэрлэлийн системийн зах зээлийн чиг баримжаа:
  • амь зуух арга хэлбэрийн (өөрийгөө хангах)
  • холимог (амьжиргаа ба худалдаанд)
Бусад эх үүсвэрээс олох орлого:
  • Нийт орлогын 10-50 %
  • Нийт орлогын 50 %-иас дээш
Чинээлэг байдлын түвшин:
  • ядуу
Хувь хүн эсвэл бүлэг:
  • бүлэг / олон нийтийн
Механикжилтын түвшин:
  • гар ажил
  • эмэгтэй
  • эрэгтэй
Газар ашиглагчийн нас:
  • залуус
  • дунд нас
  • ахимаг нас
Газар ашиглагчдын бусад шинж чанарыг тодорхойл:

With recent development in Pithoragarh, an influx of funds coming from outside sources has caused a decline in the importance of agriculture production, which in now marginalized, based on female labour, and mainly conducted for subsistence with little surplus to sell. High caste men do not work in cultivation at all, and male tasks such as ploughing are performed by the Scheduled Caste.

Although most women are still cultivating, their work has lost economic importance. For most families, the produce does not cover the needs of the household and surplus must be bought from the market. Many of the terraces that were formerly fruit orchards (mainly citrus) have been completely abandoned. Farming is less intensive and landholdings are small and fragmented. The main crops are wheat, millet, and pulses, but yields are low as the land is not irrigated. Less livestock (cows, goats, buffalo) is kept because of the labor involved. Very little capital is returned to farming. Crops produced for the markets in the plains are replacing traditional crops to sustain the household.

With exposure to the“Modern” lifestyle, new values have also been accepted. Two children are the norm (the ideal being one son and one daughter, but at least one son in a must). Although access to education is quite good, it does not seem to result in working careers for women.

5.7 Газар ашиглагчийн технологи нэвтрүүлсэн газрын дундаж талбайн хэмжээ

  • < 0.5 га
  • 0.5-1 га
  • 1-2 га
  • 2-5 га
  • 5-15 га
  • 15-50 га
  • 50-100 га
  • 100-500 га
  • 500-1,000 га
  • 1,000-10,000 га
  • > 10,000 га
Энэ талбай том, жижиг, дунд алинд хамаарах вэ (орон нутгийн нөхцөлд харгалзуулна уу)?
  • бага-хэмжээний

5.8 Газар эзэмшил, газар ашиглах эрх, ус ашиглах эрх

Газар өмчлөл:
  • нэгдлийн/ тосгон
Газар ашиглах эрх:
  • нэгдлийн хэлбэрээр (зохион байгуулалттай)
Ус ашиглах эрх:
  • нээлттэй хүртэх (зохион байгуулалтгүй)
  • нэгдлийн хэлбэрээр (зохион байгуулалттай)
Газар ашиглах эрх нь уламжлалт эрхзүйн тогтолцоонд суурилсан уу?


Тодорхойлно уу:

Under the Kumaun Panchayat forest rules of 1931 (amended in 1976): A Van Panchayat, (community forest council), can be formed out of non-private land within the settlement boundaries of a village. Accordingly, all villagers are members of the VP upon their approval by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate under the state Revenue Department. The members are collectively referred to as the general body, which selects the management committee members through a democratic process.


5-9 elected members assume control of the forest and the extent of villager use. They additionally raise funds and mobilize the village to protect and support sustainable land use. Presently 12,089 Van Panchayats are entrusted with the management of over 5,449.64 km2 of forests.

5.9 Дэд бүтэц, үйлчилгээний хүртээмж

эрүүл мэнд:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
техник зөвлөгөө:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт (жишээ нь, ХАА-аас өөр):
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
зах зээл:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
эрчим хүчний хангамж:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
зам тээвэр:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
усан хангамж ба ариутгал:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн
санхүүгийн үйлчилгээ:
  • ядуу
  • дунд зэргийн
  • сайн

The situation of infrastructure is difficult and inconsistent in the hill regions because of the terrain. The major infrastructural issues are drinking water and irrigation facilities, electricity, transportation and communication facilities and social infrastructure (housing and education). As for financial services, only the State Bank of India (SBI) is active in the hill regions where it is trying to achieve the objective of 100% financial inclusion. Some villages mentioned buying into into agricultural insurance in the past, however this was a temporary enterprise and they were never compensated after extreme climatic events that occurred and damaged over 70% of their crop.

