Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries for Sustainable Forest Management [ອິນເດຍ]

  • ​ການ​ສ້າງ:
  • ​ປັບ​ປູງ:
  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ:
  • ບັນນາທິການ:
  • ຜູ້ທົບທວນຄືນ:

Trees: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora/glauca), Phalat (Quercus lanata), Fodder: Napier grasses, Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Khadik (Celtis australis)

technologies_5243 - ອິນເດຍ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 92%

1. ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ

1.2 ຂໍ້ມູນ ການຕິດຕໍ່ພົວພັນ ຂອງບຸກຄົນທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ແລະ ສະຖາບັນ ທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນການປະເມີນເອກກະສານ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ບັນດາຜູ້ຕອບແບບສອບຖາມທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ()


Joshi Jagdamba Prashad

Sarpanch (Head) of Nakina Community Forest (Van Panchayat)



Pandey Basant Ballabh

Cucumber Farmer, Nakina Village


ຊື່ໂຄງການ ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ/ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Onsite and Offsite Benefits of SLM
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - ເນໂປ
ຊື່ສະຖາບັນ (ຫຼາຍສະຖາບັນ) ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ / ປະເມີນ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development (G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development) - ອິນເດຍ

1.3 ເງື່ອນໄຂ ກ່ຽວກັບ ການນໍາໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນເອກະສານ ທີ່ສ້າງຂື້ນ ໂດຍຜ່ານ ອົງການພາບລວມຂອງໂລກ ທາງດ້ານແນວທາງ ແລະ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການອານຸລັກ ທໍາມະຊາດ (WOCAT)

ຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ແລະ ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ທີ່ໃຫ້ຂໍ້ມູນ (ຫຼາຍ) ຍິນຍອມ ຕາມເງື່ອນໄຂ ໃນການນຳໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນ ເພື່ອສ້າງເປັນເອກກະສານຂອງ WOCAT:


1.4 ແຈ້ງການວ່າ ດ້ວຍຄວາມຍືນຍົງຂອງ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ດັ່ງກ່າວໄດ້ອະທິບາຍ ເຖິງບັນຫາ ກ່ຽວກັບ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນບໍ? ຖ້າບໍ່ດັ່ງນັ້ນ ມັນບໍ່ສາມາດ ຢັ້ງຢືນໄດ້ວ່າ ເປັນເຕັກໂນໂລຊີ ໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ? :



The land is suitable for afforestation and fodder nurseries. There are currently no signs of over exploitation with regards to natural resource use in the plantation area of the Nakina Forest.

1.5 ແບບສອບຖາມທີ່ອ້າງອີງເຖີງແນວທາງ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ (ໄດ້ເຮັດເປັນເອກະສານທີ່ໃຊ້ WOCAT)

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat

Community Forest Management in the Nakina Van Panchayat [ອິນເດຍ]

Van Panchayats or village forest councils are a impressive example of grassroots community management of natural resources, where a specific administrative unit is locally elected by community members who are responsible for the management of activities related to the forest.

  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ: Jaclyn Bandy
Naula Management and Conservation

Naula Management and Conservation [ອິນເດຍ]

Naulas are shallow, four-sided stepped wells designed to collect water from subterranean seepages or springs and are used to meet domestic water needs by the local communities. Naula management and conservation encompasses a range of activities that preserve their structure and function.

  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ: Jaclyn Bandy

2. ການອະທິບາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

2.1 ຄໍາອະທິບາຍສັ້ນຂອງ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ການກຳໜົດຄວາມໝາຍ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:

Natural assisted regeneration of broadleaved species, a small oak plantation and a fodder nursery have been established in the Nakina community forest (intervention area: 10 ha), supporting fodder tree species such as Banj Oak and Falyaat, as well as various subtropical temperate fodder grass species. This has improved the livelihood of the land-users by supporting the health and productivity of the forest, increasing the availability of fuel wood, fodder and groundwater for spring restoration.

2.2 ການອະທິບາຍ ລາຍລະອຽດ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ


1. The technology is applied in a natural environment and is located about 1km away from the settlement and the agriculture land of Nakina Village. The village has access to its own forest, which covers a geographical area of 114 hectare. Of this, 94 hectares come under the Village Forest Council, locally referred to as the Van Panchayat.

2. Characteristics of Technology:

a. Broadleaf species have been established over 7 hectares through natural assisted tree regeneration methods. These include Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis).

b. Nakina Van Panchayat has made an oak plantation site of 2 hectares in collaboration with G.B. Pant Research Institute.

c. A fodder nursery covering 1 hectare hosts a variety of subtropical (Napier: Pennisetum purpureum, Aus, Ginni) and temperate grasses (Guchhi, Dolni, Italian rye: Lolium multiflorum). It was established with the assistance of the NGOs Swati Gramodyog Sansthan and the Himalayan Sewa Samiti. Extraction of fodder leaves and timber are restricted and regulations managed by the Van Panchayat (community forest council).

-Increase trees and grasses to improve availability of fuel and fodder for community, as well as enrich biodiversity.
-Plantation is on a mountain slope (+25% slope), so it will help in preventing soil erosion and landslides.
-Improve soil and water conservation, prevention of surface run-off, support groundwater recharge and spring rejuvenation.

Major activities/Inputs needed to establish and maintain technology:
1. Activities for Assisted Natural Regeneration: protect and facilitate the growth of parent trees inherently present in the area and their regenerations, rather than establishment of entire plantation

2.Activities for the oak plantation: Selection and seed provision of appropriate tree species, clearing of vegetation and preparation of forest top soil, leveling of soil, digging of plantation pits, sowing weeding, watering, occasional pruning, propagation of trees from cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing for protection from fire.

3. Activities for fodder nursery:- Selection and seed provision of appropriate grass species and polypot materials, preparation of seedbeds; clearing of vegetation, removal of stones/large roots, ploughing/hoeing, mixing sand and compost on areas with poor soil, sowing seeds pre-monsoon, weeding and watering seedlings, propagation from seed or root cuttings, dead sapling replacement, establishment of barrier/fencing protection from fire.

•Restores productivity and fodder/fuelwood availability
•Ecosystem stability
•Enhancement of biological diversity to degraded lands.
•Control landslide and soil erosion
•Control forest fire.
•Maintain wildlife habitat
•Increase livelihood of local people, decrease time spent collecting fodder
•Storage carbon on the forest help to reduce the CO2 in the atmosphere.

This technology is properly functioning in the implementation area and local people have received many benefits from sustainable managing their natural resources rather than receiving incentives for institutional support, local people of the Nakina village are strongly active to protect the forest with their own coordination.

1.Improve wildlife habitat, which may increase human wildlife conflicts as it is near to agriculture land and settlements.
2.Require regular maintenance activities, which require organization within the community and can increase periodic workload depending on level of participation

2.3 ຮູບພາບຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

2.5 ປະເທດ / ເຂດ / ສະຖານທີ່ບ່ອນທີ່ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຮັບການນໍາໃຊ້ ແລະ ທີ່ຖືກປົກຄຸມດ້ວຍການປະເມີນຜົນ



ພາກພື້ນ / ລັດ / ແຂວງ:



Nakina Village, Pithoragarh Bloc

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ການແຜ່ຂະຫຍາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ນໍາໃຊ້ໃນຈຸດສະເພາະ / ແນໃສ່ນໍາໃຊ້ໃນພື້ນທີ່ຂະໜາດນ້ອຍ
ສ່ວນຫຼາຍສະຖານທີ່ຕັ້ງຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແມ່ນ ຢູ່ໃນເຂດພື້ນທີ່ສະຫງວນບໍ?


