Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries for Sustainable Forest Management [Índia]

Trees: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora/glauca), Phalat (Quercus lanata), Fodder: Napier grasses, Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Khadik (Celtis australis)

technologies_5243 - Índia

Completude: 92%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia

Pessoa(s) capacitada(s)

usuário de terra:

Joshi Jagdamba Prashad

Sarpanch (Head) of Nakina Community Forest (Van Panchayat)


usuário de terra:

Pandey Basant Ballabh

Cucumber Farmer, Nakina Village


Nome do projeto que facilitou a documentação/avaliação da Tecnologia (se relevante)
Onsite and Offsite Benefits of SLM
Nome da(s) instituição(ões) que facilitou(ram) a documentação/ avaliação da Tecnologia (se relevante)
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - Nepal
Nome da(s) instituição(ões) que facilitou(ram) a documentação/ avaliação da Tecnologia (se relevante)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development (G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development) - Índia

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

O/a compilador/a e a(s) pessoa(s) capacitada(s) aceitam as condições relativas ao uso de dados documentados através da WOCAT:


1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia de gestão sustentável de terra?



The land is suitable for afforestation and fodder nurseries. There are currently no signs of over exploitation with regards to natural resource use in the plantation area of the Nakina Forest.

1.5 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre abordagens GST (documentado(s) usando WOCAT)

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat [Índia]

Van Panchayats or village forest councils are a impressive example of grassroots community management of natural resources, where a specific administrative unit is locally elected by community members who are responsible for the management of activities related to the forest.

  • Compilador/a: Jaclyn Bandy
Naula Management and Conservation

Naula Management and Conservation [Índia]

Naulas are shallow, four-sided stepped wells designed to collect water from subterranean seepages or springs and are used to meet domestic water needs by the local communities. Naula management and conservation encompasses a range of activities that preserve their structure and function.

  • Compilador/a: Jaclyn Bandy

2. Descrição da tecnologia de GST

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Natural assisted regeneration of broadleaved species, a small oak plantation and a fodder nursery have been established in the Nakina community forest (intervention area: 10 ha), supporting fodder tree species such as Banj Oak and Falyaat, as well as various subtropical temperate fodder grass species. This has improved the livelihood of the land-users by supporting the health and productivity of the forest, increasing the availability of fuel wood, fodder and groundwater for spring restoration.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia


1. The technology is applied in a natural environment and is located about 1km away from the settlement and the agriculture land of Nakina Village. The village has access to its own forest, which covers a geographical area of 114 hectare. Of this, 94 hectares come under the Village Forest Council, locally referred to as the Van Panchayat.

2. Characteristics of Technology:

a. Broadleaf species have been established over 7 hectares through natural assisted tree regeneration methods. These include Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis).

b. Nakina Van Panchayat has made an oak plantation site of 2 hectares in collaboration with G.B. Pant Research Institute.

c. A fodder nursery covering 1 hectare hosts a variety of subtropical (Napier: Pennisetum purpureum, Aus, Ginni) and temperate grasses (Guchhi, Dolni, Italian rye: Lolium multiflorum). It was established with the assistance of the NGOs Swati Gramodyog Sansthan and the Himalayan Sewa Samiti. Extraction of fodder leaves and timber are restricted and regulations managed by the Van Panchayat (community forest council).

-Increase trees and grasses to improve availability of fuel and fodder for community, as well as enrich biodiversity.
-Plantation is on a mountain slope (+25% slope), so it will help in preventing soil erosion and landslides.
-Improve soil and water conservation, prevention of surface run-off, support groundwater recharge and spring rejuvenation.

Major activities/Inputs needed to establish and maintain technology:
1. Activities for Assisted Natural Regeneration: protect and facilitate the growth of parent trees inherently present in the area and their regenerations, rather than establishment of entire plantation

2.Activities for the oak plantation: Selection and seed provision of appropriate tree species, clearing of vegetation and preparation of forest top soil, leveling of soil, digging of plantation pits, sowing weeding, watering, occasional pruning, propagation of trees from cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing for protection from fire.

3. Activities for fodder nursery:- Selection and seed provision of appropriate grass species and polypot materials, preparation of seedbeds; clearing of vegetation, removal of stones/large roots, ploughing/hoeing, mixing sand and compost on areas with poor soil, sowing seeds pre-monsoon, weeding and watering seedlings, propagation from seed or root cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing protection from fire.

