Approaches

Project of check-dam for land [China]

  • Creation:
  • Update:
  • Compilador/a:
  • Editor:
  • Reviewer:

淤地坝工程

approaches_2450 - China

Completeness: 94%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Northwest A&F University (NWAFU) - China

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da gestão sustentável da terra

Check dam for land
technologies

Check dam for land [China]

Check dam for land is a structural SLM practice that is constructed in the valley of a watershed in order to slow down the runoff and increase sedimentation. After this, the land quality of the controlling area will increase because soil and water conditions in this place are improved.

  • Compilador/a: Fei WANG

2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

Approach of check dam for land is a kind of soil and water conservation activity to reduce the sediment discharge and improve the agricultural condition through building a dam across the valley in order to silt the sediment from upstream untill it convert to land with few soil erosion and flash floods.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

Aims / objectives: The aims of this approach are to reduce sediment discharge of the rivers and to create cropland in the valley. A wall across the valley is built to hold up the muddy flash flood and to slow down the runoff and to silt the sediment. The water in the check dam could be used as waterbody or discharge as clear water. The local farmers and governments want to improve the agricultural condition in the valley near to village and select the check dam for land.

Methods: Normally the farmers and the local experts judge the feasibility of the technology firstly and then apply the support of local government. The construction should be finished by group (village) with labour input combining with finicial support outside.

Stages of implementation: The first stage to implenment this technology is to call on the local farmers with benefits show of such technologies. Then, an application should be submitted to local gevernment. After getting the support, the construction begin.

Role of stakeholders: The local farmers, experts and local government are main participants in this approach.

2.3 Fotos da abordagem

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada

Country:

China

Region/ State/ Province:

Shaanxi Province

Further specification of location:

Baota County, Yan'an City

Comments:

The total area with different measures is almost 2000 km2 . Yanhe River is a first class branch of Yellow River, China. The average channel slope is 3.26‰, and the area of whole basin is 7,687 km2. It is situated in the semi-arid North Temperate Zone with an average annual precipitation varying from 500 to 550 mm, and an average annual air temperature ranging from 8.5 to 11.4℃. It is in hilly gull

2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Indique o ano de início:

18

Ano de término (caso a abordagem não seja mais aplicada):

16

2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Baseado em projeto/programa

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Structural practices; crop land; reduction of sediment load downstream)

1. it reduces the sediment load of the downstream or main river. 2. it improves the agricultural condition through the gain of new cropland in the valleys; 3. it reduces the soil erosion of gullies by down-cutting erosion; 4. it to reduces the gravity erosion or collapse of slopes because the land would increase the stability of slopes. 5. it designs the check dam well and search funds in order to construct the check dam.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The problems include: lack of flat areas for crop production, high soil erosion on the slopes, poverty induced by low production, requirement of sediment control , lack of cash, and so on.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Inibitivo

the input for a check dam is high for small households and villages

Treatment through the SLM Approach: financial support from outside such as local or central governemnt, or the management organization of water basin.

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Propício

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights greatly helped the approach implementation: The approach has many advantages for the different stakeholders. The existing land ownship, land user rights and water rights could help the approach implementation.

Conhecimento sobre gestão sustentável da terra, acesso a suporte técnico
  • Inibitivo

A huge flood would destroy the dam

Treatment through the SLM Approach: To improve the quality which is depending on calculation of the possibility of flood and during extrem storms the control area of the dam.

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

Some check dams were implemented by villagers, before

The land area of local farmers is very small, and the decision at the village level should be decided by the group.

  • Especialistas em gestão sustentável da terra/consultor agrícola

The geologist designs the site of engineering, the hydyologist designs the ability of dam according the strom records and landform of the basin; the civil engineers design the number of engineers.

They can evaluate the properity of check dam for land and design it

  • Governo local

The departments with certification to implement

They decide the planning of soil and water conservation.

  • Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)

By politicians / leaders

3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Automobilização the local farmers and village head involved normally. They could build the check dam before but they submit the proposal for the building now.
Planejamento Apoio externo the experts in hydrology, soil erosion, landform involved. They survey, calculate and design the check dam.
Implementação Participativo
Monitoramento/avaliação Nenhum
Research Nenhum

3.3 Fluxograma (se disponível)

Descrição:

Organization Chart of check dam land.

Autor:

Wang Fei (Yangling, China)

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • Políticos/líderes
Explique:

the high input is mainly from the government. Specialist also play a very important role in decision making.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. the specialists are the conductor according the natural condition and the requirement of the land users.