ຖ້າແມ່ນ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest)

2.6 ວັນທີໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ຖ້າຫາກວ່າ ບໍ່ຮູ້ຈັກ ປີທີ່ຊັດເຈນ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ປະມານ ວັນທີເອົາ:
  • 10-50 ປີ ຜ່ານມາ

2.7 ການນໍາສະເໜີ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດຄືແນວໃດ?
  • ໂດຍຜ່ານນະວັດຕະກໍາຄິດຄົ້ນຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ
  • ໂດຍຜ່ານໂຄງການ / ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອຈາກພາຍນອກ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ (ປະເພດ ໂຄງການ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ):

After the Nakina Van Panchyat was established in 1952 they already had experience working on plantations. During the British-era, timber extraction, pine plantations and prescribed fire exploded in the region. Much of the oak forests were reverted to pine, and many broadleaved species like were overexploited for construction, fuelwood, and fodder. Nakina's self-initiated plantation efforts were done in hopes to restore it to its original state.

Other supporting organizations and institutions have recognized the need for further support for the following reasons: demand for fuel and fodder is still insufficient during the dry season, water scarcity has become a prevalent issue, and biological interventions are necessary to improve and sustain ecosystem services. Due to the expressed interest and dedication of the community, these projects have been accomplished.

3. ການໃຈ້ແຍກ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໃນການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

3.1 ຈຸດປະສົງຫຼັກ (ຫຼາຍ) ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • ປັບປຸງ ການຜະລິດ
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ, ປ້ອງກັນ, ຟື້ນຟູ ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ
  • ການອະນຸລັກ ລະບົບນິເວດ
  • ປົກປັກຮັກສານໍ້າ / ນໍ້າພື້ນທີ່ - ປະສົມປະສານກັບ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີອື່ນໆ
  • ປົກປັກຮັກສາ / ການປັບປຸງຊີວະນາໆພັນ
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນຄວາມສ່ຽງ ທາງໄພພິບັດທໍາມະຊາດ
  • ປັບຕົວຕໍ່ກັບການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ / ທີ່ຮ້າຍແຮງ ແລະ ຜົນກະທົບ
  • ສ້າງຜົນກະທົບ ທາງເສດຖະກິດ ທີ່ເປັນປະໂຫຍດ

3.2 ປະເພດການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃນປະຈຸບັນ() ທີ່ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ໄດ້ຖືກນໍາໃຊ້

ການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ປະສົມພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່ດຽວກັນ:




ທົ່ງຫຍ້າລ້ຽງສັດແບບສຸມ / ການຜະລິດອາຫານສັດ:
  • ຕັດຫຍ້າ ແລະ ຂົນຫຍ້າ / ບໍ່ມີທົ່ງຫຍ້າທໍາມະຊາດ
  • ສັດໃຫ່ຍ-ງົວພັນນົມ
  • ແບ້
ແມ່ນການເຝືກຄຸ້ມຄອງ ການປູກພືດປະສົມປະສານ ກັບການລ້ຽງສັດບໍ່?


ຖ້າແມ່ນ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Compost was made from manure of livestock for plantation and fodder nursery preparation.

ຜະລິດຕະພັນ ແລະ ການບໍລິການ:
  • ຊີ້ນ
  • ນ້ຳນົມ
ປ່າໄມ້ / ປ່າ

ປ່າໄມ້ / ປ່າ

  • (ເຄິ່ງ) ປ່າໄມ້ທໍາມະຊາດ / ປ່າປູກໄມ້
  • ການປູກຕົ້ນໄມ້, ການປູກປ່າ
(ເຄີ່ງ) ປ່າທໍາມະຊາດ / ປ່າປູກ: ລະບຸປະເພດການຄຸ້ມຄອງ:
  • ການຄັດເລືອກຕັດ
ປະເພດ ( ເຄີ່ງ ) ປ່າທຳມະຊາດ:
  • ພືດຜັກທຳມະຊາດ ໃກ້ປ່າແຫ້ງເຂດຮ້ອນ
ການປູກຕົ້ນໄມ້, ປູກປ່າ: ລະບຸ ຕົ້ນກຳເນີດ ແລະ ອົງປະກອບ ຂອງສາຍພັນ:
  • ແນວພັນປະສົມ
ປະເພດຕົ້ນໄມ້, ປ່າທີ່ປູກ:
  • ການປູກໄມ້ໃກ້ປ່າແຫ້ງເຂດຮ້ອນ - ພືດໃບໃຫ່ຍ
  • Banj Oak (Quercus leucotricophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia)
ຕົ້ນໄມ້ທີ່ຖືກລະບຸຢູ່ຂ້າງເທິງ ເປັນປ່າຜັດປ່ຽນໃບ ຫລື ປ່າດົງດິບ?
  • ການປ່ຽນໃບ
ຜົນຜະລິດ ແລະ ການບໍລິການ:
  • ເຄື່ອງປ່າຂອງດົງ
  • ໄມ້ຟືນ
  • ຜະລິດຕະພັນ ປ່າໄມ້ອື່ນໆ
  • ທົ່ງຫຍ້າ
  • ການອະນຸລັກທໍາມະຊາດ / ການປ້ອງກັນ

3.3 ການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີການປ່ຽນແປງຍ້ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງທົດລອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແມ່ນບໍ່?

ການນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີການປ່ຽນແປງຍ້ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງທົດລອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແມ່ນບໍ່?
  • ບໍ່ (ຕໍ່ເໜືອງກັບ ຄຳຖາມ 3.4)

3.4 ການສະໜອງນ້ຳ

ການສະໜອງນໍ້າ ໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ:
  • ນໍ້າຝົນ

3.5 ການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ຢູ່ໃນກຸ່ມການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

  • ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ຊັບພະຍາກອນ ປ່າໄມ້ ທຳມະຊາດ ແລະ ເຄີ່ງທຳມະຊາດ
  • ການຄຸ້ມຄອງການປູກປ່າ
  • ການປັບປຸງດິນ / ພືດຄຸມດິນ

3.6 ມາດຕະການ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ ປະກອບດ້ວຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານພືດພັນ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານພືດພັນ

  • V1: ເປັນໄມ້ຢືນຕົ້ນ ແລະ ການປົກຫຸ້ມຂອງໄມ້ພຸ່ມ
  • V2: ຫຍ້າ ແລະ ພືດສະໝູນໄພທີ່ເປັນໄມ້ຢືນຕົ້ນ
  • V3: ການຈັດການປູກພືດ
  • V4: ການປູກທົດແທນ / ກຳຈັດສາຍພັນ ທີ່ຮຸກຮາມ
  • V5: ອື່ນໆ
ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ

ມາດຕະການ ທາງດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ

  • M1: ການປ່ຽນແປງ ປະເພດ ການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ
  • M2: ການປ່ຽນແປງ ການຈັດການຄຸ້ມຄອງ / ລະດັບຄວາມໜາແໜ້ນ
  • M3: ອີງຕາມສະພາບແວດລ້ອມ ທາງທຳມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ
  • M5: ການຄວບຄຸມ / ການປ່ຽນແປງຂອງອົງປະກອບຂອງຊະນິດ

3.7 ປະເພດດິນເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຫຼັກທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ດິນເຊາະເຈື່ອນ ໂດຍນໍ້າ

