Enfoques

Project of check-dam for land [China]

  • Creación:
  • Actualización:
  • Compilador:
  • Editor:
  • Revisor:

淤地坝工程

approaches_2450 - China

Visualizar secciones

Expandir todo Colapsar todos
Completado: 94%

1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Especialista MST:
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque si fuera relevante)
Northwest A&F University (NWAFU) - China

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

1.4 Referencia/s al/los Cuestionario(s) de Tecnologías MST

Check dam for land
technologies

Check dam for land [China]

Check dam for land is a structural SLM practice that is constructed in the valley of a watershed in order to slow down the runoff and increase sedimentation. After this, the land quality of the controlling area will increase because soil and water conditions in this place are improved.

  • Compilador: Fei WANG

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

Approach of check dam for land is a kind of soil and water conservation activity to reduce the sediment discharge and improve the agricultural condition through building a dam across the valley in order to silt the sediment from upstream untill it convert to land with few soil erosion and flash floods.

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Aims / objectives: The aims of this approach are to reduce sediment discharge of the rivers and to create cropland in the valley. A wall across the valley is built to hold up the muddy flash flood and to slow down the runoff and to silt the sediment. The water in the check dam could be used as waterbody or discharge as clear water. The local farmers and governments want to improve the agricultural condition in the valley near to village and select the check dam for land.

Methods: Normally the farmers and the local experts judge the feasibility of the technology firstly and then apply the support of local government. The construction should be finished by group (village) with labour input combining with finicial support outside.

Stages of implementation: The first stage to implenment this technology is to call on the local farmers with benefits show of such technologies. Then, an application should be submitted to local gevernment. After getting the support, the construction begin.

Role of stakeholders: The local farmers, experts and local government are main participants in this approach.

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado

País:

China

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Shaanxi Province

Especifique más el lugar :

Baota County, Yan'an City

Comentarios:

The total area with different measures is almost 2000 km2 . Yanhe River is a first class branch of Yellow River, China. The average channel slope is 3.26‰, and the area of whole basin is 7,687 km2. It is situated in the semi-arid North Temperate Zone with an average annual precipitation varying from 500 to 550 mm, and an average annual air temperature ranging from 8.5 to 11.4℃. It is in hilly gull

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Indique año del inicio:

18

Año de conclusión (si el Enfoque ya no se aplica):

16

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • proyecto/ basado en un programa

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Structural practices; crop land; reduction of sediment load downstream)

1. it reduces the sediment load of the downstream or main river. 2. it improves the agricultural condition through the gain of new cropland in the valleys; 3. it reduces the soil erosion of gullies by down-cutting erosion; 4. it to reduces the gravity erosion or collapse of slopes because the land would increase the stability of slopes. 5. it designs the check dam well and search funds in order to construct the check dam.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The problems include: lack of flat areas for crop production, high soil erosion on the slopes, poverty induced by low production, requirement of sediment control , lack of cash, and so on.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • impiden

the input for a check dam is high for small households and villages

Treatment through the SLM Approach: financial support from outside such as local or central governemnt, or the management organization of water basin.

marco de trabajo legal (tenencia de tierra, derechos de uso de tierra y agua)
  • facilitan

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights greatly helped the approach implementation: The approach has many advantages for the different stakeholders. The existing land ownship, land user rights and water rights could help the approach implementation.

conocimiento de MST, acceso a apoyo técnico
  • impiden

A huge flood would destroy the dam

Treatment through the SLM Approach: To improve the quality which is depending on calculation of the possibility of flood and during extrem storms the control area of the dam.

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

Some check dams were implemented by villagers, before

The land area of local farmers is very small, and the decision at the village level should be decided by the group.

  • especialistas MST/consejeros agrícolas

The geologist designs the site of engineering, the hydyologist designs the ability of dam according the strom records and landform of the basin; the civil engineers design the number of engineers.

They can evaluate the properity of check dam for land and design it

  • gobierno local

The departments with certification to implement

They decide the planning of soil and water conservation.

  • gobierno nacional (planificadores, autoridades)

By politicians / leaders

3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación auto-movilización the local farmers and village head involved normally. They could build the check dam before but they submit the proposal for the building now.
planificación apoyo externo the experts in hydrology, soil erosion, landform involved. They survey, calculate and design the check dam.
implementación interactivo
monitoreo y evaluación ninguno
Research ninguno

3.3 Flujograma (si estuviera disponible)

Descripción:

Organization Chart of check dam land.

Autor:

Wang Fei (Yangling, China)

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • por políticos/ líderes
Explique:

the high input is mainly from the government. Specialist also play a very important role in decision making.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. the specialists are the conductor according the natural condition and the requirement of the land users.