•Restores productivity and fodder/fuelwood availability
•Ecosystem stability
•Enhancement of biological diversity to degraded lands.
•Control landslide and soil erosion
•Control forest fire.
•Maintain wildlife habitat
•Increase livelihood of local people, decrease time spent collecting fodder
•Storage carbon on the forest help to reduce the CO2 in the atmosphere.

This technology is properly functioning in the implementation area and local people have received many benefits from sustainable managing their natural resources rather than receiving incentives for institutional support, local people of the Nakina village are strongly active to protect the forest with their own coordination.

1.Improve wildlife habitat, which may increase human wildlife conflicts as it is near to agriculture land and settlements.
2.Require regular maintenance activities, which require organization within the community and can increase periodic workload depending on level of participation

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação





Especificação adicional de localização:

Nakina Village, Pithoragarh Bloc

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia:
  • Aplicado em pontos específicos/concentrado numa pequena área
O(s) local(is) tecnológico(s) está(ão) localizado(s) em uma área permanentemente protegida?


Caso afirmativo, especifique:

Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest)

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • 10-50 anos atrás

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • atráves de inovação dos usuários da terra
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

After the Nakina Van Panchyat was established in 1952 they already had experience working on plantations. During the British-era, timber extraction, pine plantations and prescribed fire exploded in the region. Much of the oak forests were reverted to pine, and many broadleaved species like were overexploited for construction, fuelwood, and fodder. Nakina's self-initiated plantation efforts were done in hopes to restore it to its original state.

Other supporting organizations and institutions have recognized the need for further support for the following reasons: demand for fuel and fodder is still insufficient during the dry season, water scarcity has become a prevalent issue, and biological interventions are necessary to improve and sustain ecosystem services. Due to the expressed interest and dedication of the community, these projects have been accomplished.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de GST

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Preserva ecossistema
  • Protege uma bacia/zonas a jusante – em combinação com outra tecnologia
  • Preservar/melhorar a biodiversidade
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Uso do solo misturado dentro da mesma unidade de terra:




Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
Tipo de animal:
  • gado - lácteo
  • caprinos
É praticado o manejo integrado de culturas e pecuária?


Caso afirmativo, especifique:

Compost was made from manure of livestock for plantation and fodder nursery preparation.

Produtos e serviços:
  • carne
  • leite


  • Florestas/bosques (semi)naturais
  • Plantação de árvores, reflorestamento
Florestas (semi)naturais/ bosques: Especificar o tipo de manejo:
  • Derrubada seletiva
Tipo de floresta (semi)natural:
  • vegetação natural da floresta seca subtropical
Plantação de árvores, florestamento: Especificar a origem e composição das espécies:
  • Variedades mistas
Tipo de plantação de árvores, florestamento:
  • plantação de floresta seca subtropical - Latifoliada
  • Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia)
As árvores especificadas acima são decíduas ou perenes?
  • decíduo 
Produtos e serviços:
  • Madeira
  • Lenha
  • Outros produtos florestais
  • Pastagem/Alimentação de folhas e brotos
  • Conservação/proteção da natureza

3.3 O uso do solo mudou devido à implementação da Tecnologia?

O uso do solo mudou devido à implementação da Tecnologia?
  • Não (Continuar com a pergunta 3.4)

3.4 Abastecimento de água

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de GST ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão natural e seminatural de floresta
  • Gestão de plantação florestal
  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada

3.6 Medidas de GST contendo a tecnologia

Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
  • V3: Limpeza da vegetação
  • V4: Substituição ou retirada de espécies exóticas/invasivas
  • V5: Outros
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra
  • M2: Mudança de gestão/nível de intensidade
  • M3: Disposição de acordo com o ambiente natural e humano
  • M5: Controle/mudança de composição de espécies

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
  • Wm: movimento de massas/deslizamentos
  • Wo: efeitos de degradação externa
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
  • Ca: acidificação
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
  • Pk: quebra e ressecamento
  • Pi: selagem do solo
  • Pu: perda da função bioprodutiva devido a outras atividades
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bh: perda dos habitats
  • Bq: quantidade/ declínio da biomassa
  • Bf: efeitos prejudiciais de incêndios
  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade
  • Bl: perda da vida do solo
  • Bp: aumento de pragas/doenças, perda de predadores
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Ha: aridificação
  • Hs: mudança na quantidade de água de superfície
  • Hg: mudança no lençol freático/aquífero
  • Hp: declínio da qualidade de água de superfície
  • Hq: declínio da qualidade do lençol freático

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is not less than 2x2 m, about 2,000 Quercus saplings were planted.

