Approches

Project of check-dam for land [Chine]

  • Création:
  • Mise à jour:
  • Compilateur:
  • Rédacteur:
  • Examinateur:

淤地坝工程

approaches_2450 - Chine

État complet: 94%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Northwest A&F University (NWAFU) - Chine

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:

Oui

1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

Check dam for land
technologies

Check dam for land [Chine]

Check dam for land is a structural SLM practice that is constructed in the valley of a watershed in order to slow down the runoff and increase sedimentation. After this, the land quality of the controlling area will increase because soil and water conditions in this place are improved.

  • Compilateur: Fei WANG

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

Approach of check dam for land is a kind of soil and water conservation activity to reduce the sediment discharge and improve the agricultural condition through building a dam across the valley in order to silt the sediment from upstream untill it convert to land with few soil erosion and flash floods.

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

Aims / objectives: The aims of this approach are to reduce sediment discharge of the rivers and to create cropland in the valley. A wall across the valley is built to hold up the muddy flash flood and to slow down the runoff and to silt the sediment. The water in the check dam could be used as waterbody or discharge as clear water. The local farmers and governments want to improve the agricultural condition in the valley near to village and select the check dam for land.

Methods: Normally the farmers and the local experts judge the feasibility of the technology firstly and then apply the support of local government. The construction should be finished by group (village) with labour input combining with finicial support outside.

Stages of implementation: The first stage to implenment this technology is to call on the local farmers with benefits show of such technologies. Then, an application should be submitted to local gevernment. After getting the support, the construction begin.

Role of stakeholders: The local farmers, experts and local government are main participants in this approach.

2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée

Pays:

Chine

Région/ Etat/ Province:

Shaanxi Province

Autres spécifications du lieu :

Baota County, Yan'an City

Commentaires:

The total area with different measures is almost 2000 km2 . Yanhe River is a first class branch of Yellow River, China. The average channel slope is 3.26‰, and the area of whole basin is 7,687 km2. It is situated in the semi-arid North Temperate Zone with an average annual precipitation varying from 500 to 550 mm, and an average annual air temperature ranging from 8.5 to 11.4℃. It is in hilly gull

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:

18

Date (année) de fin de l'Approche (si l'Approche n'est plus appliquée):

16

2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Structural practices; crop land; reduction of sediment load downstream)

1. it reduces the sediment load of the downstream or main river. 2. it improves the agricultural condition through the gain of new cropland in the valleys; 3. it reduces the soil erosion of gullies by down-cutting erosion; 4. it to reduces the gravity erosion or collapse of slopes because the land would increase the stability of slopes. 5. it designs the check dam well and search funds in order to construct the check dam.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The problems include: lack of flat areas for crop production, high soil erosion on the slopes, poverty induced by low production, requirement of sediment control , lack of cash, and so on.

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

the input for a check dam is high for small households and villages

Treatment through the SLM Approach: financial support from outside such as local or central governemnt, or the management organization of water basin.

cadre juridique (régime foncier, droits d'utilisation des terres et de l'eau)
  • favorise

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights greatly helped the approach implementation: The approach has many advantages for the different stakeholders. The existing land ownship, land user rights and water rights could help the approach implementation.

connaissances sur la GDT, accès aux supports techniques
  • entrave

A huge flood would destroy the dam

Treatment through the SLM Approach: To improve the quality which is depending on calculation of the possibility of flood and during extrem storms the control area of the dam.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

Some check dams were implemented by villagers, before

The land area of local farmers is very small, and the decision at the village level should be decided by the group.

  • Spécialistes de la GDT/ conseillers agricoles

The geologist designs the site of engineering, the hydyologist designs the ability of dam according the strom records and landform of the basin; the civil engineers design the number of engineers.

They can evaluate the properity of check dam for land and design it

  • gouvernement local

The departments with certification to implement

They decide the planning of soil and water conservation.

  • gouvernement national (planificateurs, décideurs)

By politicians / leaders

3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation auto-mobilisation the local farmers and village head involved normally. They could build the check dam before but they submit the proposal for the building now.
planification soutien extérieur the experts in hydrology, soil erosion, landform involved. They survey, calculate and design the check dam.
mise en œuvre interactive
suivi/ évaluation aucun
Research aucun

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)

Description:

Organization Chart of check dam land.

Auteur:

Wang Fei (Yangling, China)

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • les responsables politiques/ dirigeants
Expliquez:

the high input is mainly from the government. Specialist also play a very important role in decision making.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. the specialists are the conductor according the natural condition and the requirement of the land users.

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?

