Naula Management and Conservation [ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា]

  • ការបង្កើត៖
  • បច្ចុប្បន្នភាព
  • អ្នកចងក្រង៖
  • អ្នកកែសម្រួល៖
  • អ្នកត្រួតពិនិត្យ

Naula (depression well, indigenous water harvest technology)

approaches_5202 - ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា


ភាពពេញលេញ៖ 94%

1. ព័ត៌មានទូទៅ

1.2 ព័ត៌មានលម្អិតពីបុគ្គលសំខាន់ៗ និងស្ថាប័នដែលចូលរួមក្នុងការវាយតម្លៃ និងចងក្រងឯកសារនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

បុគ្គលសំខាន់ម្នាក់ (ច្រើននាក់)


Jagdamba Joshi

+91 90120 89421

Sarpanch (Chief) of the Nakina Van Panchayat (Forest Council)

Nakina Village, Pithoragarh Bloc, Uttarakhand



Patni Pooran Chandra

+91 94113 48434 / +91 96395 41519

Digtoli Village

Digtoli Village, Pithoragarh Bloc, Uttarakhand


ឈ្មោះគម្រោងដែលបានចងក្រងឯកសារ/ វាយតម្លៃលើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ (បើទាក់ទង)
Onsite and Offsite Benefits of SLM
ឈ្មោះអង្គភាពមួយ (ច្រើន) ដែលបានចងក្រងឯកសារ/ វាយតម្លៃលើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ (បើទាក់ទង)
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - ប្រទេសនេប៉ាល់
ឈ្មោះអង្គភាពមួយ (ច្រើន) ដែលបានចងក្រងឯកសារ/ វាយតម្លៃលើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ (បើទាក់ទង)
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development (G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Einvironment & Development) - ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា

1.3 លក្ខខណ្ឌទាក់ទងទៅនឹងការប្រើប្រាស់ទិន្នន័យដែលបានចងក្រងតាមរយៈវ៉ូខេត

តើពេលណាដែលទិន្នន័យបានចងក្រង (នៅទីវាល)?


អ្នកចងក្រង និង(បុគ្គលសំខាន់ៗ)យល់ព្រមទទួលយកនូវលក្ខខណ្ឌនានាទាក់ទងទៅនឹងការប្រើប្រាស់ទិន្នន័យដែលបានចងក្រងតាមរយៈ​ វ៉ូខេត:


1.4 ការយោងមួយ (ច្រើន) ទៅលើ (កម្រង) បញ្ជីសំណួរនៃបច្ចេកទេស SLM

Recharge Ponds and Recharge Trenches

Recharge Ponds and Recharge Trenches [ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា]

Recharge ponds (Chaals or khals) and recharge trenches (khanti) are common methods to catch the surface runoff and increase the infiltration to recharge groundwater and aid in natural spring recharge in the middle mountain regions.

  • អ្នកចងក្រង៖ Jaclyn Bandy
Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries for Sustainable Forest Management

Broadleaf Plantations, Assisted Tree Regeneration and Fodder Nurseries … [ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា]

Natural assisted regeneration of broadleaved species, a small oak plantation and a fodder nursery have been established in the Nakina community forest (intervention area: 10 ha), supporting fodder tree species such as Banj Oak and Falyaat, as well as various subtropical temperate fodder grass species. This has improved the livelihood …

  • អ្នកចងក្រង៖ Jaclyn Bandy
Stone Check Walls and Check Dams for Soil and Water Conservation

Stone Check Walls and Check Dams for Soil … [ប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា]

Stone Check Dams/Walls, Retainment Walls, and a Water Diversion Wall has been constructed in Nakina Village and Nakina Community Forest to help protect their settlements, agriculture land, forest land, and preserve the hilly landscape. These structures serve to reduce the runoff velocity (lowering the rate of erosion and gullying in …

  • អ្នកចងក្រង៖ Jaclyn Bandy

2. ការពណ៌នាអំពីវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ SLM

2.1 ពណ៌នាសង្ខេបខ្លីពីវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

Naulas are shallow, four-sided stepped wells designed to collect water from subterranean seepages or springs and are used to meet domestic water needs by the local communities. Naula management and conservation encompasses a range of activities that preserve their structure and function.