ດິນເຊາະເຈື່ອນ ໂດຍນໍ້າ

  • Wt: ການສູນເສຍຊັ້ນໜ້າດິນ / ການເຊາະເຈື່ອນຜິວໜ້າດິນ
  • Wg: ການເຊາະເຈື່ອນຮ່ອງນ້ຳ / ຫ້ວຍ
  • Wm: ການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍອິນຊີວັດຖຸ / ດິນເຈື່ອນ
  • Wo: ຜົນກະທົບ ຂອງການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ພາຍນອກ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງເຄມີ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງເຄມີ

  • Cn: ຄວາມອຸດົມສົມບູນ ລົດໜ້ອຍຖອຍລົງ ແລະ ສານອິນຊີວັດຖຸລົດລົງ (ບໍ່ແມ່ນສາເຫດມາຈາກການເຊາະເຈື່ອນ)
  • Ca: ຄວາມເປັນກົດ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງດິນ ທາງກາຍະພາບ

  • Pc: ການອັດແໜ້ນ
  • Pk: ການບັນເທົາ ແລະ ການປົກຄຸມຂອງເປືອກໂລກ
  • Pi: ເນື້ອດິນ ທີ່ມີຂະໜາດນ້ອຍຫຼາຍ
  • Pu: ການສູນເສຍ ການທໍາງານ ຂອງຊີວະພາບຜົນຜະລິດ ເນື່ອງຈາກການກິດຈະກໍາອື່ນໆ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ທາງຊີວະພາບ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ທາງຊີວະພາບ

  • Bc: ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນການປົກຫຸ້ມຂອງພືດ
  • Bh: ການສູນເສຍ ທີ່ຢູ່ອາໃສ ຂອງສິ່ງທີ່ມີຊິວິດ
  • Bq: ປະລິມານ / ອິນຊີວັດຖຸຫຼຸດລົງ
  • Bf: ຜົນກະທົບ ຄວາມເສຍຫາຍ ຈາກໄຟໄໝ້
  • Bs: ຄຸນນະພາບ / ການອັດແໜ້ນ ຂອງສາຍພັນຫຼຸດລົງ
  • Bl: ການສູນເສຍ ຈຸລິນຊີໃນດິນ
  • Bp: ສັດຕູພືດ ແລະ ພະຍາດເພີ່ມຂື້ນ, ສູນເສຍນັກລ່າ ແມງໄມ້ທີ່ໃຊ້ປາບສັດຕູພືດ ແລະ ພະຍາດຂອງພືດ
ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມ ຂອງນໍ້າ

  • Ha: ສະພາບແຫ້ງແລ້ງ
  • Hs: ການປ່ຽນແປງ ປະລິມານ ນໍ້າໜ້າດິນ
  • Hg: ການປ່ຽນແປງ ລະດັບນ້ຳໃຕ້ດິນ ຫຼື ນ້ຳບາດານ
  • Hp: ຄຸນນະພາບ ຂອງນ້ຳຊັ້ນໜ້າດິນຫຼຸດລົງ
  • Hq: ຄຸນນະພາບ ຂອງນ້ຳໃຕ້ດິນຫຼຸດລົງ

3.8 ການປ້ອງກັນ, ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ, ຫຼືການຟື້ນຟູຂອງການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເປົ້າໝາຍ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ພົວພັນ ກັບຄວາມເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ:
  • ຫຼຸດຜ່ອນການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ
  • ການຟື້ນຟູ / ຟື້ນຟູດິນທີ່ຊຸດໂຊມ

4. ຂໍ້ກໍາໜົດ, ກິດຈະກໍາການປະຕິບັດ, ວັດຖຸດິບ, ແລະຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

4.1 ເຕັກນິກ ໃນການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is not less than 2x2 m, about 2,000 Quercus saplings were planted.

Nakina Broadleaf Plantation: 7 Hectare, pits of (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) were dug along contour lines, spacing of pits is no less that 2x2 m, about 15,000 trees have been planted and the forest is being continually managed in the area.

Species: Banj Oak (Quercus leucotrichophora), Falyaat (Quercus glauca), Koeraal (Bauhinia verigata), Bhimal (Grewia optiva), Padam Paaya (Prunus cerasoides), Haradh (Terminalia chebula), Reetha (Sapindus Mukorossi), Utees (Alnus napalensis), Ainyar (Lyonia ovalifolia), Khadik (Celtis australis)

Fuelwood cutting (lopping), fodder collection, and selective clear cutting for Quercus leucotrichophora and other broadleaved species is done between Nov- April.

Fodder Nursery: 20 Quintals (20,000 kg) of various grassroot slips over 1 Hectare. This provides +175 tonnes/year. (Subtropicals species: napier, aus, ginni, Temperate species: guchhi, dolni, italian rye)

Planting: Grasses are planted during the months of June-July at the advent of rainy season, about 10 cm deep vertically and at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm apart.

Propagation: grasses forms clumps during its growth period. The clump when broken gives a number of small units known as slips, which are the units of propagation and on planting, they establish as individual plants. While preparing the slips for planting, fibrous roots and leaves are be trimmed off. Cuttings with 2 nodes from the middle portion of moderately matured stems (3 – 4 months old) were planted in a slanting position at one side of the ridges with one node buried in the soil. The underground node develops roots and shoots while the upper node shoots only. The soil around the stem is pressed tightly. Farm yard manure is applied after harvest (application rate varies; estimation is 5-8 tonnes). Annually about 6 to 8 cuts are possible.

Oak Nursery: 0.25 ha. The nursery bed is rectangular and measures about 100m x 25 m. The seedlings are uprooted by hand from a seedbed and transplanted (bare-root transplanting). The nursery is on a gently sloping land (23%). Seedlings with poor lateral root development are culled out.

Oak Plantation Alternative:
Acorns are collected and put in water for 24 hours. Acorns that sink are immediately sown in a well tilled seedbed 2-5 cm deep, 15 cm from each other and covered with a thin layer of firm soil. Beds are mulched with straw or leaves. However, not every acorn will germinate and animal predation of acorns can be an issue. In general, probability of success is lower than with seedlings.


Jaclyn Bandy



ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

Google Map of Plantations and Fodder Nursery locations


Jaclyn Bandy



ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

Project Budget with Nakina Village and NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti: Fodder Nursery, 1 hectare and Assisted Natural Regeneration 97 Hectares)

(Citation: Detailed Project Report: Natural Resource Based Livelihood Project in the Gorang Ghati Cluster, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti, Submitted to: Sir Ratan Tata Trust (SRTT) Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງເຕັກນິກ (ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ ກັບການແຕ້ມແຜນວາດ ທາງດ້ານເຕັກນີກ):

Project Budget for Afforestation of Nakina Community Forest and G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development: Broadleaf Plantation (2 hectares)

(Citation: Forest Works Manual, 2015 Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)


J Bandy

4.2 ຂໍ້ມູນທົ່ວໄປກ່ຽວກັບການຄິດໄລ່ປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າໃນການຜະລິດ ແລະ ມູນຄ່າອື່ນໆ

ລະບຸ ວິທີການ ຄຳໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ແລະ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າ ທີ່ໄດ້ຄິດໄລ່:
  • ຕໍ່ພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຂະໜາດ ແລະ ເນື້ອທີ່:

Afforested Community Forest: 7 hectares, G.B. Pant Plantation: 2 hectares, Fodder Nursery: 1 hectare

ສະກຸນເງິນອື່ນໆ / ປະເທດອື່ນໆ (ລະບຸ):


ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ, ໃຫ້ລະບຸອັດຕາແລກປ່ຽນຈາກ USD ເປັນສະກຸນເງິນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ (ເຊັ່ນ: 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


ລະບຸ ຄ່າຈ້າງ ຄ່າແຮງງານສະເລ່ຍ ຕໍ່ ວັນ:

400 INR

4.3 ການສ້າງຕັ້ງກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ Timing (season)
1. Plantations: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
2. Earth work for leveling, Digging pits (30 cm X 30cm X 45cm) along contour lines, spacing of pits no less that 2x2 m, filling of pits with soil/manure mixture Early June
3. Planting of saplings: roots of the plants kept straight and the plant put straight in vertical position; done by digging with the help of a stick or small crow bar Early July
4. Note: Species like Akhrot, Angu, Maple, Pangar, Poplar, Salix, Utis etc. are planted in winter months January/February
5. Dead, dying or dry plants are replaced within 15 days of completion of planting work Mid June
6. Thanwalas (semicircular pit) about 15 cm deep, 25-30 cm apart from the plant were dug for rainwater retention/infiltration Mid June
7. Weeding after first significant rains Monsoon
8. Fodder Nursery: Survey, demarcation, clearance of shrubs, bushes, Lantana (invasive species) Pre-monsoon
9. Plowing/hoeing land, collection and soil, sand, manure preparation (4:2:1 ratio) and seedbed preparation Pre-monsoon
10. Planting of each cane/rootsplit in holes 15-30 cm deep, with a spacing of 0.5m x 0.5m Pre-monsoon
11. Cutting and Harvesting

Oak Plantation: Seeds are collected from dominant oak trees that exhibit superior phenotypic traits such as tall straight trunks, good diameter growth rates and well-developed crowns (branches/leaves)

4.4 ຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ປັດໄຈຂາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນໃນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ແຮງງານ Plantation Community Manual labour person-days 400.0 400.0 160000.0 50.0
ແຮງງານ Skilled labour (advisor, experts) person-days 7.0 2000.0 14000.0
ແຮງງານ Fodder Nursery Raising Total Cost 1.0 25000.0 25000.0 25.0
ອຸປະກອນ Axe, Crow bar, Wheel barrow pieces 10.0 1500.0 15000.0 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Digging forks, Hammers, Hoes, Spade pieces 10.0 1500.0 15000.0 100.0
ອຸປະກອນ Scissors, Pruning knives/shears, Budding and Grafting Knives/Tape pieces 10.0 700.0 7000.0 50.0
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Fodder Grass/20 Quintals of Grassroot slips Total Cost 1.0 45000.0 45000.0 50.0
ວັດສະດຸໃນການປູກ Plantation Material, 3.88 INR per Sapling x 1000 Sapling per hectare x 7 hectare Total Cost 1.0 27160.0 27160.0 50.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Soil/Water Conservation and Soil Fertility Measures: 5,500 INR per Hectare x 2 Total Cost 1.0 11000.0 11000.0 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Nakina Forest: Assisted Natural Regeneration preparation and composting Total Cost 1.0 2000.0 2000.0 100.0
ຝຸ່ນ ແລະ ຢາຊີວະພາບ Fodder Nursery composting Total Cost 1.0 1000.0 1000.0 100.0
ອື່ນໆ Plantation Transportation, Pitting, Planting: 6.9 INR per plant X 1000 sapling x 2 hectare Total Cost 1.0 13800.0 13800.0 50.0
ອື່ນໆ Fodder Nursery (Rootstock Purchase, Transportation) Total Cost 1.0 5500.0 5500.0 50.0
ອື່ນໆ Nakina Village: Assisted Natural Regeneration Activities in Planted Plots, 10,000 INR per hectare X 7 hectares x 3 years Total Cost 1.0 30000.0 30000.0 100.0
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 371460.0
ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍທັງໝົດ ສຳລັບການສ້າງຕັ້ງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເປັນສະກຸນເງີນໂດລາ 5306.57
ຖ້າຫາກຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ນຳໃຊ້ມູນຄ່າຕ່ຳກວ່າ 100% ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ແມ່ນໃຜເປັນຜູ້ຊ່ວຍ ໃນລາຍຈ່າຍທີ່ເຫຼືອ:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, G.B. Pant, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


For G.B. Pant Plantation and Nakina Forest Plantation:
On average we estimated a maximum of 10 people worked on establishing the technology/day = 400 x 10 = 4000 (labor cost/day): 4,000 X 40 days = 160,000 INR Total Cost

Some of the community laborers were compensated for the initial phase of establishing the plantation with G.B. Pant Plantation, but for the Nakina Plantation most of the work was voluntary by the community over many years. Nakina Van Panchayat has a joint bank account (Almora Urban Cooperative Bank) with officials from the Forest Department. Money from the Forest Department/ JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) gets deposited there. A portion of this is used to compensate the village workers (~400 INR/day) .

NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (HSS) was involved in supporting the fodder nursery and some plantation support.

For the original project budget outline for the Fodder Nursery, please see the attached document in the Technical Drawing section from the NGO HSS.

For further details on the plantation budget, please see the tables in the Technical Drawing section from the Forest Works Manual/Schedule of rates for forest work in Uttarakhand.

4.5 ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ / ແຜນຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ກິດຈະກໍາ

ກິດຈະກໍາ ໄລຍະເວລາ / ຄວາມຖີ່
1. Second weeding done in September, followed by a third weeding after the winter rains. Post-monsoon
2. A Chowkidar (forest watch guard) is deputed for five years in the plantation area to look after it Post-planting
3. Periodical weeding and removal of grasses suppressing the plants, maintenance and repair of inspection paths Year round
4. Fire Control: Keeping regular watch over the plantation area during the fire season, cleaning of the outer periphery of the plantation area in two meter width Dry season
5. Collective help and co-operation with the villagers in the protection of the plantation; checks on fodder extraction/allowance, prevention of trespassers (human/wildlife) Year round
6. During the second year, dead plants are replaced by planting fresh saplings (ca. 20%) Onset of monsoon
7. Fodder grasses: propagation from cuttings or from root slips
8. Fodder Grasses: Harvesting of grasses every 6-8 weeks, maintaining a stubble height of 5-10 cm from the ground level at each harvest to avoids weakening of root system

4.6 ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ແລະ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າທີ່ຈໍາເປັນສໍາລັບການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາກິດຈະກໍາ / ແຜນປະຕິບັດ (ຕໍ່ປີ)

ລະບຸ ປັດໃຈ ນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລີດ ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ປະລິມານ ຕົ້ນທຶນ ຕໍ່ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ຂອງປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດ % ຂອງຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ຈ່າຍເອງ
ແຮງງານ Maintenance of nursery Total Cost/Year 1.0 3000.0 3000.0 25.0
ແຮງງານ Maintenance of plantations Total Cost/Year 1.0 4000.0 4000.0 25.0
ຕົ້ນທຶນທັງໝົດ ທີ່ໃຊ້ໃນການບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ 7000.0
ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍທັງໝົດ ສຳລັບການບົວລະບັດຮກສາເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເປັນສະກຸນເງີນໂດລາ 100.0
ຖ້າຫາກຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ນຳໃຊ້ມູນຄ່າຕ່ຳກວ່າ 100% ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ແມ່ນໃຜເປັນຜູ້ຊ່ວຍ ໃນລາຍຈ່າຍທີ່ເຫຼືອ:

UTFD (Forest Department): funds mobilized by the MNEGRA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), JICA, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti (Sir Ratan Tata Trust's Contribution)


Please see estimated maintenance costs attached in references.

In general, the land users bear the labor costs of maintenance, but they received inputs and other support to maintain the fodder nursery and plantations for a few years (2-3) after the projects were executed. Otherwise, remaining funds in the joint bank account with Nakina Van Panchayat and UTFD/JICA are accessed for necessary supplies and labor compensation.