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?

Sim

Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
  • Equipe de campo/consultores
Tipo de formação:
  • Áreas de demonstração
  • Reuniões públicas

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?

Sim

Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
  • nas áreas dos usuários da terra
  • Em centros permanentes
Descreva/comentários:

Consultation and Discussion; Key elements: Determine and classify the questions and problems of the project, Analysis the problems and discussion it wth the relative experts, Explain the whole condition of the project to the participants; it is not so difficult in the Loess Plateau because the local farmers are familiar with the check dam for land more or less.

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; the technology is not new in the Yan River Basin

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, pouco
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação
Dê mais detalhes:

To show the benefits and process of construction for local farmers.

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?

Sim

Comments:

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Professional is necessary in measure and design.

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: To know the benefit of project

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: To monitor sometime.

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To know how many people participating

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To manage the whole project

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the safety of the dam should be checked after flood season in order that the check dam management can be adapted to changing risks.

There were several changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the sediment from slopes decreased recently, the drainage channel changed to lower level since the stage of designing.

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?

Sim

Especifique os tópicos:
  • Economia/Marketing
  • Ecologia
  • Tecnologia
Dê mais detalhes e indique quem realizou a pesquisa:

The experts should know the important parameters of the technology for improved designing. The researchers also need to judge and evaluate the permission and support of the project based on the econonic and ecological impacts.

Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • < 2.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (the input is mainly from government): 90.0%; local community / land user(s) (labour work input): 10.0%

5.2 Apoio financeiro/material concedido aos usuários da terra

Os usuários da terra receberam apoio financeiro/material para a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, especifique tipo(s) de apoio, condições e fornecedor(es):

by state

5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Equipamento
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Maquinário Totalmente financiado by government
  • Construção
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Pedra Totalmente financiado loess around the site of the dam
Comments:

The labor input is necessary and some time they can get money from government or other families have no time to participate the construction.

The tools of farmers is very simple.

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?

Não

6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

1. the land in the valley is prone to incision by flash flood, the check dam could prevent the erosion; 2. crop land is very useful for the local farmers because of its good condition of soil properities, the local farmers paid more attention to protect this land;3. the ability of production is hig

A abordagem concedeu autonomia aos grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

agricultural condition improved so that the yield, income and spare time increases. There are no special changes on gender, age and ethnicity induced by this approach.

A abordagem melhorou as questões de posse de terra/diretos do usuário que inibiam a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

The problem is unlikely to be overcome in the near future. The approach has been approved that the ability of anti-flooding is high. The possible extream storm is out of the consideration till now.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

the Ministry of Water Resources of China developed a project for check dam engineering land based on its the integrated functions. The local government and land users (local farmers) also try to find financial support for this project.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

6.2 Principal motivação dos usuários da terra para implementar a gestão sustentável da terra

  • Produção aumentada

the yield of the check dam land is stable and high

  • Carga de trabalho reduzida

the labour work less when getting the same food

  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

the output of labour is higher

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Incerto
Caso negativo ou incerto, especifique e comente:

the finicial support of local farmers is limited that makes it impossible to continue, but if the economic condition improved, they might build the check dam for cropland reclamation by themselves.

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Could get the finicial from government (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continue to support the construction at the suitable place)
To create 'good' land for themselves (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Share the land fairly)
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Make more people know its benefits (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Show the integrated impacts of project )
Professional design (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: To improve the quanlity of project through field survey and calculation. )
to organize the local farmers working together (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Plan and make the local farmers to know they can share fairly within the local farmers. )

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
very few, sometimes the are is temporary flooded drainage of the flash water on time
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
change of landform can not be overcome
The farmer does not plan to build check dam for land with their own invest New approach is necessary for some farmers or small farmer group to implenment project themselves

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Experiment and Practice of Check Dam Land, Zheng Baoming, Wang Xiao, Tianyonghong, Shangguomei, Mu Zhenlian. 2004

Available from where? Costs?

Yellow River Conservancy Press【YRCP】

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Effect of soil-retaining dams on flood and sediment reduction in middle reaches of Yellow River. Ran Dachuan, Luo Quanhua, Liu Bin, Wang Hong. 2004

Available from where? Costs?

JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING ,2004, (5)

7.3 Links para informação relevante que está disponível online

Title/ description:

Regional Impact of Human Activities on Soil and Water Losses. Wang Fei. PhD thesis, 2004

URL:

http://epub.cnki.net/grid2008/detail.aspx?DBName=CDFD2004&FileName=2004124106.nh

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