2.2 ពណ៌នាលម្អិតពិវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ


Naulas are imperative sources of natural seepage of drinking water and are considered the most important hydraulic structures to the villages in hill regions of Uttarakhand. They appear as a dry stone masonry structure, normally with a four-sided (rectangle or square) shape with stairs on all the sides and are commonly covered by stone slates and an erected wall on three sides. Since ancient times, water rituals are practiced within the communities and the water from these naulas have idols of various deities like the sun, moon, Earth, Vishnu, Ganesh etc. The main motive of keeping idols of gods and goddesses tied to the naulas is to preserve these structures from pollution and other harmful anthropogenic activities.

The efforts to preserve naulas include; building structural or vegetative barriers on the slope above to prevent physical damage, pollution from runoff and other erosive processes, establishing barriers of entry to deter wildlife and insects, initiating cleaning routines in the villages (scrubbing/disinfecting and clearing debris or weeds around the naulas).

The villages of Nakina, Digtoli, and Bhurmuni have carried out their own traditional measures to conserve these sacred structures and the water that flows into them. Sacred tree species like the peepal and banyan trees have been planted near naulas to signify its sanctity and to protect and shade it. To ensure the potability of a naula's water, biweekly cleaning regimes are undertaken. Structural measures such as check walls, check dams, and water channels have been made above the naulas. Additionally, wildlife entry is inhibited with cloth drapes that cover the naula's entrance, and some villages have established a protective enclosure around the naula.

Routine Naula conservation activities are taken up by those that collect the water, which include mainly the women and children. There is a water queue system in Nakina Village, in which people receive a specific time slot to take the water from the naula. This helps with keeping track of water use and promotes equitable use of water in the village. Other arduous tasks such as constructing the structural technologies include male participation. Monthly or bimonthly community meetings and daily checks on the Naulas help enforce the approach objectives. The villagers are are the sole stakeholders and take up full ownership and water user rights.

Generally, the older community members in these villages stress the need of Naula conservation and management to a greater degree. Members of the younger generation are less concerned and do not exhibit the same level of sensitivity, although they are aware of their importance to the community. The future effectiveness of the approach will depend on village participation and the level of dependency on the Naula for water during the dry season. With the drying of springs and increased use of pipe-schemes (though unreliable), external sources of water may replace this indigenous water harvesting technique.

2.3 រូបភាពនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

2.5 ប្រទេស/តំបន់/ទីតាំងកន្លែង ដែលវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយត្រូវបានអនុវត្តន៍






Digtoli, Pithoragarh Bloc


Villages: Digtoli, Nakina, Bhurmuni

2.6 កាលបរិច្ឆេទនៃការចាប់ផ្តើម និងបញ្ចប់នៃវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះ

ប្រសិនអត់ចាំឆ្នាំ សូមចង្អុលបង្ហាញកាលបរិច្ឆេទប្រហែលៗពេលដែលវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយត្រូវបានចាប់ផ្តើមប្រើ:

ច្រើនជាង 50 ឆ្នាំមុន (ប្រពៃណី)

2.7 ប្រភេទនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

  • ក្រុមប្រពៃណី/ក្រុមជនជាតិភាគតិច

2.8 គោលបំណង/ទិសដៅសំខាន់នៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

Maintenance and preservation of the indigenous water harvesting technology, the naula. By protecting this structure and the catchment area around it, the villages can protect their precious water resources and sustain a long-lasting tradition.