Though infrastructure and education has generally improved over the years, institutional and marketing networks in the region aimed at supporting hill-farmers are lacking.

6. Үр нөлөө ба дүгнэлт

6.1 Технологийн талбайд үзүүлсэн нөлөө

Нийгэм-эдийн засгийн үр нөлөө


тэжээл үйлдвэрлэл

ГТМ хэрэгжихээс өмнөх тоо хэмжээ:

2 ton/ha

ГТМ хэрэгжиснээс хойшхи тоо хэмжээ:

30 ton/hectare

тэжээлийн чанар


малын бүтээмж


модлогийн бүтээмж


ойн чанар

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Tree lopping for fodder was decreased by 15%

үйлдвэрлэлийн газар


газрын менежмент

саад учирсан
Орлого, зарлага

ХАА-н зардал

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Decreased the amount of supplementary fodder required for livestock. The amount of grasses, fodder, and fuelwood has increased significantly.

ажлын хэмжээ

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Less time spent collecting forest resources, as the area where the technology is near the village and supports fodder/fuelwood growth (broadleaf forest/oak nursery area)

Нийгэм-соёлын үр нөлөө

хүнсний аюулгүй байдал/ өөрийн хэрэгцээг хангах

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Improved self sufficiency of village, as the technology has helped increase animal productivity (more fodder, better quality) and increased water availability.

эрүүл мэндийн байдал

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Water condition has improved and people spend less time spent collecting fodder in the forest.

газар ашиглалт / усны эрх

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

There is less friction between the villages of Bhurimuni and Nakina. Nakina did not have to go ask for permission to access the Bhurimuni Naula for water during the dry season.

соёлын боломжууд

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

The improvements of forest resource security and resilience to disasters/climatic extremes have allowed the villagers have more free time to build up a communal gathering area for ceremonial events and festivals around the Vaishnavi Temple.

амралт, рекреацийн боломжууд

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Recreation opportunities for villagers have increased. Particularly women, (some of whom are involved in a self help group and active Van Panchayat members), expressed that they saved approximately 1-2 hours/day in fodder collection time.

олон нийтийн институц

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

The partnerships formed between land-users, the Nakina Van Panchayat, the Forest Department and external institutions are leading examples of necessary cooperation between all levels of governance for project harmonization.

ГТМ/ газрын доройтлын мэдлэг

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

People are taking forest management seriously and making innovative plans for further SLM interventions, whether it be community-initiated or with the help of external institutions/agencies.

маргааныг шийдвэрлэх

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Conflict has decreased in the village do to increased availability of resources. The overall morale of the village is better and less frantic due to an improvement in dodder, fuel and water provision. This has further enhanced cooperation for interventions that require participation and effort in the community forest.

Экологийн үр нөлөө

Усны эргэлт/ илүүдэл

усны хэмжээ

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

The technologies improve water holding capacity of the soil by decreasing runoff velocity and improve overall water storage.

ус хураах / цуглуулах


гадаргын урсац


гүний усны түвшин / уст давхарга

урсац нэмэгдсэн



хөрсний чийг

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Soil moisture of common land was increased by about 15%

хөрсөн бүрхэвч


хөрс алдагдах

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Trees and other vegetation has helped mitigate displacement of soil from upstream areas to the lowlands

хөрс хуримтлагдах


хөрс хагарах/ хагсах


хөрс нягтрах


шимт бодисын эргэлт/ сэргэлт


хөрсний органик нэгдэл/ хөрсөнд агуулагдах карбон


хүчиллэг байдал

Биологийн олон янз байдал: ургамал, амьтан

Ургамалын бүрхэвч

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Vegetation growth and cover has improved due to more shade and water availability

газрын дээрхи / доорхи карбон


ургамлын төрөл, зүйл

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Increased species diversity due to improved moisture availability, soil conditions and microclimate.

түрэмгий, харь зүйл


амьтны төрөл, зүйл

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Provide more water and habitat for small animals/birds.

ашигт төрөл зүйл

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Healthy afforested areas provide more water, habitat, and protection for microorganisms and insect species. They support native grasses and vegetation.

амьдрах орчны олон янз байдал

Уур амьсгал болон гамшгийн эрсдлийг бууруулах

хөрсний гулсалт/ чулуун нуранги

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Incidents of landslides decreased due to less surface flow velocity and soil destabilisation. Villagers also noted that there were that less displaced soil and sediment accumulation in the ravine that normally incurs damage from upstream debris flow in the monsoon season.