4.7 ປັດໄຈ ທີ່ສໍາຄັນ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

ໃຫ້ອະທິບາຍ ປັດໃຈ ທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບ ຕໍ່ຕົ້ນທຶນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ:

-Length and amount of available funding, as plantation projects require substantial investment and long term care.

-Damage or survival rate of the saplings/trees/fodder species can be severely affected by climatic, anthropogenic, or wildlife disturbances. The success and cost of a plantation and nursery project can vary widely depending on size, topographic characteristics, access, labor availability and overall appropriateness of site selection.

5. ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມທໍາມະຊາດ ແລະ ມະນຸດ

5.1 ອາກາດ

  • < 250 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 251-500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 501-750 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 751-1,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,001-1,500 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 1,501-2,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 2,001-3,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • 3,001-4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
  • > 4,000 ມີລິແມັດ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸສະເລ່ຍ ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນຕົກປະຈໍາປີ ເປັນມິນລິແມັດ (ຖ້າຫາກຮູ້ຈັກ):


ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ / ຄວາມເຫັນກ່ຽວກັບ ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນ:

Monsoon- mid-June to mid-September; July and August are the rainiest months and the temperature is warm and moist; between 70-85% of the annual precipitation occurs in the monsoon season

a. Winter or Cold weather (mid Dec. - mid March)
b. Summer or hot weather (mid March - mid June)
c. Season of general rains (South - West monsoon season)
d. Season of retreating monsoon (mid September to mid November)

ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ຊື່ສະຖານີ ອຸຕຸນິຍົມ ເພື່ອເປັນຂໍ້ມູນອ້າງອີງ:

India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Centre Dehradun

  • ເຄີ່ງຄວາມຊຸ່ມ

The overall climatic condition in the Pithoragarh district is governed by the southwest monsoon. It has a sub-tropical to temperate climate, with three pronounced seasons; summer, winter, and monsoon. The hilly terrain of the Himalayan region has snow cover and is cold during winter with snowfall normally occurring during the months of December to March.

Temperature- The temperature ranges from 0°C to 10°C in winter and from 8°C to 33°C in summer season. However, there is no meteorological observatory in the district. The account of the climate is based mainly on the records of the observations in the neighboring districts where similar meteorological conditions prevail. Variations in temperature are considerable from place to place and depend upon elevation as well as aspect. As the insolation is intense at high altitudes, in summer temperatures are considerably higher in the open than in the shade.

5.2 ພູມິປະເທດ

ຄ່າສະເລ່ຍ ຄວາມຄ້ອຍຊັນ:
  • ພື້ນທີ່ຮາບພຽງ (0-2%)
  • ອ່ອນ (3-5 %)
  • ປານກາງ (6-10 %)
  • ມ້ວນ (11-15 %)
  • ເນີນ(16-30%)
  • ໍຊັນ (31-60%)
  • ຊັນຫຼາຍ (>60%)
  • ພູພຽງ / ທົ່ງພຽງ
  • ສັນພູ
  • ເປີ້ນພູ
  • ເນີນພູ
  • ຕີນພູ
  • ຮ່ອມພູ
  • 0-100 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 101-500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 ແມັດ a.s.l.
ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ທີ່ໄດ້ຖືກນຳໃຊ້:
  • ລັກສະນະກີ່ວ
ຄຳເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ພູມີປະເທດ:

Altitude of evaluated sites: 1850-1990m
Slope: 23-30%

5.3 ດິນ

ຄວາມເລິກ ຂອງດິນສະເລ່ຍ:
  • ຕື້ນຫຼາຍ (0-20 ຊັງຕີແມັດ)
  • ຕື້ນ (21-50 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລີກປານກາງ (51-80 ຊຕມ)
  • ເລິກ (81-120 ຊມ)
  • ເລິກຫຼາຍ (> 120 cm)
ເນື້ອດິນ (ໜ້າດິນ):
  • ຫຍາບ / ເບົາ (ດິນຊາຍ)
  • ປານກາງ (ດິນໜຽວ, ດິນໂຄນ)
ເນື້ອດິນ (ເລິກຈາກໜ້າດິນ ລົງໄປຫຼາຍກວ່າ 20 ຊັງຕິແມັດ):
  • ປານກາງ (ດິນໜຽວ, ດິນໂຄນ)
ຊັ້ນອິນຊີວັດຖຸ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:
  • ປານກາງ (1-3 %)
  • ຕໍາ່ (<1 %)
ຖ້າເປັນໄປໄດ້ ແມ່ນໃຫ້ຕິດຄັດ ການພັນລະນາດິນ ຫຼື ຂໍ້ມູນສະເພາະຂອງດິນ, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ປະເພດຂອງດິນ, ຄ່າຄວາມເປັນກົດ / ເປັນດ່າງຂອງດິນ, ສານອາຫານ,​ ດິນເຄັມ ແລະ ອື່ນໆ.

Mountain/hill soils are a collective name given to various types of soils found under the following conditions :
-under sub-tropical, temperate and sub-alpine conditions
-under various forest types

Characteristics: very thin, fertile, and may be less than a centimeter deep on steep slopes; they are mixed with pebbles, shingles (a mass of small rounded pebbles), and gravels; they have a low-medium water holding capacity. Angular and subangular fragments of parent rock may be found mixed with the lower layers of the mountain and hill soils.

Texture: varies from loamy to sandy loam.
Soil Reaction: ranges from acidic to neutral (pH 4.6 to 6.5)
Organic Matter content: 1-5%

Ferrugenous red roils are found in this district and are well developed over Himalayan rocks (quartzite, biotite schist, amphibolite schist). They are free of carbonates and deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, light textured, porous, and friable (brittle/crumbly). The soil depth ranges from about 10cm-75 cm. These soils may be grouped into two on basis of morphology

1. Red earths- loose, friable topsoil rich in secondary concretions (hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil)
2. Red loam- argillaceous soils having a blocky structure (argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components, e.g. argillaceous limestones are limestones consisting predominantly of calcium carbonate, but including 10-40% of clay minerals)

Brown soil: is found particularly under dense broadleaved temperate and sub-alpine forests. There occurs a thick layer of humus on the forest floor (made of decomposed leaves, branches, twigs) and the topsoil is extremely rich in humus

Podsolic Soil: soil that has developed in humid/temperate conditions usually under coniferous forests (e.g. deodar, blue pine, fir, spruce) over quartzite, granites, schists and gneiss.

(Citation: Kumaun: The Land and the People, Sharad Singh Negi (1993)

5.4 ມີນໍ້າ ແລະ ຄຸນນະພາບ

ລະດັບ ນໍ້າໃຕ້ດິນ:

5-50 ແມັດ

ການມີນໍ້າ ເທິງໜ້າດິນ:


ຄຸນນະພາບນໍ້າ (ບໍ່ມີການບໍາບັດ):


ຄຸນນະພາບນ້ຳ ໝາຍເຖີງ:


ມີບັນຫາ ກ່ຽວກັບນໍ້າເຄັມບໍ່?


ເກີດມີນໍ້າຖ້ວມ ໃນພື້ນທີ່ບໍ່?


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ ແລະ ຂໍ້ກໍານົດ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ກ່ຽວກັບ ຄຸນນະພາບ ແລະ ປະລິມານ ຂອງນ້ຳ:

Quantity: Water crisis has been a perennial problem in both the rural and urban areas of the Pithoragarh district
There is scarcity of safe drinking water of the villages in the study area. Hand pumps are often not functioning, pipe-water schemes are unreliable and the spring discharges have reduced during the dry season. Hand-pumped water often has a high iron content and bitter taste. Poor quality of groundwater in some of the naulas is mainly due to misuse and/or disuse of the structures.