2.9 លក្ខខណ្ឌអនុញ្ញាត ឬរារាំងការអនុវត្តន៍បច្ចេកទេសដែលស្ថិតនៅក្រោមវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

សង្គម/វប្បធម៌/ និងតម្លៃនៃសាសនា
  • អំណោយផល

Various religious ceremonies/rituals are still carried out around the naulas to this day. Lord Vishnu is associated with water in Hindu scriptures and mythology. Hence many naula have idols of Vishnu installed in them or sculpted on their stone walls. The need to revere and care for the naula is stressed by older generations.

  • រារាំង

Due to shifting cultural dimensions, government or office jobs are considered to have a higher status than that of farmers in rural areas. These days rural youth have their minds set on getting a government or an office job. They are not willing to toil on their farms. This is severely straining the traditional systems of
managing common property resources

ភាពអាចរកបាននៃធនធានហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ និងសេវាកម្ម
  • អំណោយផល

Little external financial resources are required

  • រារាំង

Less attention/investment is being directed to natural resources due to outmigration an off-farm employment opportunities

  • រារាំង

With better education and the increasing share of non-farm economy in the national economy, the potential for obtaining off-farm employment is growing rapidly. Non-farm employment (NFE) has affected traditional water management systems. NFE opportunities, particularly for rural males, have changed the traditional occupation structures in the villages. When a family's reliance shifts from agriculture to an off-farm source of income, its incentive to participate in the traditional voluntary chores required to maintain common property resources decreases. This reduces the supply of voluntary labor for tasks like the management and maintenance of naulas. Traditional sanctions against such households are less effective, thereby eroding local norms and authority. Families that are headed by women when the male head is away have difficulty in obtaining their rightful share of water. Interfamily disputes erupt on the return of the male heads, reducing the community's unity that is so essential for managing common property resources.

  • អំណោយផល

The approach is traditionally community driven, site specific and requires little to no external input from other actors outside of the village.

ក្របខណ្ឌច្បាប់ (សិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី កម្មសិទ្ធីប្រើប្រាស់ដីនិងទឹក)
  • អំណោយផល

There are no formal institutions or rules/written records of water rights and devices for regulating water use and their flow structures. In most traditional settings, water rights of individuals users are known, even if they are not formally recorded. In general all users are expected to participate in operation, maintenance and cleaning chores.

  • រារាំង

In the absence of formal records, however, this can be variable depending on the village.

  • អំណោយផល

According to traditional law, communities have had the ownership, control and rights to these water resources. They have had the freedom to build a variety of water harvesting structures based on their experiential knowledge and have designed them to fulfill their needs. Although the Kumaon Water
Rules of 1917 transferred ownership of water resources to the state, the colonial government did not enact any specific legislation for water in the Uttarakhand region. As a result, village communities continued to look after their naulas and other water harvesting structures.

អភិបាលកិច្ចដី (ការសម្រេចចិត្ត ការអនុវត្ត និងការរឹតបន្តឹង)
  • អំណោយផល

Traditional water collecting systems in Uttarakhand comprise a variety of community control methods. Their assortments started from the differences in the local circumstances. Many of these plans were
initially made by local leaders, dynasties and kings or by the prosperous people of the society. They display a diversity of technologies and minimal state intervention in water rights or management.

  • រារាំង

Sometimes, these systems failed to ensure social justice. Caste discrimination, appears to be a common feature. In many locations, there are separate naulas for people of upper and lower castes. The
ones for the lower castes are usually smaller and unadorned structures by comparison. Care and maintenance is irregular and a large number are in a decrepit state.

ចំណេះដឹងស្តីពី SLM និងការទទួលបានការគាំទ្រផ្នែកបច្ចេកទេស
  • អំណោយផល
ទំហំការងារ ភាពអាចរកបាននៃកម្លាំងពលកម្ម
  • អំណោយផល

Naulas are typically close to the village (<500m), therefore combined community efforts make the workload and execution of this approach manageable, assuming their is collective participation.