Nakina Broadleaf Plantation: 7 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is no less that 2x2 m, about 15,000 trees have been planted and the forest is being continually managed in the area.

Species: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis)

Fuelwood cutting (lopping), fodder collection, and selective clear cutting for Quercus leucotrichophora and other broadleaved species is done between Nov- April.

Fodder Nursery: 20 Quintals (20,000 kg) of various grassroot slips over 1 Hectare. This provides +175 tonnes/year. (Subtropicals species: napier, aus, ginni, Temperate species: guchhi, dolni, italian rye)

Planting: Grasses are planted during the months of June-July at the advent of rainy season, about 10 cm deep vertically and at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm apart.

Propagation: grasses forms clumps during its growth period. The clump when broken gives a number of small units known as slips, which are the units of propagation and on planting, they establish as individual plants. While preparing the slips for planting, fibrous roots and leaves are be trimmed off. Cuttings with 2 nodes from the middle portion of moderately matured stems (3 – 4 months old) were planted in a slanting position at one side of the ridges with one node buried in the soil. The underground node develops roots and shoots while the upper node shoots only. The soil around the stem is pressed tightly. Farm yard manure is applied after harvest (application rate varies; estimation is 5-8 tonnes). Annually about 6 to 8 cuts are possible.

Oak Nursery: 0.25 ha. The nursery bed is rectangular and measures about 100m x 25 m. The seedlings are uprooted by hand from a seedbed and transplanted (bare-root transplanting). The nursery is on a gently sloping land (23%). Seedlings with poor lateral root development are culled out.

Oak Plantation Alternative:
Acorns are collected and put in water for 24 hours. Acorns that sink are immediately sown in a well tilled seedbed 2-5 cm deep, 15 cm from each other and covered with a thin layer of firm soil. Beds are mulched with straw or leaves. However, not every acorn will germinate and animal predation of acorns can be an issue. In general, probability of success is lower than with seedlings.


Jaclyn Bandy



Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Google Map of Plantations and Fodder Nursery locations


Jaclyn Bandy



Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Project Budget with Nakina Village and NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti: Fodder Nursery, 1 hectare and Assisted Natural Regeneration 97 Hectares)

(Citation: Detailed Project Report: Natural Resource Based Livelihood Project in the Gorang Ghati Cluster, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti, Submitted to: Sir Ratan Tata Trust (SRTT) Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Project Budget for Afforestation of Nakina Community Forest and G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development: Broadleaf Plantation (2 hectares)

(Citation: Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • por área de tecnologia
Indique o tamanho e a unidade de área:

Afforested Community Forest: 7 hectares, G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 hectares, Fodder Nursery: 1 hectare

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):


Se for relevante, indique a taxa de câmbio do USD para moeda local (por exemplo, 1 USD = 79,9 Real): 1 USD =:


Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

400 INR

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Periodicidade (estação do ano)
1. Plantations: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
2. Earth work for leveling, Digging pits (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) along contour lines, spacing of pits no less that 2x2 m, filling of pits with soil/manure mixture Early June
3. Planting of saplings: roots of the plants kept straight and the plant put straight in vertical position; done by digging with the help of a stick or small crow bar Early July
4. Note: Species like Akhrot, Angu, Maple, Pangar, Poplar, Salix, Utis etc. are planted in winter months January/February
5. Dead, dying or dry plants are replaced within 15 days of completion of planting work Mid June
6. Thanwalas (semicircular pit) about 15 cm deep, 25-30 cm apart from the plant were dug for rainwater retention/infiltration Mid June
7. Weeding after first significant rains Monsoon
8. Fodder Nursery: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
9. Plowing/hoeing land, collection and soil, sand, manure preparation (4:2:1 ratio) and seedbed preparation Pre-monsoon
10. Planting of each cane/rootsplit in holes 15-30 cm deep, with a spacing of 0.5m x 0.5m Pre-monsoon
11. Cutting and Harvesting

Oak Plantation: Seeds are collected from dominant oak trees that exhibit superior phenotypic traits such as tall straight trunks, good diameter growth rates and well-developed crowns (branches/leaves)