A block-district groundwater resource estimation could not be carried out as the area is hilly (with slope >20%) and in major part aquifers are small, isolated bodies, and groundwater abstraction is done mainly through hand pumps and springs with small discharges.

However, we collected some physicochemical parameters that indicate the water (sourced from springs) is of good quality:

Water Quality Parameters of Springs:
pH: 6.29-8.18
Temp: 19.0-23.5 ºC
Electrical Conductivity: 109-504 µmsiemens
Total Dissolved Solids: 75-385 ppm

5.5 ຊີວະນາໆພັນ

ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງສາຍພັນ:
  • ປານກາງ
ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງດ້ານ ທີ່ຢູ່ອາໃສ ຂອງສິ່ງທີ່ມີຊີວິດ:
  • ປານກາງ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ ແລະ ລັກສະນະສະເພາະ ເພີ່ມເຕີມກ່ຽວກັບ ຊີວະນາໆພັນ:

Uttarakhand has more than 7000 species of medicinal plants and 500 species of fauna. Floral diversity contributes 31% of total floral density of India. Fauna contributes just 1.58% of the total faunal density of the country. There are 119 endemic species of flowering plants in the state that exhibited 2.35% endemism and 35 faunal endemic species. Because it lies at the juncture of India, Nepal and the Tibeten Autononmous region, there often cases of poaching and smuggling of wildlife contrabands, including bear bile, musk pods and leopard skins through the borders. Yarsa Gumba Ophiocordyceps sinensis, commonly known as Caterpillar Fungus, is also illegally traded transboundary in the region, together with various plant species. Due to anthropogenic impacts, changes is soil quality, and climatic elements, the biodiversity of our study site is not as high as in other areas of the Pithoragarh district.

Citation: Sundriyal, M. & Sharma, B. (2016). Status of Biodiversity in Central Himalaya, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4( 2), 37-43.

5.6 ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ທີ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຢູ່ປະຈຳ ຫຼື ເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຕະຫຼອດ:
  • ບໍ່ເຄື່ອນໄຫວ
ລະບົບ ການຕະຫຼາດ ແລະ ຜົນຜະລິດ:
  • ກຸ້ມຕົນເອງ (ພໍພຽງ)
  • ປະສົມປົນເປ( ກຸ້ມຕົນເອງ/ເປັນສິນຄ້າ)
ລາຍຮັບ ທີ່ບໍ່ໄດ້ມາຈາກ ການຜະລິດ ກະສິກໍາ:
  • 10-50 % ຂອງລາຍຮັບທັງໝົດ
  • > 50 % ຂອງລາຍຮັບທັງໝົດ
  • ທຸກຍາກ
ບຸກຄົນ ຫຼື ກຸ່ມ:
  • ກຸ່ມ / ຊຸມຊົນ
ລະດັບ ການຫັນເປັນກົນຈັກ:
  • ການໃຊ້ແຮງງານຄົນ
  • ຜູ້ຍິງ
  • ຜູ້ຊາຍ
ອາຍຸ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:
  • ຊາວໜຸ່ມ
  • ໄວ​ກາງ​ຄົນ
  • ຜູ້ສູງອາຍຸ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ຄຸນລັກສະນະ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:

With recent development in Pithoragarh, an influx of funds coming from outside sources has caused a decline in the importance of agriculture production, which in now marginalized, based on female labour, and mainly conducted for subsistence with little surplus to sell. High caste men do not work in cultivation at all, and male tasks such as ploughing are performed by the Scheduled Caste.

Although most women are still cultivating, their work has lost economic importance. For most families, the produce does not cover the needs of the household and surplus must be bought from the market. Many of the terraces that were formerly fruit orchards (mainly citrus) have been completely abandoned. Farming is less intensive and landholdings are small and fragmented. The main crops are wheat, millet, and pulses, but yields are low as the land is not irrigated. Less livestock (cows, goats, buffalo) is kept because of the labor involved. Very little capital is returned to farming. Crops produced for the markets in the plains are replacing traditional crops to sustain the household.

With exposure to the“Modern” lifestyle, new values have also been accepted. Two children are the norm (the ideal being one son and one daughter, but at least one son in a must). Although access to education is quite good, it does not seem to result in working careers for women.

5.7 ເນື້ອທີ່ສະເລ່ຍຂອງດິນ ທີ່ຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃຊ້ເຮັດເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • <0.5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 0.5-1 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1-2 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 2-5 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 5-15 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 15-50 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 50-100 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 100-500 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 500-1,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • 1,000-10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
  • > 10,000 ເຮັກຕາ
ຖືໄດ້ວ່າ ເປັນຂະໜາດນ້ອຍ, ກາງ ຫຼື ໃຫຍ່ (ອີງຕາມເງື່ອນໄຂ ສະພາບຄວາມເປັນຈິງ ຂອງທ້ອງຖີ່ນ)? :
  • ຂະໜາດນ້ອຍ

5.8 ເຈົ້າຂອງທີ່ດິນ, ສິດໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ, ແລະ ສິດທິການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ

  • ຊຸມຊົນ / ບ້ານ
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ:
  • ຊຸມຊົນ (ທີ່ມີການຈັດຕັ້ງ)
ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ:
  • ເປີດກວ້າງ (ບໍ່ມີການຈັດຕັ້ງ)
  • ຊຸມຊົນ (ທີ່ມີການຈັດຕັ້ງ)
ສິດນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ແມ່ນ ອີງໃສ່ລະບົບກົດໝາຍແບບດັ້ງເດີມບໍ?


ລະບຸ ຊະນິດ:

Under the Kumaun Panchayat forest rules of 1931 (amended in 1976): A Van Panchayat, (community forest council), can be formed out of non-private land within the settlement boundaries of a village. Accordingly, all villagers are members of the VP upon their approval by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate under the state Revenue Department. The members are collectively referred to as the general body, which selects the management committee members through a democratic process.


5-9 elected members assume control of the forest and the extent of villager use. They additionally raise funds and mobilize the village to protect and support sustainable land use. Presently 12,089 Van Panchayats are entrusted with the management of over 5,449.64 km2 of forests.

5.9 ການເຂົ້າເຖິງການບໍລິການ ແລະ ພື້ນຖານໂຄງລ່າງ

  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ດ້ານວິຊາການ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການຈ້າງງານ (ຕົວຢ່າງ, ການເຮັດກິດຈະກໍາອື່ນ ທີ່ບໍ່ແມ່ນ ການຜະລິດກະສິກໍາ):
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ຖະໜົນຫົນທາງ ແລະ ການຂົນສົ່ງ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການດື່ມນໍ້າ ແລະ ສຸຂາພິບານ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ
ການ​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ​ ທາງ​ດ້ານ​ການ​ເງິນ:
  • ທຸກຍາກ
  • ປານກາງ
  • ດີ

The situation of infrastructure is difficult and inconsistent in the hill regions because of the terrain. The major infrastructural issues are drinking water and irrigation facilities, electricity, transportation and communication facilities and social infrastructure (housing and education). As for financial services, only the State Bank of India (SBI) is active in the hill regions where it is trying to achieve the objective of 100% financial inclusion. Some villages mentioned buying into into agricultural insurance in the past, however this was a temporary enterprise and they were never compensated after extreme climatic events that occurred and damaged over 70% of their crop.