3. ការចូលរួម និងតួនាទីរបស់ភាគីពាក់ព័ន្ធ

3.1 អ្នកពាក់ព័ន្ធដែលបានចូលរួមក្នុងវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ និងតួនាទីរបស់ពួកគេ

  • អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីក្នុងតំបន់/សហគមន៍

Nakina, Digtoli, and Bhurmuni Village

Local village authorities hold regular meetings with the people to organize, discuss and monitor the use/status of their water resources and naula structures/

3.2 ការចូលរួមរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីក្នុងតំបន់/ សហគមន៍ក្នុងតំបន់ក្នុងដំណាក់កាលផ្សេងគ្នានៃវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយ
ការចូលរួមរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីក្នុងតំបន់/សហគមន៍ក្នុងតំបន់ សូមបញ្ជាក់នរណាត្រូវបានចូលរួម ព្រមទាំងពណ៌នាសកម្មភាពទាំងនោះ
ការចាប់ផ្តើម/ការលើកទឹកចិត្ត គំនិតផ្តួចផ្តើមដោយខ្ឡួនឯង Village heads, community members, Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest council)
ការរៀបចំផែនការ គំនិតផ្តួចផ្តើមដោយខ្ឡួនឯង Village heads organize a Gram Sabha (a meeting of all villagers in each village council area) and fulfill their obligations in local resource decision-making with active community participation.
ការអនុវត្តន៍ គំនិតផ្តួចផ្តើមដោយខ្ឡួនឯង
ការត្រួតពិនិត្យ និងវាយតម្លៃ គំនិតផ្តួចផ្តើមដោយខ្ឡួនឯង

3.4 ការសម្រេចចិត្តលើការជ្រើសរើសបច្ចេកទេស SLM

  • អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីដោយខ្លួនឯងផ្ទាល់ (គំនិតផ្តួចផ្តើមដោយខ្លួនឯង)

This is a traditional model of community-driven, decentralized water governance. It is both replicable and sustainable depending on the village's particular leadership, culture, tradition and politics.

សូមបញ្ជាក់ តើការសម្រេចធ្វើឡើងដោយផ្អែកលើអ្វីជាមូលដ្ឋាន:
  • បទពិសោធន៍ និងគំនិតផ្ទាល់ខ្លួន(ពុំមានចងក្រងជាឯកសារ)

4. ជំនួយបច្ចេកទេស ការកសាងសមត្ថភាព និងការគ្រប់គ្រងចំណេះដឹង

4.1 ការកសាងសមត្ថភាព/ បណ្តុះបណ្តាល



4.2 សេវាផ្តល់ប្រឹក្សាយោបល់

តើអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីបានទទួលនូវសេវាផ្តល់ប្រឹក្សាដែរ ឬទេ?


  • នៅលើដីរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី
  • នៅមជ្ឈមណ្ឌលជាអចិន្ត្រៃ

There are several active organizations/ advisory services that are frequently engage with and are available to the communities. Some of these organisations include G.B. Pant, the Forest Department, and NGOs: Himalayan Sewa Samiti, CHEA, Swati Gramodyog Sansthan.

4.3 ការពង្រឹងសមត្ថភាពស្ថាប័ន (ការអភិរឌ្ឍន៍អង្គភាព)

តើស្ថាប័នទាំងអស់ត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើង ឬពង្រឹងសមត្ថភាពតាមរយៈវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយដែរ ឬទេ?
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
សូមបញ្ជាក់ថាតើស្ថាប័នត្រូវបានពង្រឹង ឬបង្កើតឡើងនៅត្រឹមកម្រិតណា(ច្រើន)?
  • ថ្នាក់មូលដ្ឋាន
ចូពណ៌នាពីស្ថាប័ន តួនាទី និងទំនួលខុសត្រូវ សមាជិក ។ល។:

Nakina village and Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest council) in particular have strengthened their relationships with external institutions and have been receptive to new projects for sustainable water management and natural resource use. This has increased involvement of the community and strengthened approach participation. Additionally, it has increased awareness and the need for spring restoration interventions and sustainable land use within the catchment areas of the springs/naulas.

  • ហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ
  • ការកសាងសមត្ថភាព/ បណ្តុះបណ្តាល

4.4 ការត្រួតពិនិត្យ និងវាយតម្លៃ

តើការត្រួតពិនិត្យ និងវាយតម្លៃគឺជាផ្នែកមួយនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រដែរឬទេ?



Regular monitoring by the village community

ប្រសិន បាទ/ច៎ា តើឯកសារនេះបានបង្កើតឡើងក្នុងគោលបំណងប្រើប្រាស់សម្រាប់ការត្រួតពិនិត្យ និងវាយតម្លៃដែរឬទេ?


4.5 ការស្រាវជ្រាវ

តើការស្រាវជ្រាវ គឺជាផ្នែកមួយនៃវិធីសាស្រ្តដែរឬទេ?


5. ថវិកា និងសម្ភារៈឧបត្ថម្ភពីខាងក្រៅ

5.1 ថវិកាប្រចាំឆ្នាំសម្រាប់ផ្សព្វផ្សាយ SLM

ប្រសិនបើចំនួនពិតប្រាកដនៃថវិកាប្រចាំឆ្នាំមិនត្រូវបានដឹងច្បាស់ សូមប្រាប់ពីចន្លោះនៃថវិកានោះ:
  • < 2,000

5.2 ការគាំទ្រផ្នែកហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ / សម្ភារៈដែលបានផ្តល់ទៅឱ្យអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី



5.3 សូមបញ្ជាក់ពីធាតុចូលត្រូវបានផ្តល់បដិភាគ (រួមទាំងកម្លាំងពលកម្ម)

ប្រសិនបើកម្លាំងពលកម្មធ្វើដោយអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី តើវាជាធាតុចូលដ៏សំខាន់មួយដែរ ឬទេ:
  • ដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត

5.4 ឥណទាន

តើឥណទានដែលបានផ្តល់នៅក្រោមវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយសម្រាប់សកម្មភាព SLM នេះយ៉ាងដូចម្តេច?


5.5 ការលើកទឹកចិត្ត ឬវិធីសាស្ត្រដ៏ទៃទៀត

តើមានការលើកទឹកចិត្តផ្សេងទៀត ឬឧបករណ៍ប្រើប្រាស់ដើម្បីលើកកម្ពស់ការអនុវត្តន៍បច្ចេកទេស SLM?


បើបាទ/ចា៎ សូមបញ្ជាក់:

The World Bank aided Uttarakhand Decentralized Watershed Development Project (GRAMYA) implemented by Watershed Development Directorate of Uttarakhand
Government. It is operating since 2005 with the aim to mitigate water problems and addressing issues of other natural resources, with emphasis on women participation.
NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India), Government of India has recently launched a National Programme on Regeneration of Springs in the Himalayan Region 2017).

6. ការវិភាគរកផលប៉ះពាល់ និងសេចក្តីសន្និដ្ឋាន

6.1 ផលប៉ះពាល់នៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយបានផ្តល់សិទ្ធិអំណាចដល់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី ធ្វើឱ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវការចួលរួមអ្នកពាក់ព័ន្ធ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Increased awareness of naula importance; enhanced collaborative water conservation and use within the community

តើវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យធ្វើការសម្រេចចិត្ដដោយផ្អែកលើភស្តុតាងជាមូលដ្ឋានដែរ ឬទេ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Traditional approaches encompass ecosystem thinking, and therefore good practices such as planting trees above the naula and creating a favorable environment in the catchment area have been adopted by these communities for many generations. Though there has been improvements in infrastructure, officially provided water supply systems have either not reached the remote rural villages or where provided are unreliable, poorly maintained, and not the preferred source of drinking water.

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយជួយអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីដើម្បីអនុវត្តន៍ និងថែទាំបច្ចេកទេស SLM?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Increased sensitivity to the importance and impact of the surrounding ecosystem to the springs/naula function.

តើវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះធ្វើឱ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវការសម្របសម្រួលនិងការអនុវត្តចំណាយរបស់ SLMមានប្រសិទ្ធិភាពបែបណា? :
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

The approach supported community ecosystem-based thinking and has extended to interventions with the Nakina Van Panchayat (community forest council)

តើវិធីសាស្រ្តផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះប្រមូលផ្តុំ / ធ្វើឱ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវការទទួលបានធនធានហិរញ្ញវត្ថុសម្រាប់ការអនុវត្ត SLM?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Active participation of the community and strong organizational qualities have helped extend their network and resource base

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះធ្វើឱ្យចំណេះដឹងប្រសើឡើង និងសមត្ថភាពរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីក្នុងការអនុវត្តន៏ SLM?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

This approach increased engagement and refined attention to their main drinking water resources. Because spring discharge is decreasing, people have started to extend interventions in the microwatersheds or catchment areas of the springs for ground water recharge. This includes establishing plantations, avoiding overgrazing in the forests, and building recharge ponds and trenches.

តើវីធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះពង្រឹងចំណេះដឹង និងកសាងសមត្ថភាពរបស់អ្នកពាក់ព័ន្ធឬទេ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Increased the combined interest of village-institution cooperation to understand the hydrogeological science behind spring recharge and develop recharge schemes to improve water security.

តើវីធីសាស្ត្រនេះបានជួយកសាង/ពង្រឹងស្ថាប័ន កិច្ចសហប្រតិបត្តិការរវាងអ្នកពាក់ព័ន្ធដែរ ឬទេ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

ICIMOD, G.B. Pant, the Forest Dept., and local NGOS are improving the merging of their efforts when working with particular communities that are open and curious to new projects and scientific technologies.

  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

There is a systematic organization of naula use and care in the villages, which is generally obeyed and thus conflict is avoided.

  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Upper caste members in the villages continue to determine social inclusion/exclusion with access to water sources. The culture excludes the Dalits in Chuni (lower castes) from accessing or using any Naula in the village except the one that is assigned as theirs. Despite this, the naulas of the lower caste are still considered important for management and conservation.

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ បានធ្វើឱ្យប្រសើរឡើងសមភាពយេនឌ័រ និងផ្តល់សិទិ្ធអំណាចដល់ស្ត្រី និងក្មេងស្រី?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Improved the realization and need for woman empowerment in decision-making for the water resource use and management. Women in Nakina village feel comfortable to speak up and voice their concerns in group discussions. However, when the water in the naulas reduces, women are still blamed for accessing the spring in an "impure" condition (when menstruating) and are consequently banned from using the naula and sent to live in small huts outside the domains of the main house.

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយបានលើកទឹកចិត្តដល់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីដែលជាយុវជន/ក្មេងជំនាន់ក្រោយឱ្យចូលរួមក្នុង SLM ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

The approach has gained momentum for participation in preservation and restoration of naula structures. If water scarcity persists, the next generation can't expect to make a sustainable livelihood in their home villages.

  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Increased available water supply for small vegetable patch watering and water for livestock

តើវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយនេះនាំឱ្យមានភាពប្រសើរឡើងក្នុងការទទួលបានទឹក និងអនាម័យ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Decreased risks of pollution from run off, water-born diseases and water availability

តើវិធីសាស្ត្របានធ្វើឱ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវការកសាងសមត្ថភាពរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីដើម្បីបន្សុំាទៅនឹងការប្រែប្រួលអាកាសធាតុ/អាកាសធាតុក្តៅហែង និងកាត់បន្ថាយគ្រោះមហន្តរាយទាក់ទឹងនឹងអាកាសធាតុ?
  • ទេ
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បន្តិចបន្តួច
  • បាទ/ច៎ា ជាមធ្យម
  • បាទ/ច៎ា បានខ្លាំង

Decreased effects and damage of extreme weather events on naula structure (e.g. reduced impact of erosion and pollution from run-off, protection from fire)

6.2 ការលើកទឹកចិត្តចម្បងៗរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដីសម្រាប់ការអនុវត្តបច្ចេកទេស SLM

  • ការកាត់បន្ថយការធ្លាក់ចុះគុណភាពដី

The people are aware of the implications that land degradation have on their water resources.