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Plantation Community Manual labour person-days 400,0 400,0 160000,0 50,0
Mão-de-obra Skilled labour (advisor, experts) person-days 7,0 2000,0 14000,0
Mão-de-obra Fodder Nursery Raising Total Cost 1,0 25000,0 25000,0 25,0
Equipamento Axe, Crow bar, Wheel barrow pieces 10,0 1500,0 15000,0 100,0
Equipamento Digging forks, Hammers, Hoes, Spade pieces 10,0 1500,0 15000,0 100,0
Equipamento Scissors, Pruning knives/shears, Budding and Grafting Knives/Tape pieces 10,0 700,0 7000,0 50,0
Material vegetal Fodder Grass/20 Quintals of Grassroot slips Total Cost 1,0 45000,0 45000,0 50,0
Material vegetal Plantation Material, 3.88 INR per Sapling x 1000 Sapling per hectare x 7 hectare Total Cost 1,0 27160,0 27160,0 50,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Soil/Water Conservation and Soil Fertility Measures: 5,500 INR per Hectare x 2 Total Cost 1,0 11000,0 11000,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Nakina Forest: Assisted Natural Regeneration preparation and composting Total Cost 1,0 2000,0 2000,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Fodder Nursery composting Total Cost 1,0 1000,0 1000,0 100,0
Outros Plantation Transportation, Pitting, Planting: 6.9 INR per plant X 1000 sapling x 2 hectare Total Cost 1,0 13800,0 13800,0 50,0
Outros Fodder Nursery (Rootstock Purchase, Transportation) Total Cost 1,0 5500,0 5500,0 50,0
Outros Nakina Village: Assisted Natural Regeneration Activities in Planted Plots, 10,000 INR per hectare X 7 hectares x 3 years Total Cost 1,0 30000,0 30000,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 371460,0
Custos totais para o estabelecimento da Tecnologia em USD 5306,57
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, G.B. Pant, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


For G.B. Pant Plantation and Nakina Forest Plantation:
On average we estimated a maximum of 10 people worked on establishing the technology/day = 400 x 10 = 4000 (labor cost/day): 4,000 X 40 days = 160,000 INR Total Cost

Some of the community laborers were compensated for the initial phase of establishing the plantation with G.B. Pant Plantation, but for the Nakina Plantation most of the work was voluntary by the community over many years. Nakina Van Panchayat has a joint bank account (Almora Urban Cooperative Bank) with officials from the Forest Department. Money from the Forest Department/ JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) gets deposited there. A portion of this is used to compensate the village workers (~400 INR/day) .

NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (HSS) was involved in supporting the fodder nursery and some plantation support.

For the original project budget outline for the Fodder Nursery, please see the attached document in the Technical Drawing section from the NGO HSS.

For further details on the plantation budget, please see the tables in the Technical Drawing section from the Forest Works Manual/Schedule of rates for forest work in Uttarakhand.

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Periodicidade/frequência
1. Second weeding done in September, followed by a third weeding after the winter rains. Post-monsoon
2. A Chowkidar (forest watch guard) is deputed for five years in the plantation area to look after it Post-planting
3. Periodical weeding and removal of grasses suppressing the plants, maintenance and repair of inspection paths Year round
4. Fire Control: Keeping regular watch over the plantation area during the fire season, cleaning of the outer periphery of the plantation area in two meter width Dry season
5. Collective help and co-operation with the villagers in the protection of the plantation; checks on fodder extraction/allowance, prevention of trespassers (human/wildlife) Year round
6. During the second year, dead plants are replaced by planting fresh saplings (ca. 20%) Onset of monsoon
7. Fodder grasses: propagation from cuttings or from root slips
8. Fodder Grasses: Harvesting of grasses every 6-8 weeks, maintaining a stubble height of 5-10 cm from the ground level at each harvest to avoids weakening of root system

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Maintenance of nursery Total Cost/Year 1,0 3000,0 3000,0 25,0
Mão-de-obra Maintenance of plantations Total Cost/Year 1,0 4000,0 4000,0 25,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 7000,0
Custos totais de manutenção da Tecnologia em USD 100,0
Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


Please see estimated maintenance costs attached in references.

In general, the land users bear the labor costs of maintenance, but they received inputs and other support to maintain the fodder nursery and plantations for a few years (2-3) after the projects were executed. Otherwise, remaining funds in the joint bank account with Nakina Van Panchayat and UTFD/JICA are accessed for necessary supplies and labor compensation.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

-Length and amount of available funding, as plantation projects require substantial investment and long term care.