Oui

Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
  • personnels/ conseillers de terrain
Formats de la formation:
  • zones de démonstration
  • réunions publiques

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?

Oui

Spécifiez si le service de conseils est fourni:
  • dans les champs des exploitants?
  • dans des centres permanents
Décrivez/ commentez:

Consultation and Discussion; Key elements: Determine and classify the questions and problems of the project, Analysis the problems and discussion it wth the relative experts, Explain the whole condition of the project to the participants; it is not so difficult in the Loess Plateau because the local farmers are familiar with the check dam for land more or less.

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; the technology is not new in the Yan River Basin

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, un peu
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Précisez le type de soutien:
  • renforcement des capacités/ formation
Donnez plus de détails:

To show the benefits and process of construction for local farmers.

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :

Oui

Commentaires:

technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Professional is necessary in measure and design.

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: To know the benefit of project

economic / production aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: To monitor sometime.

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To know how many people participating

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by government through measurements; indicators: To manage the whole project

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the safety of the dam should be checked after flood season in order that the check dam management can be adapted to changing risks.

There were several changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: the sediment from slopes decreased recently, the drainage channel changed to lower level since the stage of designing.

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?

Oui

Spécifiez les thèmes:
  • économie/ marketing
  • écologie
  • technologie
Donnez plus de détails et indiquez qui a mené ces recherches:

The experts should know the important parameters of the technology for improved designing. The researchers also need to judge and evaluate the permission and support of the project based on the econonic and ecological impacts.

Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • < 2 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (the input is mainly from government): 90.0%; local community / land user(s) (labour work input): 10.0%

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?

Oui

Si oui, spécifiez le(s) type(s) de soutien, les conditions et les fournisseurs:

by state

5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

  • équipement
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
machines entièrement financé by government
  • matériaux de construction
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
pierres entièrement financé loess around the site of the dam
Commentaires:

The labor input is necessary and some time they can get money from government or other families have no time to participate the construction.

The tools of farmers is very simple.

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?

Non

6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

1. the land in the valley is prone to incision by flash flood, the check dam could prevent the erosion; 2. crop land is very useful for the local farmers because of its good condition of soil properities, the local farmers paid more attention to protect this land;3. the ability of production is hig

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les groupes socialement et économiquement défavorisés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

agricultural condition improved so that the yield, income and spare time increases. There are no special changes on gender, age and ethnicity induced by this approach.

Est-ce que l'Approche a amélioré les questions foncières et des droits d'utilisation qui entravent la mise en œuvre des Technologies?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The problem is unlikely to be overcome in the near future. The approach has been approved that the ability of anti-flooding is high. The possible extream storm is out of the consideration till now.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

the Ministry of Water Resources of China developed a project for check dam engineering land based on its the integrated functions. The local government and land users (local farmers) also try to find financial support for this project.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Stable and high yield, and the relative labor input, of check-dam land could improve livihoods and human well-being; 2. In general cropland land is limited in such an area

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • augmenter la production

the yield of the check dam land is stable and high

  • réduire la charge de travail

the labour work less when getting the same food

  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

the output of labour is higher

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • incertain
Si non ou incertain, spécifiez et commentez:

the finicial support of local farmers is limited that makes it impossible to continue, but if the economic condition improved, they might build the check dam for cropland reclamation by themselves.

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Could get the finicial from government (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continue to support the construction at the suitable place)
To create 'good' land for themselves (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Share the land fairly)
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Make more people know its benefits (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Show the integrated impacts of project )
Professional design (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: To improve the quanlity of project through field survey and calculation. )
to organize the local farmers working together (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Plan and make the local farmers to know they can share fairly within the local farmers. )

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
very few, sometimes the are is temporary flooded drainage of the flash water on time
Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
change of landform can not be overcome
The farmer does not plan to build check dam for land with their own invest New approach is necessary for some farmers or small farmer group to implenment project themselves

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain

7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Experiment and Practice of Check Dam Land, Zheng Baoming, Wang Xiao, Tianyonghong, Shangguomei, Mu Zhenlian. 2004

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

Yellow River Conservancy Press【YRCP】

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Effect of soil-retaining dams on flood and sediment reduction in middle reaches of Yellow River. Ran Dachuan, Luo Quanhua, Liu Bin, Wang Hong. 2004

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING ,2004, (5)

7.3 Liens vers les informations pertinentes disponibles en ligne

Titre/ description:

Regional Impact of Human Activities on Soil and Water Losses. Wang Fei. PhD thesis, 2004

URL:

http://epub.cnki.net/grid2008/detail.aspx?DBName=CDFD2004&FileName=2004124106.nh

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