Though infrastructure and education has generally improved over the years, institutional and marketing networks in the region aimed at supporting hill-farmers are lacking.

6. ຜົນກະທົບ ແລະ ລາຍງານສະຫຼຸບ

6.1 ການສະແດງຜົນກະທົບ ພາຍໃນພື້ນທີ່ ທີ່ໄດ້ຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ




ປະລິມານ ກ່ອນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

2 ton/ha

ປະລີມານ ຫຼັງການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

30 ton/hectare







ປ່າໄມ້ / ຄຸນນະພາບປ່າໄມ້

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Tree lopping for fodder was decreased by 15%




ລາຍໄດ້ ແລະ ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ

ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍ ປັດໄຈນໍາເຂົ້າ ໃນການຜະລິດກະສິກໍາ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Decreased the amount of supplementary fodder required for livestock. The amount of grasses, fodder, and fuelwood has increased significantly.


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Less time spent collecting forest resources, as the area where the technology is near the village and supports fodder/fuelwood growth (broadleaf forest/oak nursery area)


ການຄໍ້າປະກັນ ສະບຽງອາຫານ / ກຸ້ມຢູ່ກຸ້ມກິນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Improved self sufficiency of village, as the technology has helped increase animal productivity (more fodder, better quality) and increased water availability.


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Water condition has improved and people spend less time spent collecting fodder in the forest.

ສິດທິ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ຫຼື ນໍ້າ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

There is less friction between the villages of Bhurimuni and Nakina. Nakina did not have to go ask for permission to access the Bhurimuni Naula for water during the dry season.

ກາລະໂອກາດ ທາງດ້ານວັດທະນະທໍາ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The improvements of forest resource security and resilience to disasters/climatic extremes have allowed the villagers have more free time to build up a communal gathering area for ceremonial events and festivals around the Vaishnavi Temple.

ໂອກາດ ໃນການພັກຜ່ອນຢ່ອນໃຈ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Recreation opportunities for villagers have increased. Particularly women, (some of whom are involved in a self help group and active Van Panchayat members), expressed that they saved approximately 1-2 hours/day in fodder collection time.

ສະຖາບັນ ການຈັດຕັ້ງຊຸມຊົນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The partnerships formed between land-users, the Nakina Van Panchayat, the Forest Department and external institutions are leading examples of necessary cooperation between all levels of governance for project harmonization.

ຄວາມຮູ້ກ່ຽວກັບ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ / ການເຊື່ອມໂຊມຂອງດິນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

People are taking forest management seriously and making innovative plans for further SLM interventions, whether it be community-initiated or with the help of external institutions/agencies.

ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ ຂໍ້ຂັດແຍ່ງ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Conflict has decreased in the village do to increased availability of resources. The overall morale of the village is better and less frantic due to an improvement in dodder, fuel and water provision. This has further enhanced cooperation for interventions that require participation and effort in the community forest.


ວົງຈອນນໍ້າ / ນໍ້າ


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The technologies improve water holding capacity of the soil by decreasing runoff velocity and improve overall water storage.

ການຂຸດຄົ້ນ / ການເກັບກັກນໍ້າ


ການໄຫຼ ຂອງນໍ້າໜ້າດິນ


ຊັ້ນນໍ້າໄຕ້ດິນ / ນໍ້າ





ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Soil moisture of common land was increased by about 15%




ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Trees and other vegetation has helped mitigate displacement of soil from upstream areas to the lowlands



ດິນເປັນຜົງ / ການຈັບໂຕຂອງດິນ ທີ່ມີຂະໜາດນ້ອຍຫຼາຍ ທີ່ມີການຈັບໂຕກັນເປັນກ້ອນ




ວົງຈອນ ຂອງສານອາຫານໃນດິນ


ອິນຊີວັດຖຸໃນດິນ / ຢູ່ລຸ່ມຊັ້ນດິນ C



ຊີວະນານາພັນ: ສັດ, ພືດ


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Vegetation growth and cover has improved due to more shade and water availability

ມວນຊີວະພາບ / ຢູ່ເທິງຊັ້ນດິນ C



ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Increased species diversity due to improved moisture availability, soil conditions and microclimate.




ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Provide more water and habitat for small animals/birds.


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Healthy afforested areas provide more water, habitat, and protection for microorganisms and insect species. They support native grasses and vegetation.

ຄວາມຫຼາກຫຼາຍ ທາງດ້ານທີ່ຢູ່ອາໃສ ຂອງສິ່ງທີ່ມີຊີວິດ

ການຫຼຸດຜ່ອນ ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກໄພພິບັດ ແລະ ອາກາດປ່ຽນແປງ

ການເຊາະເຈື່ອນຂອງດິນ / ຊາກສະລະຫະພັງ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Incidents of landslides decreased due to less surface flow velocity and soil destabilisation. Villagers also noted that there were that less displaced soil and sediment accumulation in the ravine that normally incurs damage from upstream debris flow in the monsoon season.

ຜົນກະທົບ ຂອງໄພແຫ້ງແລ້ງ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Drought impacts decreased due improved surface and subsurface hydrological functioning in the upper watershed catchment areas. This increased microwatershed/ springshed groundwater stores and enhanced stream and spring flows in the dry season.

ຜົນກະທົບ ຂອງລົມພາຍຸໄຊໂຄນ, ພາຍຸຝົນຕົກໜັກ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Erosion impacts from extreme rain storms is reduced by decreasing flow velocity

ການລະເຫີຍອາຍກາກບອນ ແລະ ອາຍຜິດເຮືອນແກ້ວ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Carbon storage is increased by the plantation. It has been previously studied that Uttarakhand Van Panchayat forests sequester carbon at the average rate of 3.5 t ha -1 yr-1. This varies depending on forest distribution, species and land management.

ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກໄຟໄໝ້

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

The forest intervention area is protected by the villagers from anthropogenic and wild fires, therefore the forest has rehabilitated more quickly and has a lower risk of burning due to improved green vegetation cover and less flammable pine needle accumulation. In the case of pine forests, pine needles are a major source of fuel for fire and the removal of buildup remains a major challenge for the land users.

ການປ່ຽນແປງ ອາກາດ ໃນວົງແຄບ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Because of the interventions, vegetation/biomass, soil cover and water availability has improved and created a more suitable microclimate for microorganisms, plants, animals and people. The microclimate has improved due to decreased surface temperatures from exposed, bare soil or ground that is covered with pine needles. This improved microclimate is visible, as it has additionally allowed a wider range of species (grasses, shrubs, wildflowers, insects, birds) to inhabit the intervention site.

6.2 ຜົນກະທົບທາງອ້ອມ ຈາກການນໍາໃຊ້ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Improved spring discharge in the peak dry season


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Bhind and Vaishnavi Naulas (springs) have improved discharge in the peak dry season. According to villagers, there was little to no water available in May/June, and since 10 years the flow has returned due to the plantation efforts combination with structural technologies.


ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

impact of flash flood is minimized

ການທັບຖົມ ຂອງດິນຕະກອນ ຢູ່ເຂດລຸ່ມນໍ້າ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Helped slow down sediment and runoff

ການປ້ອງກັນ / ຄວາມອາດສາມາດ ການກັ່ນຕອງ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

No direct evidence, but statements from the locals indicate that there are less sediments in the spring water ( due to improved soil infiltration and buffering capacity)

ພື້ນທີ່ທໍາການຜະລິດ ຂອງເພື່ອນບ້ານທີ່ຢູ່ໃກ້ຄຽງ ໄດ້ຮັບຜົນກະທົບ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Less damage from runoff

ຄວາມເສຍຫາຍ ກ່ຽວກັບພື້ນຖານໂຄງລ່າງ ສາທາລະນະ / ເອກກະຊົນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ / ລະບຸແຈ້ງ:

Decreased intensity of runoff on the roadside and settlement below

6.3 ການປ້ອງກັນ ແລະ ຄວາມບອບບາງ ຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢິ ໃນການປ່ຽນແປງສະພາບດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ແລະ ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບອາກາດທີ່ມີການປ່ຽນແປງທີ່ຮຸນແຮງ / ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ (ຮັບຮູ້ໄດ້ໂດຍຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ)

ການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ເທື່ອລະກ້າວ

ການປ່ຽນແປງດິນຟ້າອາກາດ ເທື່ອລະກ້າວ
ລະດູການ ເພີ່ມຂື້ນ ຫຼື ຫຼຸດລົງ ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ອຸນຫະພູມປະຈໍາປີ ເພີ່ມຂື້ນ ປານກາງ
ປະລິມານນໍ້າຝົນຕາມລະດູການ ລະດູແລ້ງ ຫຼຸດລົງ ດີ
ການປ່ຽນແປງສະພາບດິນຟ້າອາກາດອື່ນໆ Irregular rainfall patterns/ delayed monsoon ເພີ່ມຂື້ນ ປານກາງ

ອາກາດ ທີ່ກ່ຽວພັນກັບຄວາມຮຸນແຮງ (ໄພພິບັດທາງທໍາມະຊາດ)

ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ພະຍຸຝົນ ດີ
ພາຍຸເມກທ້ອງຖິ່ນ ດີ
ພາຍຸລູກເຫັບທ້ອງຖິ່ນ ປານກາງ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ແຫ້ງແລ້ງ ປານກາງ
ໄຟ​ໄໝ້​ປ່າ ດີ
ການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ສາມາດ ຮັບມື ໄດ້ຄືແນວໃດ?
ດິນເຈື່ອນ ປານກາງ

6.4 ການວິເຄາະຕົ້ນທຶນ ແລະ ຜົນປະໂຫຍດ

ຈະເຮັດປະໂຫຍດເພື່ອປຽບທຽບກັບຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍກັບສິ່ງກໍ່ສ້າງ (ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ) ໄດ້ແນວໃດ?
ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະສັ້ນ:


ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະຍາວ:


ຈະໄດ້ຮັບຜົນປະໂຫຍດເມື່ອປຽບທຽບກັບ / ຄ່າໃຊ້ຈ່າຍໃນການບຳລຸງຮັກສາທີເ່ກີດຂື້ນອິກ (ຈາກທັດສະນະຄະຕິຂອງຜູ້ນຳໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ) ໄດ້ແນວໃດ?
ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະສັ້ນ:


ຜົນຕອບແທນ ໃນໄລຍະຍາວ:


6.5 ການປັບຕົວຮັບເອົາເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

  • 11-50%
ທັງໝົດນັ້ນ ແມ່ນໃຜ ໄດ້ປັບຕົວເຂົ້າ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ, ມີຈັກຄົນ ທີ່ສາມາດເຮັດເອງໄດ້, ຕົວຢ່າງ, ປາດສະຈາກ ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ທາງດ້ານອຸປະກອນ / ການຈ່າຍເປັນເງິນ?
  • 0-10%

Establishing plantations is often a substantial investment and external monetary and technical support is required by the land-users.

6.6 ການປັບຕົວ

ໄດ້ມີການດັດປັບ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ເພື່ອໃຫ້ແທດເໝາະກັບເງື່ອນໄຂ ການປ່ຽນແປງບໍ?


6.7 ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ / ໂອກາດໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ
Improves livelihood of villagers by addressing and significantly improving the fodder, fuel, water nexus. Increased fodder availability and decreased time spent collecting fodder/fuel in the forest has greatly benefited the village, and women in particular. Animal health and productivity has also increased.
Reduces erosion, improves catchment of runoff, increases groundwater availability and aids in spring recharge.
Supports soil quality and existing broadleaf forest; increased filtration, improved soil moisture and water availability.
Reduces impact of landslides and further downstream damage to settlements (water erosion, siltation)
ຈຸດແຂງ / ຈຸດດີ / ໂອກາດ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ
Aligned with landuser
Improved microclimate, overall ecosystem health, and increased carbon sequestration.

6.8 ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ໃນການນໍາໃຊ້ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ແລະ ວິທີການແກ້ໄຂບັນຫາ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍ / ຄວາມສ່ຽງໃນມຸມມອງຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
Risk of damage to plantation and nursery from fires Maintain protective barrier (wall and fire lane); more prominent live-fencing could be established around the fodder nursery, as it is under greater susceptibility to fire damage due to its location near the stone wall border and pine-dominant forest.
Moisture stress from weed competition reduces the growth of broadleaves Consistent monitoring of weed and invasive species control (lantana) and eupatorium (Ageratina adenophora).
ຈຸດອ່ອນ/ຂໍ້ບົກຜ່ອງ/ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
There can be poor survival and slow growth of newly planted trees from damage while handling; e.g. the oak nursery has the potential to support many more plants, but it seems there is a need for more care when handling young broadleaved species. Careful attention to plant handling, avoiding root damage, and appropriate timing of transplanting (e.g. avoid heat exposure)
Young oaks appeared somewhat nutrient deficient and are exposed in the forest; there were signs of animal intrusion or possibly damage by human crossing as the oak nursery is next to a small dirt trail. The survivability of the young oaks could be improved through mulching and establishing an enclosure or live fencing around the nursery.

In the future, contour trenching and ponding can be also done before the plantations to improve the soil moisture.

7. ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ ແລະ ການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່

7.1 ວິທີການ / ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນ

  • ການໄປຢ້ຽມຢາມພາກສະໜາມ, ການສໍາຫຼວດພາກສະໜາມ

4: various villagers, Van panchayat community meeting

  • ການສໍາພາດ ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ

2: Mr. Joshi and woman who is an active member in the Van Panchayat

  • ສໍາພາດ ຊ່ຽວຊານ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

3, NGO Himalayan Sewa Samiti,
2 G.B. Pant, Dr. Ranbeer Rawal, Dr. Subodh Airy

ເມື່ອໃດທີ່ໄດ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ (ຢູ່ພາກສະໜາມ)?


7.2 ເອກກະສານອ້າງອີງທີ່ເປັນບົດລາຍງານ

ຫົວຂໍ້, ຜູ້ຂຽນ, ປີ, ISBN:

Plant Nursery Management: Principles and Practices, P. Ratha Krishnan Rajwant K. Kalia J.C. Tewari M.M. Roy, 2014, ISO 9001 : 2008



ຫົວຂໍ້, ຜູ້ຂຽນ, ປີ, ISBN:

Forest Works Manual and schedule of rates for Forestry Related Works, Uttarakhand, 2005, Forestry Research Institute, Dehradun



7.3 ເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ກັບຂໍ້ມູນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງໂດຍກົງ

ຫົວຂໍ້ / ພັນລະນາ:

Nursery Manual for Native Plants: A guide for tribal nurseries



ຫົວຂໍ້ / ພັນລະນາ:

Fodder and Forage Production



ຫົວຂໍ້ / ພັນລະນາ:

Nursery Technology



ຫົວຂໍ້ / ພັນລະນາ:

Policy Brief: Spring Revival through Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in the Himalayan Foothills: Uttarakhand, North India. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



ຫົວຂໍ້ / ພັນລະນາ:

Video: SLM for Himalayan Spring Revival. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

ຂະຫຍາຍທັງໝົດ ຍຸບທັງໝົດ