гангийн нөлөө

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Drought impacts decreased due improved surface and subsurface hydrological functioning in the upper watershed catchment areas. This increased microwatershed/ springshed groundwater stores and enhanced stream and spring flows in the dry season.

циклон, бороо, шуурганы нөлөө

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Erosion impacts from extreme rain storms is reduced by decreasing flow velocity

нүүрстөрөгч ба хүлэмжийн хийн ялгаруулалт

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Carbon storage is increased by the plantation. It has been previously studied that Uttarakhand Van Panchayat forests sequester carbon at the average rate of 3.5 t ha -1 yr-1. This varies depending on forest distribution, species and land management.

түймрийн эрсдэл

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

The forest intervention area is protected by the villagers from anthropogenic and wild fires, therefore the forest has rehabilitated more quickly and has a lower risk of burning due to improved green vegetation cover and less flammable pine needle accumulation. In the case of pine forests, pine needles are a major source of fuel for fire and the removal of buildup remains a major challenge for the land users.

бичил уур амьсгал

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Because of the interventions, vegetation/biomass, soil cover and water availability has improved and created a more suitable microclimate for microorganisms, plants, animals and people. The microclimate has improved due to decreased surface temperatures from exposed, bare soil or ground that is covered with pine needles. This improved microclimate is visible, as it has additionally allowed a wider range of species (grasses, shrubs, wildflowers, insects, birds) to inhabit the intervention site.

6.2 Технологийн талбайн гадна үзүүлсэн үр нөлөө

Усны хүртээмж

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Improved spring discharge in the peak dry season

хуурай улиралд ашиглах найдвартай, тогтвортой урсац

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Bhind and Vaishnavi Naulas (springs) have improved discharge in the peak dry season. According to villagers, there was little to no water available in May/June, and since 10 years the flow has returned due to the plantation efforts combination with structural technologies.

голын адагт үерлэх

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

impact of flash flood is minimized

голын адагт лаг шавар хуримтлагдах

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Helped slow down sediment and runoff

буферлэх / шүүлтүүрийн багтаамж

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

No direct evidence, but statements from the locals indicate that there are less sediments in the spring water ( due to improved soil infiltration and buffering capacity)

хөрш зэргэлдээ газарт учирах хохирол

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Less damage from runoff

нийтийн/хувийн хэвшлийн дэд бүтцэд учрах хохирол

Тайлбар/ тодорхой дурьдах:

Decreased intensity of runoff on the roadside and settlement below

6.3 Технологийн уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлт, цаг агаарын гамшигт үзэгдэлд өртөх байдал ба эмзэг байдал (газар ашиглагчийн бодлоор)

Уур амьсгалын аажим өөрчлөлт

Уур амьсгалын аажим өөрчлөлт
Улирал Өсөх эсвэл буурах Технологи түүний нөлөөг хэрхэн бууруулж байна?
жилийн дундаж температур Өсөлт дунд зэрэг
улирлын хур тундас хуурай улирал Бууралт сайн
бусад аажим уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлт Irregular rainfall patterns/ delayed monsoon Өсөлт дунд зэрэг

Уур амьсгалаас хамаарах аюул (гамшиг)

Цаг уурын гамшигт үзэгдэл
Технологи түүний нөлөөг хэрхэн бууруулж байна?
орон нутгийн аадар бороо сайн
орон нутгийн аадар бороо сайн
орон нутгийн мөндөртэй бороо дунд зэрэг
Уур амьсгалын гамшиг
Технологи түүний нөлөөг хэрхэн бууруулж байна?
ган гачиг дунд зэрэг
ойн түймэр сайн
Усзүйн гамшиг
Технологи түүний нөлөөг хэрхэн бууруулж байна?
хөрсний гулсалт дунд зэрэг

6.4 Өртөг ба ашгийн шинжилгээ

Бий болгох зардалтай харьцуулахад ямар ашиг өгсөн бэ (газар ашиглагчийн бодлоор)?
Богино хугацаанд эргэн төлөгдөх байдал:


Урт хугацаанд эргэн төлөгдөх байдал:

маш эерэг

Арчилгаа/урсгал зардалтай харьцуулахад ямар ашиг өгсөн бэ (газар ашиглагчийн бодлоор)?
Богино хугацаанд эргэн төлөгдөх байдал:

бага зэрэг эерэг

Урт хугацаанд эргэн төлөгдөх байдал:

маш эерэг

6.5 Технологи нэвтрүүлэлт

  • 11-50%
Технологи нэвтрүүлсэн хүмүүсээс хэд нь өөрийн хүчээр технологийг хэрэгжүүлсэн бэ, өөрөөр хэлбэл гадны тусламж дэмжлэг авалгүйгээр?
  • 0-10%

Establishing plantations is often a substantial investment and external monetary and technical support is required by the land-users.