-Damage or survival rate of the saplings/trees/fodder species can be severely affected by climatic, anthropogenic, or wildlife disturbances. The success and cost of a plantation and nursery project can vary widely depending on size, topographic characteristics, access, labor availability and overall appropriateness of site selection.

5. Ambiente natural e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):


Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Monsoon- mid-June to mid-September; July and August are the rainiest months and the temperature is warm and moist; between 70-85% of the annual precipitation occurs in the monsoon season

a. Winter or Cold weather (mid Dec. - mid March)
b. Summer or hot weather (mid March - mid June)
c. Season of general rains (South - West monsoon season)
d. Season of retreating monsoon (mid September to mid November)

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Centre Dehradun

Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

The overall climatic condition in the Pithoragarh district is governed by the southwest monsoon. It has a sub-tropical to temperate climate, with three pronounced seasons; summer, winter, and monsoon. The hilly terrain of the Himalayan region has snow cover and is cold during winter with snowfall normally occurring during the months of December to March.

Temperature- The temperature ranges from 0°C to 10°C in winter and from 8°C to 33°C in summer season. However, there is no meteorological observatory in the district. The account of the climate is based mainly on the records of the observations in the neighboring districts where similar meteorological conditions prevail. Variations in temperature are considerable from place to place and depend upon elevation as well as aspect. As the insolation is intense at high altitudes, in summer temperatures are considerably higher in the open than in the shade.

5.2 Topografia

Declividade média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1.000 m s.n.m.
  • 1.001-1.500 m s.n.m.
  • 1.501-2.000 m s.n.m.
  • 2.001-2.500 m s.n.m.
  • 2.501-3.000 m s.n.m.
  • 3.001-4.000 m s.n.m.
  • > 4.000 m s.n.m.
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Posições côncavas
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Altitude of evaluated sites: 1850-1990m
Slope: 23-30%

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc.

Mountain/hill soils are a collective name given to various types of soils found under the following conditions :
-under sub-tropical, temperate and sub-alpine conditions
-under various forest types

Characteristics: very thin, fertile, and may be less than a centimeter deep on steep slopes; they are mixed with pebbles, shingles (a mass of small rounded pebbles), and gravels; they have a low-medium water holding capacity. Angular and subangular fragments of parent rock may be found mixed with the lower layers of the mountain and hill soils.

Texture: varies from loamy to sandy loam.
Soil Reaction: ranges from acidic to neutral (pH 4.6 to 6.5)
Organic Matter content: 1-5%

Ferrugenous red roils are found in this district and are well developed over Himalayan rocks (quartzite, biotite schist, amphibolite schist). They are free of carbonates and deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, light textured, porous, and friable (brittle/crumbly). The soil depth ranges from about 10cm-75 cm. These soils may be grouped into two on basis of morphology

1. Red earths- loose, friable topsoil rich in secondary concretions (hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil)
2. Red loam- argillaceous soils having a blocky structure (argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components, e.g. argillaceous limestones are limestones consisting predominantly of calcium carbonate, but including 10-40% of clay minerals)

Brown soil: is found particularly under dense broadleaved temperate and sub-alpine forests. There occurs a thick layer of humus on the forest floor (made of decomposed leaves, branches, twigs) and the topsoil is extremely rich in humus

Podsolic Soil: soil that has developed in humid/temperate conditions usually under coniferous forests (e.g. deodar, blue pine, fir, spruce) over quartzite, granites, schists and gneiss.

(Citation: Kumaun: The Land and the People, Sharad Singh Negi (1993)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:


Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

A qualidade da água refere-se a:

águas subterrâneas

A salinidade da água é um problema?


Ocorre inundação da área?


Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Quantity: Water crisis has been a perennial problem in both the rural and urban areas of the Pithoragarh district
There is scarcity of safe drinking water of the villages in the study area. Hand pumps are often not functioning, pipe-water schemes are unreliable and the spring discharges have reduced during the dry season. Hand-pumped water often has a high iron content and bitter taste. Poor quality of groundwater in some of the naulas is mainly due to misuse and/or disuse of the structures.

A block-district groundwater resource estimation could not be carried out as the area is hilly (with slope >20%) and in major part aquifers are small, isolated bodies, and groundwater abstraction is done mainly through hand pumps and springs with small discharges.