  • កាត់បន្ថយទំហំការងារ

Preservation and protection of a naula results in less work than repairing a physically damaged naula

  • ច្បាប់ និងបទបញ្ជា (ផាកពិន័យ)/ការប្រតិបត្តិ

There is a strictly enforced rotation system to use the Naula at given times in the dry season (morning: 7-9am), (evening: 6-8pm). Penalties result for violating these rules.

  • កិត្តិនាម សម្ពាធសង្គម/ការផ្សាភ្ជាប់ទៅនឹងសង្គម

The approach builds more equity into the community

  • ការផ្សារភ្ជាប់ទៅនឹងចលនា/គម្រោង/ក្រុម/បណ្តាញ

With collective ownership of natural resources, villagers build better relationships among neighbors. With more resources and access to water, people are were willing to share and address the needs of others.

  • ពង្រឹងស្មារតីផ្នែកបរិស្ថាន
  • ទម្លាប់ និងជំនឿ សីលធម៌

Lord Vishnu is worshipped where naulas are built, and thus the water contained within these nauals is considered a deity.

  • លើកកម្ពស់ចំណេះដឹង និងជំនាញ SLM
  • ការកែលម្អសោភ័ណ្ឌភាព
  • ការកាត់បន្ថយជម្លោះ

Responsible and respectable use of this precious resource is essential for conflict mitigation

6.3 សកម្មភាពផ្សព្វផ្សាយដែលប្រកបដោយចីរភាព

  • បាទ/ចា៎
ប្រសិនបាទ/ច៎ា សូមរៀបរាប់ថាធ្វើយ៉ាងម៉េច:

The community is and has historically been dependent on these water harvesting structures. What has been implemented through the approach needs to be perpetuated for generation to come, along with management of the forests aand other natural resources within the catchments of the springs.

6.4 ភាពខ្លាំង/ គុណសម្បត្តិនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រផ្សព្វផ្សាយ

ភាពខ្លាំង/ គុណសម្បត្តិ/ ឱកាស ទស្សនៈរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី
Improved awareness and action in the community to preserve Naulas; daily users incorporate habitual care and the naulas are well-preserved, clean and respected. Water quality is improved.
Increased cohesion of village members and inclusion of women participation with water use and other natural resource management. This is especially recognized in Nakina village.
Aesthetic of area is improved, and this is important for spiritual purposes within the communities. Rituals associated with water and naula more appreciated and celebrated. Enhancement of these cultural aspects improves harmony and connectedness within social groups and to nature.
ភាពខ្លាំង/ គុណសម្បត្តិ/ ឱកាស​ ទស្សនៈរបស់បុគ្គលសំខាន់ៗ
Improved understanding of the Naula's respective catchment area (origin of water source/storage) and the need for SLM practices upstream in springsheds
Maintains and strengthens social order and awareness of water resource use/requirements