6.6 Дасан зохицох

Бий болсон өөрчлөлтөд зохицуулан технологийг өөрчилсөн үү?


6.7 Технологийн давуу тал/боломжууд

Газар ашиглагчдын тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Improves livelihood of villagers by addressing and significantly improving the fodder, fuel, water nexus. Increased fodder availability and decreased time spent collecting fodder/fuel in the forest has greatly benefited the village, and women in particular. Animal health and productivity has also increased.
Reduces erosion, improves catchment of runoff, increases groundwater availability and aids in spring recharge.
Supports soil quality and existing broadleaf forest; increased filtration, improved soil moisture and water availability.
Reduces impact of landslides and further downstream damage to settlements (water erosion, siltation)
Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон давуу тал/боломжууд
Aligned with landuser
Improved microclimate, overall ecosystem health, and increased carbon sequestration.

6.8 Технологийн дутагдалтай/сул тал/аюул болон тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах арга зам

Газар ашиглагч нарын тодорхойлсон сул тал/ дутагдал/ эрсдэл Тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах вэ?
Risk of damage to plantation and nursery from fires Maintain protective barrier (wall and fire lane); more prominent live-fencing could be established around the fodder nursery, as it is under greater susceptibility to fire damage due to its location near the stone wall border and pine-dominant forest.
Moisture stress from weed competition reduces the growth of broadleaves Consistent monitoring of weed and invasive species control (lantana) and eupatorium (Ageratina adenophora).
Эмхэтгэгч, бусад мэдээлэл өгсөн хүмүүсийн өнцгөөс тодорхойлсон сул тал/ дутагдал/ эрсдэл Тэдгээрийг хэрхэн даван туулах вэ?
There can be poor survival and slow growth of newly planted trees from damage while handling; e.g. the oak nursery has the potential to support many more plants, but it seems there is a need for more care when handling young broadleaved species. Careful attention to plant handling, avoiding root damage, and appropriate timing of transplanting (e.g. avoid heat exposure)
Young oaks appeared somewhat nutrient deficient and are exposed in the forest; there were signs of animal intrusion or possibly damage by human crossing as the oak nursery is next to a small dirt trail. The survivability of the young oaks could be improved through mulching and establishing an enclosure or live fencing around the nursery.

In the future, contour trenching and ponding can be also done before the plantations to improve the soil moisture.

7. Ном зүй ба холбоосууд

7.1 Мэдээлэл цуглуулсан арга/эх үүсвэр

  • Хээрийн уулзалт, судалгаа

4: various villagers, Van panchayat community meeting

  • Газар ашиглагчтай хийсэн ярилцлага

2: Mr. Joshi and woman who is an active member in the Van Panchayat

  • ГТМ-ийн мэргэжилтэн/шинжээчтэй хийсэн ярилцлага

3, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti,
2 G.B. Pant, Dr. Ranbeer Rawal, Dr. Subodh Airy

Мэдээллийг хэзээ (газар дээр нь) цуглуулсан бэ?


7.2 Ном, хэвлэлийн ишлэл

Гарчиг, зохиогч, он, ISBN:

Plant Nursery Management: Principles and Practices, P. Ratha Krishnan Rajwant K. Kalia J.C. Tewari M.M. Roy, 2014, ISO 9001 : 2008

Хаанаас авч болох вэ? Зардал?


Гарчиг, зохиогч, он, ISBN:

Forest Works Manual and schedule of rates for Forestry Related Works, Uttarakhand, 2005, Forestry Research Institute, Dehradun

Хаанаас авч болох вэ? Зардал?


7.3 Холбогдох мэдээллийн интернет холбоос

Гарчиг/ тодорхойлолт:

Nursery Manual for Native Plants: A guide for tribal nurseries



Гарчиг/ тодорхойлолт:

Fodder and Forage Production



Гарчиг/ тодорхойлолт:

Nursery Technology



Гарчиг/ тодорхойлолт:

Policy Brief: Spring Revival through Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in the Himalayan Foothills: Uttarakhand, North India. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



Гарчиг/ тодорхойлолт:

Video: SLM for Himalayan Spring Revival. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



Холбоос ба модулууд

Бүгдийг дэлгэх Бүгдийг хаах