However, we collected some physicochemical parameters that indicate the water (sourced from springs) is of good quality:

Water Quality Parameters of Springs:
pH: 6.29-8.18
Temp: 19.0-23.5 ºC
Electrical Conductivity: 109-504 µmsiemens
Total Dissolved Solids: 75-385 ppm

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • Médio
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Uttarakhand has more than 7000 species of medicinal plants and 500 species of fauna. Floral diversity contributes 31% of total floral density of India. Fauna contributes just 1.58% of the total faunal density of the country. There are 119 endemic species of flowering plants in the state that exhibited 2.35% endemism and 35 faunal endemic species. Because it lies at the juncture of India, Nepal and the Tibeten Autononmous region, there often cases of poaching and smuggling of wildlife contrabands, including bear bile, musk pods and leopard skins through the borders. Yarsa Gumba Ophiocordyceps sinensis, commonly known as Caterpillar Fungus, is also illegally traded transboundary in the region, together with various plant species. Due to anthropogenic impacts, changes is soil quality, and climatic elements, the biodiversity of our study site is not as high as in other areas of the Pithoragarh district.

Citation: Sundriyal, M. & Sharma, B. (2016). Status of Biodiversity in Central Himalaya, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4( 2), 37-43.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • misto (subsistência/comercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
  • >50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade
  • idosos
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

With recent development in Pithoragarh, an influx of funds coming from outside sources has caused a decline in the importance of agriculture production, which in now marginalized, based on female labour, and mainly conducted for subsistence with little surplus to sell. High caste men do not work in cultivation at all, and male tasks such as ploughing are performed by the Scheduled Caste.

Although most women are still cultivating, their work has lost economic importance. For most families, the produce does not cover the needs of the household and surplus must be bought from the market. Many of the terraces that were formerly fruit orchards (mainly citrus) have been completely abandoned. Farming is less intensive and landholdings are small and fragmented. The main crops are wheat, millet, and pulses, but yields are low as the land is not irrigated. Less livestock (cows, goats, buffalo) is kept because of the labor involved. Very little capital is returned to farming. Crops produced for the markets in the plains are replacing traditional crops to sustain the household.

With exposure to the“Modern” lifestyle, new values have also been accepted. Two children are the norm (the ideal being one son and one daughter, but at least one son in a must). Although access to education is quite good, it does not seem to result in working careers for women.

5.7 Área média de terrenos utilizados pelos usuários de terrenos que aplicam a Tecnologia

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Comunitário (organizado)
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)
Os direitos de uso da terra são baseados em um sistema jurídico tradicional?



Under the Kumaun Panchayat forest rules of 1931 (amended in 1976): A Van Panchayat, (community forest council), can be formed out of non-private land within the settlement boundaries of a village. Accordingly, all villagers are members of the VP upon their approval by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate under the state Revenue Department. The members are collectively referred to as the general body, which selects the management committee members through a democratic process.


5-9 elected members assume control of the forest and the extent of villager use. They additionally raise funds and mobilize the village to protect and support sustainable land use. Presently 12,089 Van Panchayats are entrusted with the management of over 5,449.64 km2 of forests.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços financeiros:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

The situation of infrastructure is difficult and inconsistent in the hill regions because of the terrain. The major infrastructural issues are drinking water and irrigation facilities, electricity, transportation and communication facilities and social infrastructure (housing and education). As for financial services, only the State Bank of India (SBI) is active in the hill regions where it is trying to achieve the objective of 100% financial inclusion. Some villages mentioned buying into into agricultural insurance in the past, however this was a temporary enterprise and they were never compensated after extreme climatic events that occurred and damaged over 70% of their crop.

Though infrastructure and education has generally improved over the years, institutional and marketing networks in the region aimed at supporting hill-farmers are lacking.

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos


Produção de forragens

Quantidade anterior à GST:

2 ton/ha

Quantidade posterior à GST:

30 ton/hectare

Qualidade da forragem


Produção animal


Produção de madeira


Qualidade da floresta/do bosque


Tree lopping for fodder was decreased by 15%

Área de produção


Gestão de terra

Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas


Decreased the amount of supplementary fodder required for livestock. The amount of grasses, fodder, and fuelwood has increased significantly.