6.5 ភាពខ្សោយ/ គុណវិបត្តិនៃវិធីសាស្ត្រ និងរកដំណោះស្រាយ

ភាពខ្សោយ/ គុណវិបត្តិ/ ហានិភ័យ ទស្សនៈរបស់អ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី តើបច្ចេកទេសទាំងនោះបានដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាដូចម្តេច?
If naulas get severely damaged there is hardly anyone in the village today with knowledge of how these structures were constructed and the engineering techniques behind them. Consultations with older members of the community and with nearby villages could be organized. This would effectively be combined with interventions from institutions like G.B. Pant, who can also combine research efforts on the geohydrology of springs an engineering methods to improve naula/spring discharge.
2 years ago, Nakina village members used bleaching powder to clean the naula. A small amount of bleaching powder (2 teaspoons) was suggested for each Naula (approx Volume: 1mx 1m x 0.8m), however there is no strict monitoring of the water quality. Now Nakina has recently switched to chlorine tablets, which make measurements easier. They use them about once a month or when there is some incidence of pollution. Traditional methods of naula disinfection could be reintegrated in the cleaning regime (e.g. using the leaves of Amla: Emblica officinalis Gaertn and Neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss)
There are times when the water overflows from the confines of the naula structure. Overflow can be harvested in earthen/ polyethylene ponds or recharge trenches below.
ភាពខ្សោយ/ គុណវិបត្តិ/ ហានិភ័យក្នុងទស្សនៈរបស់បុគ្គលសំខាន់ៗ តើបច្ចេកទេសទាំងនោះបានដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាដូចម្តេច?
In the absence of documentation about the engineering and the science behind the traditional water management systems, it is very difficult to revive these structures once they have been neglected. Studies that integrate land use changes, traditional knowledge on water management systems, hydrogeological aspects of springs, and potential structural/biological interventions for spring revival need to be implemented with the help of coordinated actors and stakeholders across all agency levels.
There are sometimes pipes connected to the naulas leading to reservoirs (storage tanks). The pipes or taps of these reservoirs often have leaks. The community trouble-shoots this issue by plugging the open taps with a fitted wooden stick or ball of plastic trash. There is still significant leakage. Pipes need to be monitored and repaired; open taps need to be properly plugged (perhaps with a rubber stopper). Twist-taps need to be repaired, and if this is not possible then the leaking droplets can be harvested with a bucket.
There is still discrimination of water use within the caste system. Dalits remain excluded from authorities that make decisions about water at the village level. Similarly, women in many villages are still excluded from any decision-making. Both groups are perceived to be highly susceptible in "spoiling" the water collected from nauala structures. Deep-rooted caste and gender inequities are not simply erased at the local level, despite the policy efforts to improve economic and political mobility within these groups. To equitably improve access to water for the Dalits and women, the root causes of the determinants of social inequity need to be identified, exposed and addressed locally. Nakina village is taking strides to incorporate women and Dalits into decision making processes, as they are the ones remaining in the village. Nakina recognizes this need to involve these formerly excluded groups, as the phenomenon of unidirectional outmigration will simultaneously amplify the necessity of group-cohesion and dedication for sustainable land/resource management .

7. ឯកសារយោង និងវេបសាយ

7.1 វិធីសាស្ត្រ/ ប្រភពនៃព័ត៌មាន

  • តាមការចុះទីវាល​ ការស្រាវជ្រាវនៅទីវាល

FGD's in Nakina, Digtoli, ad-hoc interviews in Bhurmuni

  • ការសម្ភាសន៍ជាមួយអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ដី

Village head of Digtoli, Naikina, Bhurmuni

  • ការសម្ភាសន៍ជាមួយអ្នកជំនាញ​/ ឯកទេស

G.B. Pant (1) Dr. Ranbeer Rawat

7.2 ឯកសារយោងដែលបានចេញផ្សាយ

ចំណងជើង អ្នកនិពន្ធ ឆ្នាំ ISBN:

Traditional Knowledge of Water Management, Rawat A.S., Sah R. 2009, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol. 8(2) pp. 249-254

មានប្រភពមកពីណា? ថ្លៃដើមប៉ុន្មាន?


7.3 ចូលទៅទាញយកឯកសារពាក់ព័ន្ធដែលមានលើបណ្តាញអ៊ិនធឺណែត

ចំណងជើង/ ពណ៌នា:

Report of Working Group I Inventory and Revival of Springs in the Himalayas for Water Security



ចំណងជើង/ ពណ៌នា:

Policy Brief: Spring Revival through Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in the Himalayan Foothills: Uttarakhand, North India. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020



ចំណងជើង/ ពណ៌នា:

Video: SLM for Himalayan Spring Revival. Author: Liniger HP, Bandy J, Year: 2020