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
  • personal de campo/ consejeros
Forma de capacitación:
  • áreas de demostración
  • reuniones públicas

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

Especifique si servicio proporcionado se realizó:
  • en los campos de los usuarios de tierras
  • en centros permanentes
Describa/ comentarios:

Consultation and Discussion; Key elements: Determine and classify the questions and problems of the project, Analysis the problems and discussion it wth the relative experts, Explain the whole condition of the project to the participants; it is not so difficult in the Loess Plateau because the local farmers are familiar with the check dam for land more or less.

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; the technology is not new in the Yan River Basin

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • sí, un poco
Especifique el nivel o los niveles en los que se fortalecieron o establecieron las instituciones:
  • local
Especifique el tipo de apoyo:
  • construcción de capacidades/ entrenamiento
Proporcione detalles adicionales:

To show the benefits and process of construction for local farmers.

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?

Comentarios:

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Professional is necessary in measure and design.

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: To know the benefit of project

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: To monitor sometime.

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To know how many people participating

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To manage the whole project

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the safety of the dam should be checked after flood season in order that the check dam management can be adapted to changing risks.

There were several changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the sediment from slopes decreased recently, the drainage channel changed to lower level since the stage of designing.

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?

Especifique los temas:
  • economía/ marketing
  • ecología
  • tecnología
Proporcione detalles adicionales e indique quién hizo la investigación:

The experts should know the important parameters of the technology for improved designing. The researchers also need to judge and evaluate the permission and support of the project based on the econonic and ecological impacts.

Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • < 2,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (the input is mainly from government): 90.0%; local community / land user(s) (labour work input): 10.0%

5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

Si respondió sí, especifique el tipo o los tipos de apoyo, condiciones y proveedor(es) :

by state

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • equipo
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
maquinaria totalmente financiado by government
  • construcción
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
piedra totalmente financiado loess around the site of the dam
Comentarios:

The labor input is necessary and some time they can get money from government or other families have no time to participate the construction.

The tools of farmers is very simple.

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?

No

6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

1. the land in the valley is prone to incision by flash flood, the check dam could prevent the erosion; 2. crop land is very useful for the local farmers because of its good condition of soil properities, the local farmers paid more attention to protect this land;3. the ability of production is hig

¿El Enfoque empoderó a grupos en desventaja social y económica?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

agricultural condition improved so that the yield, income and spare time increases. There are no special changes on gender, age and ethnicity induced by this approach.

¿El Enfoque mejoró cuestiones de tenencia de tierra/ derechos de usuarios que obstaculizaron la implementación de la Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The problem is unlikely to be overcome in the near future. The approach has been approved that the ability of anti-flooding is high. The possible extream storm is out of the consideration till now.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

the Ministry of Water Resources of China developed a project for check dam engineering land based on its the integrated functions. The local government and land users (local farmers) also try to find financial support for this project.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • producción incrementada

the yield of the check dam land is stable and high

  • carga de trabajo reducida

the labour work less when getting the same food

  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

the output of labour is higher

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?
  • incierto
Si respondió no o incierto, especifique y comente:

the finicial support of local farmers is limited that makes it impossible to continue, but if the economic condition improved, they might build the check dam for cropland reclamation by themselves.

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Could get the finicial from government (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continue to support the construction at the suitable place)
To create 'good' land for themselves (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Share the land fairly)
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Make more people know its benefits (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Show the integrated impacts of project )
Professional design (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: To improve the quanlity of project through field survey and calculation. )
to organize the local farmers working together (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Plan and make the local farmers to know they can share fairly within the local farmers. )

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
very few, sometimes the are is temporary flooded drainage of the flash water on time
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
change of landform can not be overcome
The farmer does not plan to build check dam for land with their own invest New approach is necessary for some farmers or small farmer group to implenment project themselves

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo

7.2 Referencias a publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Experiment and Practice of Check Dam Land, Zheng Baoming, Wang Xiao, Tianyonghong, Shangguomei, Mu Zhenlian. 2004

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

Yellow River Conservancy Press【YRCP】

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Effect of soil-retaining dams on flood and sediment reduction in middle reaches of Yellow River. Ran Dachuan, Luo Quanhua, Liu Bin, Wang Hong. 2004

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING ,2004, (5)

7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Regional Impact of Human Activities on Soil and Water Losses. Wang Fei. PhD thesis, 2004

URL:

http://epub.cnki.net/grid2008/detail.aspx?DBName=CDFD2004&FileName=2004124106.nh

Vínculos y módulos

Expandir todo Colapsar todos

Módulos