Carga de trabalho


Less time spent collecting forest resources, as the area where the technology is near the village and supports fodder/fuelwood growth (broadleaf forest/oak nursery area)

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência


Improved self sufficiency of village, as the technology has helped increase animal productivity (more fodder, better quality) and increased water availability.

Estado de saúde


Water condition has improved and people spend less time spent collecting fodder in the forest.

Direitos do uso da terra/à água


There is less friction between the villages of Bhurimuni and Nakina. Nakina did not have to go ask for permission to access the Bhurimuni Naula for water during the dry season.

Oportunidades culturais


The improvements of forest resource security and resilience to disasters/climatic extremes have allowed the villagers have more free time to build up a communal gathering area for ceremonial events and festivals around the Vaishnavi Temple.

Oportunidades de lazer


Recreation opportunities for villagers have increased. Particularly women, (some of whom are involved in a self help group and active Van Panchayat members), expressed that they saved approximately 1-2 hours/day in fodder collection time.

Instituições comunitárias


The partnerships formed between land-users, the Nakina Van Panchayat, the Forest Department and external institutions are leading examples of necessary cooperation between all levels of governance for project harmonization.

Conhecimento de GST/ degradação da terra


People are taking forest management seriously and making innovative plans for further SLM interventions, whether it be community-initiated or with the help of external institutions/agencies.

Atenuação de conflitos


Conflict has decreased in the village do to increased availability of resources. The overall morale of the village is better and less frantic due to an improvement in dodder, fuel and water provision. This has further enhanced cooperation for interventions that require participation and effort in the community forest.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Quantidade de água


The technologies improve water holding capacity of the soil by decreasing runoff velocity and improve overall water storage.

Colheita/recolhimento de água


Escoamento superficial


Lençol freático/aquífero




Umidade do solo


Soil moisture of common land was increased by about 15%

Cobertura do solo


Perda de solo


Trees and other vegetation has helped mitigate displacement of soil from upstream areas to the lowlands

Acumulação de solo


Ressecamento/ selagem do solo


Compactação do solo


Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes


Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo



Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Cobertura vegetal


Vegetation growth and cover has improved due to more shade and water availability

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo


Diversidade vegetal


Increased species diversity due to improved moisture availability, soil conditions and microclimate.

Espécies exóticas invasoras


Diversidade animal


Provide more water and habitat for small animals/birds.

Espécies benéficas


Healthy afforested areas provide more water, habitat, and protection for microorganisms and insect species. They support native grasses and vegetation.

Diversidade de habitat

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Deslizamentos de terra/fluxos de escombros


Incidents of landslides decreased due to less surface flow velocity and soil destabilisation. Villagers also noted that there were that less displaced soil and sediment accumulation in the ravine that normally incurs damage from upstream debris flow in the monsoon season.

Impactos da seca


Drought impacts decreased due improved surface and subsurface hydrological functioning in the upper watershed catchment areas. This increased microwatershed/ springshed groundwater stores and enhanced stream and spring flows in the dry season.

Impactos de ciclones, temporais


Erosion impacts from extreme rain storms is reduced by decreasing flow velocity

Emissão de carbono e gases de efeito estufa


Carbon storage is increased by the plantation. It has been previously studied that Uttarakhand Van Panchayat forests sequester carbon at the average rate of 3.5 t ha -1 yr-1. This varies depending on forest distribution, species and land management.

Risco de incêndio


The forest intervention area is protected by the villagers from anthropogenic and wild fires, therefore the forest has rehabilitated more quickly and has a lower risk of burning due to improved green vegetation cover and less flammable pine needle accumulation. In the case of pine forests, pine needles are a major source of fuel for fire and the removal of buildup remains a major challenge for the land users.



Because of the interventions, vegetation/biomass, soil cover and water availability has improved and created a more suitable microclimate for microorganisms, plants, animals and people. The microclimate has improved due to decreased surface temperatures from exposed, bare soil or ground that is covered with pine needles. This improved microclimate is visible, as it has additionally allowed a wider range of species (grasses, shrubs, wildflowers, insects, birds) to inhabit the intervention site.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Disponibilidade de água


Improved spring discharge in the peak dry season

Caudal confiável e estável em período seco


Bhind and Vaishnavi Naulas (springs) have improved discharge in the peak dry season. According to villagers, there was little to no water available in May/June, and since 10 years the flow has returned due to the plantation efforts combination with structural technologies.

Cheias de jusante


impact of flash flood is minimized

Sedimentação a jusante


Helped slow down sediment and runoff

Capacidade de tamponamento/filtragem


No direct evidence, but statements from the locals indicate that there are less sediments in the spring water ( due to improved soil infiltration and buffering capacity)

Danos em áreas vizinhas


Less damage from runoff

Danos na infraestrutura pública/privada


Decreased intensity of runoff on the roadside and settlement below

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano aumento ou diminuição Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual aumento moderadamente
Precipitação pluviométrica sazonal estação seca redução/diminuição bem
Outras mudanças climáticas graduais Irregular rainfall patterns/ delayed monsoon aumento moderadamente

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Trovoada local bem
Tempestade de granizo local moderadamente
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca moderadamente
Incêndio florestal bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Deslizamento de terra moderadamente

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:


Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

levemente positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • 11-50%
De todos aqueles que adotaram a Tecnologia, quantos o fizeram espontaneamente, ou seja, sem receber nenhum incentivo/ pagamento material?
  • 0-10%

Establishing plantations is often a substantial investment and external monetary and technical support is required by the land-users.

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?


6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades na visão do usuário da terra
Improves livelihood of villagers by addressing and significantly improving the fodder, fuel, water nexus. Increased fodder availability and decreased time spent collecting fodder/fuel in the forest has greatly benefited the village, and women in particular. Animal health and productivity has also increased.
Reduces erosion, improves catchment of runoff, increases groundwater availability and aids in spring recharge.
Supports soil quality and existing broadleaf forest; increased filtration, improved soil moisture and water availability.
Reduces impact of landslides and further downstream damage to settlements (water erosion, siltation)
Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades na visão do/a compilador/a ou de outra pessoa capacitada
Aligned with landuser
Improved microclimate, overall ecosystem health, and increased carbon sequestration.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Pontos fracos/desvantagens/riscos na visão do usuário da terra Como eles podem ser superados?
Risk of damage to plantation and nursery from fires Maintain protective barrier (wall and fire lane); more prominent live-fencing could be established around the fodder nursery, as it is under greater susceptibility to fire damage due to its location near the stone wall border and pine-dominant forest.
Moisture stress from weed competition reduces the growth of broadleaves Consistent monitoring of weed and invasive species control (lantana) and eupatorium (Ageratina adenophora).
Pontos fracos/vantagens/riscos na visão do/a compilador/a ou de outra pessoa capacitada Como eles podem ser superados?
There can be poor survival and slow growth of newly planted trees from damage while handling; e.g. the oak nursery has the potential to support many more plants, but it seems there is a need for more care when handling young broadleaved species. Careful attention to plant handling, avoiding root damage, and appropriate timing of transplanting (e.g. avoid heat exposure)
Young oaks appeared somewhat nutrient deficient and are exposed in the forest; there were signs of animal intrusion or possibly damage by human crossing as the oak nursery is next to a small dirt trail. The survivability of the young oaks could be improved through mulching and establishing an enclosure or live fencing around the nursery.

In the future, contour trenching and ponding can be also done before the plantations to improve the soil moisture.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • visitas de campo, pesquisas de campo

4: various villagers, Van panchayat community meeting

  • entrevistas com usuários de terras

2: Mr. Joshi and woman who is an active member in the Van Panchayat

  • entrevistas com especialistas em GST

3, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti,
2 G.B. Pant, Dr. Ranbeer Rawal, Dr. Subodh Airy

Quando os dados foram compilados (no campo)?


7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Título, autor, ano, ISBN:

Plant Nursery Management: Principles and Practices, P. Ratha Krishnan Rajwant K. Kalia J.C. Tewari M.M. Roy, 2014, ISO 9001 : 2008

Disponível de onde? Custos?


Título, autor, ano, ISBN:

Forest Works Manual and schedule of rates for Forestry Related Works, Uttarakhand, 2005, Forestry Research Institute, Dehradun

Disponível de onde? Custos?


7.3 Links para informações on-line relevantes

Título/ descrição:

Nursery Manual for Native Plants: A guide for tribal nurseries



Título/ descrição:

Fodder and Forage Production



Título/ descrição:

Nursery Technology



Título/ descrição:

Policy Brief: Spring Revival through Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in the Himalayan Foothills: Uttarakhand, North India. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



Título/ descrição:

Video: SLM for Himalayan Spring Revival. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020